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Title: Computer vision syndrome


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NURSING SERVICES DEPARTMENT FEDERAL TEACHING
HOSPITAL GOMBE
  • TOPIC COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME
  • PRESENTERUSMAN ABDULWAHAB(NOI)
  • DATE 14TH OCTOBER, 2015
  • VENUE FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL GOMBE CONFERENCE
    HALL

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OUTLINE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION
  • BRIEF A P OF LACRIMAL APPARATUS
  • FACTS ON CVS
  • AETIOLOGY OF CVS
  • CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT OF CVS
  • CVS AND WORKER PRODUCTIVITY
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • CONCLUSION

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INTRODUCTION
  • Computers have become part and parcel of our
    lives. Today, in every corporate office , on the
    desk of every secretary and executive , sits a
    computer that allows us to write, design,
    compute , research and communicate faster than
    we could before.
  • Yet this conveniences has not come without a
    price to our health and general comfort.
  • Carpal Tunnel syndrome has become universally
    known term, not so widely known is the computer
    vision syndrome(CVS) which in fact is far more
    widespread.
  • Computer vision syndrome describe a group of eye
    and vision related problems that result from
    prolonged computer use.

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DEFINITION
  • Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is described as a
    group of eye and vision-related problems that
    results from prolonged computer use (AOA,2009)

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BRIEF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
  • THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS
  • The lacrimal apparatus consist of
  • Lacrimal gland
  • Accessory lacrimal glands
  • Lacrimal ducts
  • Puncta
  • Canaliculi
  • Lacrimal sac
  • Nasolacrimal duct

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TEAR FILM
  • The tear film covers the normal ocular surface.
    It comprise of the following 3 layers
  • A superficial thin lipid layer (0.11 µm) This
    layer is produced by the meibomian glands, and
    its principal function is to retard tear
    evaporation and to assist in uniform tear
    spreading
  • A middle thick aqueous layer (7 µm) This layer
    is produced by the main lacrimal glands as well
    as by the accessory lacrimal glands of Krause and
    Wolfring
  • An innermost hydrophilic mucin layer (0.02-0.05
    µm) This layer is produced by both the
    conjunctiva goblet cells and the ocular surface
    epithelium

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FUNCTIONS OF TEAR FILM
  • Keeps the cornea and conjunctiva moist.
  • Provides nourishment to the corneal epithelium.
  • Washes away debris and noxious irritants.
  • Prevent infection due to presence of
    antibacterial substance.
  • Facilitates movement of the lids over the globe.

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AETIOLOGY/RISK FACTORS
  • The main cause of CVS is prolonged hours of
    computer use .
  • 1. Environmental Factors
  • Temperature, chemicals, ventilation fans and
    ergonomics are
  • some of the environmental factors that can
    predispose one to
  • develop CVS.
  • 2. Reduced Blink Rate
  • Most individuals normally blink between 1016
  • times per minute. Studies have shown that the
    blink
  • rate at the computer is significantly less than
  • normal. A reduced blink rate contributes
  • to a poor tear film quality and temporarily
    stresses the
  • cornea.

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  • 3. Increased Exposure
  • The reading of text on paper is normally
    performed
  • while looking downwards. This results in the
  • eyelid covering a substantial portion of the
    anterior
  • surface of the eye, thus minimizing the
    evaporation of
  • tears. On the contrary, computer users usually
    view
  • their reading material in a horizontal gaze. This
    results
  • in a wider palpebral fissure and an increased
  • surface area exposed to the effects of
    evaporation.

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  • 4. Sex
  • The prevalence of dry eye is slightly greater in
  • females than males.
  • 5. Age
  • Tear production normally decreases with age.
    Although
  • dry eye can occur at any age in both men
  • and women, post-menopausal women represent the
  • group of individuals most affected by dry eye.

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  • 6. Systemic Diseases
  • Dry eye is associated with various systemic
    diseases.
  • A general review of the patients entire medical
  • history aids in establishing a complete
    diagnosis.
  • Autoimmune diseases such Sjogren syndrome and
  • rheumatoid arthritis have an association with dry
    eye.

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  • 7. Systemic Medications
  • There are several systemic medications
    contributing
  • to dry eyes. The most prevalent medications
  • include diuretics, anti-histamines,
    psychotropics, and
  • anti-hypertensives.

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  • 8. Ocular Conditions
  • Localized dysfunctions of the glands, which
    produce
  • the ocular tear film, can also contribute to dry
  • eye. The most common disorder, anterior
    blepharitis,
  • is an inflammation of the eyelids, affecting the
  • meibomian glands that secrete the lipid layer of
  • the ocular surface. The lack of an adequate lipid
  • layer contributes to rapid evaporation of the
    water
  • component of the tear film.

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  • 9.Cosmetics
  • Poorly applied cosmetics can block the openings
  • of the oil-secreting meibomian glands. This in
    turn
  • contributes to a rapid evaporation of the water
  • component of the tear film.
  • 10. Contact lens
  • Computer users suffer more ocular and vision
  • disturbance if they are also contact lens users.

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FACTS ON CVS
  • CVS holds the distinction of being called the
    number one occupational hazard of the 21st
    century.( American Optometrist Association
    (AOA),2014)
  • About 88 of all computer users will develop CVS
    at some time in their lives.( National Institute
    of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH),2009).
  • Operating a computer may lead to visual ,
    muscular or mental fatigue( Occupational Safety
    and Health Administration(OSHA),2004).
  • CVS affects productivity by 4-19.(UAB,2010)
  • Globally, Nigeria ranks number 8 with a
    population of 83,362,814 internet users (
    NCC,2015).

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CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
  • Eye strain
  • Dry eyes
  • Red eye
  • Photosensitivity
  • Blurred vision
  • Headaches
  • Back and neck pain
  • Fatigue

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DIAGNOSING CVS
  • Visual acuity test
  • History taking
  • General examination
  • Ocular examination
  • Refraction test
  • Schirmers test

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TREATMENT
  • Treatment may consist of
  • Treating the underlying systemic or ocular
    condition
  • Topical tears supplement
  • Computer glasses
  • Vision therapy

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PREVENTION TIPS
  • Move the location of your computer screen so that
    your eyes are looking downward---about 10-20
    degrees below eye level and 20-26 inches away
    from the eyes.
  • Place any reference material directly next to
    your computer screen, so you dont need to move
    your head to look from the document to your
    computer screen
  • Adjust your chair height and position so that
    your arms are parallel to the ground when typing,
    and your feet are flat on the floor.

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  • Minimize glare on your computer screen by closing
    windows or shades during the day and using
    anti-glare screens can decrease the amount of
    light reflected on the computer.
  • Adjust the brightness and contrast on your
    computer screen by making sure the brightness of
    the white is neither too bright nor too dull ,
    also ensure the contrast between the screen
    background and the onscreen characters is high.
  • Adjust the text size and color for comfort,
    especially when reading or composing long
    documents. Usually , black print on a white
    background is the best combination.

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  • Avoid sitting in front of a fan or something like
    that while working on a computer.
  • Take frequent breaks, if possible rest your eyes
    by stopping and looking into the distance for at
    least 10 minutes after an hour of continuous
    computer use.
  • Use the 20-20-20 rule, look away from your
    computer at least every 20 minutes and gaze at a
    distant object that is at least 20 feet away for
    at least 20 seconds.

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CVS AND WORKER PRODUCTIVITY
  • If you use a computer at work, you probably
    already know that a long day of staring at your
    screen can lead to eye strain, tired eyes,
    headache, muscle aches and other symptoms of CVS.
    But you may not know that CVS also can lead to
    increase errors and reduce productivity.
  • And if you own a company, you might be interested
    to know that studies suggest you can increase
    profits by providing your employees vision care
    and computer glasses to help boost productivity
    and decrease errors.

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EMPIRICAL STUDY
  • A study conducted by Kent Daum(2009) at the
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School
    of
  • Optometry, examined the relationship between the
  • vision of computer workers and their productivity
    in the
  • workplace.
  • The study found
  • A direct correlation between proper vision
    correction and productivity. This relationship
    particularly is evident with complex and/or
    repetitive computer tasks such as data entry.

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  • A direct correlation between proper vision
    correction and the time required for a computer
    worker to perform a task. Computer-related tasks
    took much longer when the subjects wore glasses
    with less than the optimum correction.
  • Reduced productivity even among computer users
    who were unaware they had vision problems.
    Computer users with small refractive errors may
    not notice any vision discomfort. But without
    proper vision correction, their performance on a
    specific task can suffer significantly by as
    much as 20 percent

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  • The study strongly suggest that improving the
    visual status of workers using computers results
    in greater productivity in the workplace, as well
    as improved visual comfort.

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CHALLENGES
  • Lack of awareness
  • Lack of government policies
  • High cost of computer glasses

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RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Eye care professionals should endeavor to probe
    patients that attend the clinic about the history
    of computer use and spend time to discuss about
    CVS during consultation.
  • Eye care professionals should alert builders and
    office designers on the need to integrate
    internal decorations that will mitigate the
    incidence of CVS which are related to the
    workplace physical design and lightening system.

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  • Training institutions and health educators should
    increase the level of awareness of CVS among
    computer users thereby reducing the effects and
    occurrence of CVS.
  • Training on computer health related and safety
    measures should be part of the curriculum of
    computer training.
  • Companies and institutions with large number of
    computer users should establish ergonomics
    guidelines to protect computer users from ocular
    hazards.

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  • As practiced in the United kingdom, the Nigerian
    government should also establish a legislation
    to protect computer operators by setting out
    legal requirements of employers for their
    computer operators.
  • More studies need to be carried out on CVS to
    provide an evidence-based information to the
    little literature available on CVS in Nigeria.

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CONCLUSION
  • CVS can be an insidious occupational health
    problem. However , with heightened client and
    employer awareness , it can be easily prevented
    and treated.
  • The health professionals can serve as diagnostic
    clinicians, educators, advocates and workplace
    liaison to help combat CVS.

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REFERENCE
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_vision_syndr
    ome
  • http//www.aoa.org
  • http//www.webmd.com/eye-health/computer-vision-sy
    ndrome
  • http//www.emedicine.medscape.com
  • http//www.computervisionsyndrome.net
  • http//library.thinkquest.org
  • http//www.emedicinehealth.com/dry_eye_syndrome

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THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
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