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yellow fever

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Title: yellow fever


1
Yellow fever
  • Name- Rajgor Pratap Bhai
  • Group-17th Name-Rooparam
    choudharygroup-18th

2
Definition
  • Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic
    disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes.
  • The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice
    that affects some patients.
  • The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus
    and is spread by the bite of the female mosquito
  • IQ-3-6 day

3
Signs and symptoms
  • Acute phase - Disappear after 3-4 day
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • chills 
  • back pain
  • fatigue
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle pain
  • nausea and vomiting(black)

4
  • 2-toxic phase
  • High fever returns and several body systems are
    affected.
  • rapidly develops jaundice
  • Abdominal pain with vomiting
  • Bleeding from mouth, nose, eyes or stomach
  • patients enter the toxic phase die within 10 to
    14 days
  • It can be confused with severe malaria, dengue
    hemorrhagic fever, viral hepatitis(Hep-BD)

5
Transmission
  • The yellow fever virus is an arbovirus of the
    flavivirus genus
  • Mostly transmited by  Aedes Aegypti
  • mosquito is the primary vector (carries one host
    to another)
  • Primary monkey humans
    humans

6
Cause
  • Yellow fever is caused by the yellow fever virus
  • RNA virus

Pathogenesis
  •   viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and
    infect dendritic cells in particular
  • From there, they reach the liver and
    infect hepatocytes
  • which leads to eosinophilic degradation of
    these cells and to the release of cytokines
  • Necrotic masses known as Councilman bodies
    appear in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes

7
Diagnosis
  • A direct confirmation can be obtained by reverse
    transcription polymerase chain reaction where the
    genome of the virus is amplified.
  • Another direct approach is the isolation of the
    virus and its growth in cell culture using blood
    plasma this can take one to four weeks
  • Serologically, an enzyme linked immunosorbent
    assay during the acute phase of the disease using
    specific IgM against yellow fever
  • Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis 
    of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens

8
Treatment
  • There is no specific treatment for yellow fever,
    only supportive care to treat dehydration,
    respiratory failure and fever.
  • Associated bacterial infections can be treated
    with antibiotics.
  •  antiviral drugs Ribavirin and other drug
    antivirul

9
Prevention and Vaccination
  • Personal prevention of yellow fever includes
    vaccination as well as avoidance of mosquito
    bites in areas where yellow fever is endemic
  • Vaccination is recommended for those traveling to
    affected areas, because non-native people tend to
    suffer more severe illness when infected.
    Protection begins by the 10th day after vaccine
    administration in 95 of people and lasts for at
    least 10 years. About 81 of people are still
    immune after 30 years.
  • people living in affected areas between the ninth
    and 12th month after birth

10
  • Yf-Vax This vaccine is injected into a muscle.
  • The first shot can be given to a child who is at
    least 9 months old
  • Yellow fever vaccine is given every 10 years to
    people who are at risk of exposure to yellow
    fever

11
Thank you
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