Prospects of hybrid rice cultivation in India - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Prospects of hybrid rice cultivation in India

Description:

Hybrid rice is a best available means of productivity enhancement in rice – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:375

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Prospects of hybrid rice cultivation in India


1
Prospects of hybrid rice cultivation in India
Dr. Ramlakhan Verma Scientist
2
Worlds rice scenario
Global Rice Production Increase Needed to Meet
Demand by 2035
Mio Mt (Milled Rice)
Source IRRI
3
Rice in Asia
  • Asia produces and consumes 80 of worlds rice
  • Rice provides the largest of calories for human
    diets in Asia

4
Rice Scenario in India
  • Staple food for two thirds of Indians, holds key
    for food security (43)
  • Occupies 44 m.ha (22 of cropped area)
  • Annual production gt100.0 m.t.
  • Contributes 25 to Agril. GDP
  • Earns a foreign exchange of Rs. gt35000 crore
  • Rice is LIFE to Indians

India Vision 2020
  • Vision envisages the target for 2020 as163 Mio
    Mt ( Milled Rice )
  • At the existing growth rate of 1.34 pa, India
    can achieve rice production of 106 Mio Mt by 2020

Additional yield of hybrid rice at 1.5 Mt/ ha can
help to bridge the gap
5
Hybrid Rice
Heterosis (Hybrid) Breeding CRMS 31
A(S) x IR 42266-29- 3R(F)
F1
Hybrid (fertile)
(Hybrid Rice
Var.-Ajay)
Conventional Breeding Pankaj(fertile) X
Jagannath (fertile) Hybrid (F1) -
(fertile) F2 F3 - F8 Testing Variety-Savitri
  •   Hybrid rice is the F1 offspring of a cross
    between two genetically dissimilar parents.
  • The F1 hybrid is heterozygous and segregates in
    the next generation.
  • The F1 seed has to be produced every year and
    framers should not save their own seed to raise
    the next crop.
  • Hybrid rice has higher yield potential due to the
    phenomenon of heterosis.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Hybrid Rice Key to Food Security
Yield advantage of hybrids (15-20) over varieties
  • Globally more than 80 of hybrid rice is grown
    in China
  • gt 65 production from about 55 hybrid rice area
    in China
  • Fast expansion out-side specifically in Vietnam,
    India Bangladesh

Tremendous opportunity and scope of further
expansion of hybrid rice technology
8
Hybrid Rice is Growing Globally
2 million ha of hybrid rice added in rice
production in the last 4 years (10.2 increase),
outside China
9
The Need of Hybrid Rice
  • Rapidly increasing population
  • Plateuing yield trend of HYVs
  • Requirement of 122.1 m.t. rice by 2020
  • At existing growth rate (1.34 pa), we can
    achieve only 106 mt.
  1. Declining resources (Land, water)
  2. Unavailability of Labor

Hybrid Rice is one of the practically feasible
and readily adoptable options to enhance
productivity of rice vertically.
At additional yield of hybrid rice at 1.5 t/ha
can bridge the gap.
10
Changes of Hybrid rice area in countries outside
China
Hybrid rice area increased in the major hybrid
rice countries/regions
11
Hybrid Rice Area in Major Rice Countries (000
ha) (2013)
Country Total Rice Area Hybrid Rice Area Potential area (000 ha) that can be covered under hybrid rice
Bangladesh 12000 700 5.83 3000
India 44100 2500 4.54 15000
Indonesia 13201 650 4.92 3000
Philippines 4537 177 3.90 2000
Myanmar 8038 78 0.97 2000
Pakistan 2500 250 10.00 1000
Vietnam 7652 595 7.78 3000
USA 1204 439 36.46 400
L. America 5047 70 1.39 2000
Others 100 2000
Subtotal 3428 32400
China 30311 15600 51.47
Total 19028
12
Areas and productivity of inbred varieties and
hybrids in major rice growing countries of Asia
in 2012
Country Inbred Varieties Inbred Varieties Hybrids Hybrids
Areas (million ha) Yield (t/ha) Areas (million ha) Yield (t/ha)
China 13.55 6.74 17.00 7.50
India 40.00 3.59 2.50 (2013) 4.79
Viet Nam 7.14 5.63 0.61 6.40
Bangladesh 11.18 4.23 0.67 6.78
Philippines 4.54 3.84 0.16 6.45
Myanmar 7.19 4.05 0.86 6.78
Indonesia 13.44 5.14
Area in six countries excluding China was 0.80 million ha in 2001/02 and it increased to 4.8 million ha in 2011/2012 Area in six countries excluding China was 0.80 million ha in 2001/02 and it increased to 4.8 million ha in 2011/2012 Area in six countries excluding China was 0.80 million ha in 2001/02 and it increased to 4.8 million ha in 2011/2012 Area in six countries excluding China was 0.80 million ha in 2001/02 and it increased to 4.8 million ha in 2011/2012 Area in six countries excluding China was 0.80 million ha in 2001/02 and it increased to 4.8 million ha in 2011/2012
13
Hybrid Rice Growth - India
At present 2.5 mha Area (2013), 5.6 of total
rice cultivated area in India
14
Region wise
Hybrid rice seeds produced (2012)
Total 34,500 tones seed
Institution wise
15
  • Share of public private hybrids for meeting the
    seed requirement

Particulars 2011 2012
Total expected area (lakh ha) 20 30
Total Seed requirement (lakh q) 3.0 4.5
Contribution of Public hybrid _at_ 10 (lakh q) 0.30 0.45
Contribution of Private hybrid _at_ 90 (lakh q) 2.70 4.05
15
16
  • Suitable area for Hybrid Rice Seeds

State Name of the District
Andhra Pradesh Nizamabad, Karim Nagar, Warrangal, Nandiyal
Karnataka Tumkur, Mandya, Raichur, Bellary
Tamil Nadu Erode, Salem, Coimbatore
Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur, Reva, Bala Ghat
Odisha Kalahandi, Bolangir, Cuttack, Sambalpur
Maharashtra Kolhapur
West Bengal Vardman, Medinipur
16
17
  • Potential areas for cultivation of hybrid rice

States District/Region Seasons
Assam Boro rice growing districts Rabi/Summer
Bihar Katihar, Kishanganj, West Chamapran, Saharsa, Purnia, Supur, Araria, Darbhanga, Madhubani Rabi/Summer
Chattisgarh Dhamtari, Durg, Janjgir Champa Summer
Jharkhand Boro rice growing districts Boro
Odisha Boro rice growing regions Boro/Rabi
Uttar Pradesh Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti, Shravasti Boro/Summer
West Bengal Boro rice growing districts (Banka, Purulia, West Midnapur, Howrah, New 24 Pargana, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Bihar) Boro/Summer
17
18
Hybrid rice area in India (state wise) Kharif
2013 (based on the F1 seed sold)
Sl no. States Area (ha)
1 Uttar Pradesh (UP) 1 018 000
2 Bihar 450 000
3 Chattisgarh 264 000
4 Jharkhand 250 000
5 Haryana 99 000
6 MP 90 000
7 Gujarat 80 000
8 NE 68 000
9 Odisha 59 000
10 Maharashtra 41 000
11 West Bengal 25 000
12 Andhra Pradesh 24 000
13 Punjab 14 000
14 Karnataka 7 000
15 Uttarakhand 5 000
16 JK 5 000
17 Tamil Nadu 2 000
18 Himachal 2 000
Total 2 503 000
19
Area coverage under public bred hybrid rice (lakh
ha)
State 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
State Percentage area increased over base year 2009 Percentage area increased over base year 2009 Percentage area increased over base year 2009 Percentage area increased over base year 2009 Percentage area increased over base year 2009 Percentage area increased over base year 2009
State Base year 40 60 80 100 120
U.P. 1.60 2.24 2.56 2.88 3.20 3.52
Bihar 0.10 0.14 0.26 0.18 0.20 0.23
Jharkhand 0.10 0.14 0.26 0.18 0.20 0.23
Chattishgarh 0.16 0.224 0.256 0.288 0.32 0.352
Punjab 0.106 0.148 0.196 0.198 0.212 0.233
Gujrat 0.066 0.0924 0.105 0.120 0.132 0.145
M.P. 0.165 0.230 0.264 0.297 0.330 0.363
Maharashtra 0.06 0.084 0.006 0.108 0.120 0.132
Orissa 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
AP 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
Assam 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
Kerala 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
Karnataka 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
TN 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
WB 0.06 0.084 0.096 0.108 0.120 0.132
Total 2.777 3.8864 4.579 5.007 5.554 6.129

20
Hybrid seed requirement (tons)
State 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
U.P. 2400 3000 3840 4320 4800 5280
Bihar 150 210 240 270 300 330
Jharkhand 150 210 240 270 300 330
Chattishgarh 240 336 384 432 480 528
Punjab 159 222 253 297 318 350
Gujrat 99 138 157 180 198 218
M.P. 248 345 396 445 495 540
Maharashtra 90 126 144 162 180 198
Orissa 90 126 144 162 180 198
AP 90 126 144 162 180 198
Assam 90 126 144 162 180 198
Kerala 90 126 144 162 180 198
Karnataka 90 126 144 162 180 198
TN 90 126 144 162 180 198
WB 90 126 144 162 180 198
Total 4166 5469 6662 7510 8331 9160

21
Area required for hybrid seed production (ha )
State 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
U.P. 2000 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400
Bihar/J harkhand 250 350 400 450 500 550
Chattishgarh 200 280 320 360 400 440
Punjab 133 185 210 248 265 292
Gujrat 83 115 131 150 165 182
M.P. 207 288 330 371 413 450
Maharashtra 75 105 120 135 150 165
Odisha 75 105 120 135 150 165

22
Hybrid Rice Research in India
  • A systematic goal oriented network mode project
    on hybrid rice was initiated by ICAR in
    December, 1989
  • This programme had financial support from ICAR,
    FAO, UNDP, Barwale Foundation and technical
    backstopping from IRRI, Philippines
  • Private sector has also been playing key role
    in hybrid rice research and development
  • This Programme was coordinated by the
    Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad

23
Major activities under Hybrid Rice Network
  • Development and evaluation of hybrids
  • Development and Improvement of parental lines
  • Optimizing packages for hybrid rice cultivation
    and seed production
  • Use of molecular tools for improving efficiency
  • Technology dissemination
  • Public-Private partnerships
  • Coordinating the research activities

24
Hybrids released in India (1994-2015)
  • No. of released Hybrids 78
  • Non-released hybrids gt 25
  • Duration 110-150days
  • Hybrids suitable for irrigated and shallow
    lowlands
  • Ajay (CRHR 7) Submergence tolerance
  • Rajalaxmi (CRHR 5) Cold and multiple stress
    tolerant
  • CR Dhan-701 (CRHR-32)- Long duration
  • PNPH 924, Sahyadri 5, Arize dhani-Long duration
  • Aromatic Hybrid
  • Pusa RH10
  • Short duration hybrids
  • PSD-1, DRRH-2, KJTRH-2 , JRH-4, JRH-5,JRH-8,
    Hybrid 6129, CORH-1

25
Hybrids suitable for the states
State Identified hybrids
U.P. NDR-2 NDRH-3, KRH-2, PRH-10, PSD3, PSD 1, PHB 71, PA 6444, PRH-122 , NUSD-3 , Sahyadri-4 , ARIZE PRIMA, PAC 835, PACH 837, US 312, 27P61, RH 1531 27P63
Bihar KRH-2, PRH-10, JRH-5,, CRHR-32, US-314, VNR 2375 PLUS, HRI 169, JKRH 3333, PNPH-24, US-312, PAC 835, PACH 837, JKRH-401
Jharkhand KRH-2, PRH-10, JRH-5, CNRH-3
Chattishgarh Indira Sona. KRH-2, JRH-4 JRH-5 and JRH-8, PRH-10, PAC 807 , ANKUR 7434, KPH-371, KPH-199, 27P63
Punjab KRH-2, PRH-10,
Gujrat KRH-2, PRH-10, CRHR-32
Odisha KRH-2, Ajay, Rajalaxmi, CR Dhan 701, Sahyadri-1, Sahyadri-2, Sahyadri-3,PAC835, JKRH-2000,PA6444.
M.P. JRH-4. JRH-5,JRH-8, Indira Sona.PRH-10, KRH-2
Mahashtra Sahyadri-1,Sahyadri-2, Sahyadri-3, KRH-2, PRH-10, DRRH-2
AP DRRH 1,2,KRH 2, Sahyadri 1, CNRH 3, US 305 , RH 1531, 27P61
Assam KRH 2, Ajay, Rajalaxmi,PA6444
Kerala TNRH 1, KRH 2
Karnataka KRH 2, Sahyadri 1, 2, 3
TN TNRH 1, KRH 2
WB KRH-2, Ajay, Rajalaxmi, Sahyadri-1, Sahyadri-2, Sahyadri-3,

26
Hybrids for different abiotic stress
situations
Hybrids have more tolerance to adverse stress
situations like salinity/alkalinity, cold (boro),
water stagnation etc. Boro
Rajalaxmi, Ajay, PA6444, KRH-2, CNRH-3
etc Aerobic Rajalaxmi, Ajay,
PSD-3, KJTRH-2, KRH-2 Saline/alkaline PHB-71,
CORH-2, Narendra Usar Sankar Dhan-3, Suruchi,
JKRH-2000, Rajalaxmi, CRHR-27and DRRH-2 etc.
Shallow lowlands Ajay, Rajlaxmi, CRHR-10,
CRHR-29, CRHR-32, stagnant water CRHR-42
etc.
27
Resistance/Tolerance of some popular hybrids to
major pests and diseases
Hybrid Resistant Tolerant
KRH-2 Blast, Sheath rot --
Sahyadri -- BLB
NSD-2 Blast BLB, Sheath rot
PHB-71 -- Blast, BLB, BPH
PA 6201 Blast
HRI-120(6444) Blast, WBPH BLB, Sheath rot, BPH, Gall midge
Pusa RH-10 BLB, BPH
RH-204 BPH, WBPH
Ajay Blast RTD, WBPH
Rajlaxmi Blast RTD, WBPH
28
Grain quality characteristics of some released
hybrids and checks in India
Hybrid/ variety Grain type Milling AC () ASV Tenderness on touching (Score) Stickiness (Score) Taste (Score)
CORH-2 MB 60.5 26.3 3.6 3.6 3.3 2.8
KRH-2 LB 72.6 27.5 2.0 3.7 4.0 2.9
Sahyadri LS 67.6 26.2 -- 4.3 3.2 3.1
PA 6201 LS 69.7 24.0 2.4 3.4 2.7 2.8
PHB-71 LS 66.0 24.2 2.4 3.4 4.3 2.8
Ajay LS 70.3 24.7 4.5
Rajlaxmi LS 69.8 25.6 4.9
Jaya SB 71.7 27.5 7.0 3.8 3.4 2.8
Swarnadhan SB 60.6 29.1 7.0 4.0 4.6 3.2
S. Mahsuri MS 69.0 23.8 3.0 4.1 4.5 3.6
Score gt 3.0 acceptable ( Higher values
more desirable) Score gt 2.0 acceptable
29
CRRIs Hybrids for Irrigated and Shallow low lands
  • Rajalaxmi (CRHR 5)
  •  
  • Pedigree CRMS 32A X IR 42266-29-3R
  • Plant Height 105-110 cm
  • Duration 125-135 days
  • Grain Type Long Slender
  • (without aroma)
  • Grain Yield 5.5-6.0 t/ha in Kharif
  • 6.5-7.0 t/ha in Rabi
  •  
  • Spl. Feature
  • Cold tolerance at seedling stage
  • Cytoplasmic source Kalinga-I
  • Good performance in coastal saline conditions and
    boro areas.
  • Good grain quality characteristics and high
    spikelet fertility.
  • Tolerant to stagnant excess water for 7 to 10
    days at tillering stage.
  • Field tolerance to blast, bacterial blight,
    stemborer BPH.

30
Hybrids released for Irrigated and Shallow low
lands
  • Ajay (CRHR 7)
  •  
  • Pedigree CRMS 31A X IR 42266-29-3R
  • Plant Height 105-110 cm
  • Duration 125-130
  • Grain Type Long Slender
  • (without aroma)
  • Grain Yield 6.0-6.5 t/ha in Kharif
  • 7.0-7.5 t/ha in Rabi
  • Spl. Feature
  • Resistant to blast and MR to RTD.
  • Field tolerance to blast, bacterial blight,
    stemborer BPH.
  • Good grain quality characteristics and high
    spikelet fertility.
  • Tolerant to stagnant excess water for 7 to 10
    days at tillering stage.
  • Ranked 1st in the All India Trials for
    irrigated-medium and boro.

31
Hybrids released for Irrigated and Shallow low
lands
CR Dhan 701 (CRHR 32)   Pedigree CRMS 31A X
CRL 22R Plant Height 115-120 cm Duration
140-145 Grain Type Medium Slender
(without aroma) Grain Yield
6.0-6.5 t/ha in Kharif 7.0 t/ha in
Rabi
  • Spl. Feature
  • First Long duration hybrid of Swarna duration
    released in the country.
  • Identified by VIC for release through CVRC for
    irrigated shallow lowlands of Bihar Gujarat.
  • Long panicles with medium slender grains and high
    spikelet fertility
  • Withstands water stagnation and good for lowlight
    conditions
  • Moderate resistance to RTD, sheath blight, GLH
    and leaf blast

32
Grain quality improvement breeding - progress
Hybrids with medium slender grain type CRHR 32,
DRRH-3, 27P61, 27P63, TNRH174
TNRH 174
33
Hybrid rice Seed Production
  • Economic and efficient hybrid rice seed
    production is a prerequisite for successful
    adoption of hybrid rice

34
Hybrid Rice Seed Production package
Activity Particulars
Seed Rate Seed Parent 15 kg/ha Pollen Parent 6 kg/ha
Nursery Sparse seedling (30 g/m2) to ensure multi tillered (4-5) seedlings in 25 days
Row ratio 2B 8A for CMS multiplication 2R 10 A for hybrid seed production
Number of seedlings/hill 2 seedlings/hill for seed parent 3 seedlings/hill for pollen parent
Spacing Male Male 30 cm Male Female 20 cm Female Female 15 cm Plant Plant 15 cm
GA3 Application 45-60 g/ha in 500 lit of water at 5 heading in two split doses on consecutive days
Supplementary pollination Two-three times a day at peak anthesis during flowering phase
Roguing Twice during vegetative phase based on morphological characters
Seed yield 1.5-2.0 t/ha
Hybrid seed production activity generates
additional employment of 65 person days/ha and
most of them are women.
35
Economic of hybrid rice seed production
Item Item Quantity/Number (per hectare) Cost/income (in Rs.) Cost/income (in Rs.)
Item Item Quantity/Number (per hectare) Hybrid seed HYV
Seed cost Male 5 kg _at_ Rs. 50/kg 250 2000
Seed cost Female 15 kg _at_ Rs.200/kg 3000 Nil
Labour cost Labour cost 250/145 _at_ Rs. 200/labour/day 50000 29000
FYM and fertilizer cost FYM and fertilizer cost NPK (1005050) (based on market price) 5400 5400
Irrigation Irrigation 18-20 Irrigation (weekly) _at_Rs.1500/ha /irrigation) 30000 30000
Gibberellic acid Gibberellic acid   2000 Nil
Others  Others    15000 10000
Total cost Total cost   1,05,650 76,400
Average production Average production   2.0 t/ha 4.5
Gross income Gross income Price _at_ Rs. 90/kg and Rs. 20/kg 1,80,000 90,000
Net income Net income   74,350 13600
36
Development of molecular tools for enhancing
hybrid rice breeding efficiency
  • Assessment of genetic purity of rice hybrids and
    their parental lines
  • Screening of genotypes/varieties for Rf and WCG
    Genes
  • Prediction of heterosis
  • Incorporation of biotic stress resistance in
    parental lines of released hybrids

37
(No Transcript)
38
Public-Private Partnership MoUs with Private Seed
Companies
Hybrid Developed by MOU with no. of companies
DRRH-2 DRR, Hyderabad 13
DRRH-3 DRR, Hyderabad 09
Pusa RH-10 IARI, New Delhi 18
PSD-1 3 GBPUAT, Pantnagar 01
CORH-3 TNAU, Coimbatore 01
Ajay , Rajalaxmi CRHR32 CRRI, Cuttack 18
KRH-2 UAS, Mandya 01
Sahyadri-1 BSKKV, Karjat 01
JRH-4, JRH-5 JNKV, Jabalpur 01
39
Major constraints
  • Marginal heterosis - unattractive for commercial
    exploitation
  • Narrow genetic base a major concern
  • Limited choice of hybrids for unfavourable
    ecologies
  • Susceptibility of parental lines to major pests
    and diseases
  • Meeting grain quality requirements to satisfy
    diversified consumer preferences.
  • No strong institutional mechanism for production
    and supply of seed of public sector bred hybrids.
  • Continued Trust Deficit between public and
    private sector institutions in exchange of
    knowledge and material.
  • No uniform subsidy component on hybrid seed cost,
    which varies from State to State (0 to 100)
  • The condition that notified hybrids alone are
    entitled for subsidy on seed cost, restricts
    adoption of many good truthfully labelled hybrids
    from the private sector
  • Lack of focused extension strategy for
    popularization of new hybrids of promise.
  • Price discrimination against hybrids because of
    apprehended low percentage head rice recovery.
  • Number of breeders engaged in hybrid breeding
    especially in the public sector, is too low

40
Future Research Strategies
  • Developing hybrids with acceptable grain quality
  • Developing long duration hybrids for shallow
    lowlands and coastal areas
  • Development of hybrids for less water and saline
    conditions
  • Enhancing magnitude of heterosis
  • Incorporating resistance to major pests and
    diseases.
  • Refining seed production package to reduce seed
    cost
  • Intensifying transfer of technology efforts

41
Strategies for expansion of hybrid rice area
  • Popularizing hybrids throughout the state by
    organizing minikits and identifying suitable
    hybrids for different regions.
  • Better linkages among state departments, SAUs and
    Institutes to conduct extensive FLDs at multiple
    locations in each state.
  • Identifying suitable areas for HR seed
    production.
  • Encouraging farmers to take-up hybrid seed
    production.
  • Imparting training in HR cultivation and seed
    production to farmers / extension personnel.
  • Creating proper awareness among farmers and
    removing misconceptions about HR.

42
Strategies for expansion of hybrid rice area
  • Arranging buy back of HR seed produced by
    farmers.
  • Govt. subsidy in the initial stages to encourage
    HR cultivation
  • Hybrid rice should be extended to stress
    situations like shallow lowlands, saline/alkaline
    tracts and boro areas where the hybrids have
    proved to perform extremely well.
  • Public-private partnership should be further
    strengthened to make the hybrid rice technology
    more popular with the farmers.
  • Research front higher heterosis, better seed
    producibility, two line system, parental improved
    for higher stress tolerance, region specific
    grain and cooking quality

43
Thank You
About PowerShow.com