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INORGANIC FIBERS AND MATERIALS OF CARBON

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Title: INORGANIC FIBERS AND MATERIALS OF CARBON


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Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
INORGANIC FIBERS AND MATERIALS OF CARBON
Course Inorganic chemistry advanced-I Professor
Geraldo De LIMA Presenter Syed Adil
Badshah November 01, 2015
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Contents (Inorganic Fibres)
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Fig.1. Classification of fibres
Naheed Saba Polymers 2014, 6(8), 2247-2273 doi
10.3390/polym6082247
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  • CARBON FIBRES
  • Different grades of carbon fibre are manufactured
    by the thermal degradation of a polymeric
    organic three carbon-containing precursors
  • Rayon
  • Pitch
  • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)

Preparation from Rayon
H2O, CO, CO2 and CH4
Air
No Air/N2
Rayon fibres
Product
Graphite-like structure (Carbon Fibres)
500700 K
1300 K
  • Low density 1.7 g cm-3
  • Low tensile
  • Such fibres have limited uses and are not
    suitable for structural applications.

Inorganic Chemistry P.954, 955 by Catherine E.
Housecraft and Alan G. Sharpe Third Edition
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Preparation from Pitch
  • Residue left after distillation of crude
    petroleum or coal tar
  • High carbon content and cheap starting material
  • Consists of a mixture of high molecular mass
    aromatic
  • and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • Often carry long aliphatic chains

A liquid crystalline material
Fig.3. Aromatic Molecules of Pitch
Pitches
Mesophase
Melt-spun
750 K
CO2, H2O, CO, CH4
1300 K
Thermosetting/Carbonized
(Not in order) Graphene Sheets
(In order) Graphite like Structure
  • S and N impurities are also removed in the form
    of SOx and NOx.
  • Melt-spinning involves heating the polymer until
    molten and
  • forcing the melt through an appropriately
    sized aperture.

Fig.4. Graphene Sheets
Inorganic Chemistry P.953, 955 by Catherine E.
Housecraft and Alan G. Sharpe Third Edition
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R. Bunsell, Fibre Reinforcements for Composite
Materials, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Elsevier
Science Publishers B.V., 1988, pp 73-210.
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Preparation from Polyacrylonitrile
  • Polymerization of acrylonitrile to PAN
  • Cyclization during low temperature process
  • High temperature oxidative treatment of
    carbonization (Hydrogen is removed).
  • After this, process of graphitization starts
  • where nitrogen is removed and chains are
  • joined into graphite planes.

Polyacryonitrile
Fig.6. Polyacryonitrile based Carbon Fibres
Fig.7. Synthesis of carbon fiber from
polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_fibers
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R. Bunsell, Fibre Reinforcements for Composite
Materials, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Elsevier
Science Publishers B.V., 1988, pp 73-210.
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Inorganic Chemistry P.953, 955 by Catherine E.
Housecraft and Alan G. Sharpe Third Edition
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PROPERTIES OF FIBERS
  • High fiber length to width ratio
  • Tenacity (adequate strength)
  • Flexibility
  • Cohesiveness or spinning pliability
  • Uniformity.
  • Fiber morphology
  • Specific gravity
  • Elongation and elastic recovery
  • Resiliency
  • Flammability and other thermal reactions
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Abrasion resistance
  • Chemical reactivity and resistance
  • Sensitivity to environmental conditions.
  • Carbon-carbon composites are excellent thermal
    and mechanical properties
  • Low density
  • High strength, toughness and stiffness
  • Thermal shock resistance due to high thermal
    conductivity
  • Low thermal expansion are maintained up to very
    high temperature ( 2000 C).

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EXAMPLES OF INORGANIC FIBRES
http//textileapex.blogspot.com.br/
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APPLICATIONS OF INORGANIC FIBRES
  • Cotton is used for making jeans, t-shirts and
    towels
  • Linen is used for summer clothing, towels and
    tablecloths
  • Wool is used for jumpers, suits and blankets
  • Silk is used for evening wear and ties
  • Rayon is used for shirts, dresses
  • Polyester is used for raincoats, fleece jackets,
    children's nightwear,
  • medical textiles and working clothes.
  • Nylon is used for active sportswear, fleece
    jackets, socks and seat belts.
  • Acrylic is used for jumpers, fleece jackets and
    blankets.
  • Lycra is used for swimwear, exercise gear and
    stockings.

Rayon Made Thread
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  • Carbon fibres usually require a protective
    coating to provide resistance to
  • reaction with other elements at elevated
    temperature.
  • The importance of carbon fibre composite
    materials in the development of
  • the space shuttle cannot be ignored.
  • Reinforced carboncarbon composites are used in
    the nose cone and wing
  • leading edges to provide the resistance to
    thermal shock and stress required
  • for re-entry into the Earths atmosphere.

Space Rocket
Typical Structure of a Car Tire
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FUTURE PERSPECTIVES OF INORGANIC FIBRES
The Future is Fibre by MRIT University P.5-9
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Contents Part-2
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Fullerene
Nanotube
Graphene
N. Saifuddin Journal of Chemistry,
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 676815, 18 pages
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Nobel Laureate
Sir Andre Konstantin Geim
Sir Konstantin Sergeevich Novoselov
University of Manchester Adhesive Scotch Tape
Method (2004) Amazing properties of
graphene Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in
2010 for their studies.
Photos Wikipedia
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Carbon Nanotubes Morphological Types
  • Single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs), diameter 1.4 nm
  • Multi-wall nanotubes (MWNTs), 230 concentric
    tubes, diameter 3050 nm.

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Laser Ablation Method
Fig.2http//students.chem.tue.nl/ifp03/synthesis.
html
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Chemical Vapor Deposition Method
  • 1. Hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethylene, propylene,
    methane)
  • 2. Stream of inert gas
  • 3. Catalyst material may be solid, liquid, or
    gas.
  • 4. Nanotubes as products
  • Typical temperature range is 500 1,200 C at
    atmospheric pressure.
  • Carbon nanotubes in powder, thin or thick
  • Parameters for CNT are the atmosphere, carbon
    source, catalyst, and temperature.
  • Low-temperature (600900C) yields MWNTs
  • higher temperature (9001,200C) reaction favours
    SWNTs
  • Commonly used catalysts for CNT growth are the
    transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni)

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Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
  • Nanotubes have van der Waals forces.
  • All the bond are sp2 bonds and are uniquely
    stronger than those
  • sp3 bonds..
  • Carbon nanotubes are stiff, or elastic, as
    Youngs modulus
  • is maximum.
  • Carbon nanotubes have maximum Tensile strength.
  • Density shows that carbon nanotubes are stronger
    than steel and
  • yet much lighter.
  • Acts as a metal, if hexagons line up straight
    along the tubes axis.
  • Acts as a semiconductor, if the his found in a
    exagons spiral
  • along the axis.
  • Ballistic electric conductance single-walled
    carbon nanotubes
  • (SWCNT).
  • Dissipate heat better and are excellent thermal
    conductors.
  • Carbon nanotubes are very stable they can
    withstand the attack
  • of chemicals and resist exposure to a large
    temperature range.
  • Specific ligands with functional groups if added,
    allows them to be
  • used in sensors.

Metallic
Semiconductor
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Properties of carbon allotropes and other
materials
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Applications
  • Nanomedicine Used in Targeted Cancer Therapy
  • Environment Used as chemical sensors
  • Energy Used as supercapacitors, hydrogen
    storage materials, solar cells
  • Textiles Produce waterproof and tear-resistant
    fabrics
  • Body armor CNT fibers are being used as combat
    jackets, i.e., protection from bullets.
  • Concrete Increases its tensile strength and stop
    crack.
  • Polyethylene Increase the elastic modulus of the
    polymers by 30 .
  • Sports equipment Golf balls, golf clubs,
    stronger and lighter tennis rackets, etc.
  • Bridges Able to replace steel in suspension
    bridges.
  • FlywheelsThe high strength/weight ratios of
    CNTs enable very high rotational speeds.
  • Fire protection Thin layers of buck paper can
    potentially protect the object from fire.

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sabadshah50_at_ufmg.br sabadshah50_at_gmail.com sabadsha
h_at_ymail.com
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