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Title: Applications of conducting polymer in electronics & electrochemical devices


1
Applications Of Conducting Polymer In Electronics
Electrochemical Devices
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Presented By_
    To_
  • Sanjeeb Limbu(14305019)
    Dr.Angaiah Subramania Sir
  • M.Tech.-Nanoscience Technology
    Associate Professor
  • (SECOND YEAR)

    (CNST)

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
2
Conducting Polymer
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Conducting polymers are polymer with metallic
    and semiconductor characteristics
  • Conductive polymer or more precisely
    intrinsically conducting polymer(ICPs) are
    polymer that conduct electricity
  • Conductive polymer are generally not
    thermoplastics,i.e.,they are not thermo flammable
    but like insulating polymer, they are organic
    material
  • The advantages of using conducting polymer are
    that they are light weight, inexpensive and more
    recently easily process able
  • The electrical conductivity in these polymer is
    considered to be intermediate between semi
    conductor and metals
  • Examples are Poly analine,poly pyrrole,Poly
    Thiophene,Poly acetylene etc.

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
3
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Applications Of Conducting Polymer In Electronics
Devices
Conducting Polymer
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4
TV and Computer screens
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • One of the most exciting developments is the use
    of con-ductive polymers to produce flat, flexible
    plastic screens for televisions and computers.
    This work evolved from the discovery that
    conductive polymers such as polyphenylene
    vinylene emit light when sandwiched between
    oppositely charged electrodes, thus enabling
    flat-panel display designs to be made. The
    company associated closely with this technology
    at the present time is Cam-bridge Display
    Technology (CDT)

Poly(p-phenylene vinylene)  (PPV,
or polyphenylene vinylene)
Conductive Polymers Plastic Electronics
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
5
Printable Electronics
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Printable electronics is the broad term used to
    describe electronics made from carbon-based
    organic materials and components using printing
    type processes rather than traditional
    silicon-based, inorganic materials. It is also
    referred to as organic, plastic, polymer and
    flexible electronics.
  • Benefits of the technology?
  • Low capital and operating cost production
    equipment
  • High materials utilisation efficiency
  • Faster production turnaround time especially
    using R2R processes.
  • The major advantages of printable electronic
    generally include the ability to fabricate
    lightweight, flexible and low cost products
  • Important at both the micro and macro level for
    example from high resolution transistor circuits
    to large-scale electronic billboards.

What is Printable Electronics?
  • So, Whats the Big Deal?
  • Lightweight and low energy electronics and
    sensors
  • Reduced manufacturing costs and materials usage.
  • New smart electronic devices applications
  • Exciting new shapes and forms

Conducting Polymer
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Printable Electronics
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Xerox develops silver ink to usher in new era of
    low cost printable electronics

Materials Used in Printed Electronics
Material Example
Conductors Conducting polymers Polythiophenes, polycarbazoles
Conductors Metal flakes Silver, silver alloys
Conductors Metal nanoparticles Copper, Gold, Silver
Conductors Carbon nanotubes - - -
Capacitors Inorganic oxides HfO2, TiO2, ZrO2
Capacitors Polymers Imide-Norbornene copolymer
Capacitors Organic/inorganic composites Metal oxide/epoxy
Resistors Carbon films - - -
Optical materials RFID antennae Aluminium
Optical materials Organic LEDs - - -
Conducting Polymer
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Flexible Electronics
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
What is flexible electronics ? Flexible
electronics also known as flex circuits, is a
technology for assembling electronic circuits by
mounting electron This can be bent without
breaking electronics devices on flexible plastic
substrates.
  • Flexible circuit boards
  • Flex circuit are made up of flexible plastic
    substrate usually
  • polyimide, Polyester or thin sheets of glass
  • Flexible electronic component
  • Electronic component such as transistor are being
    made from
  • silicon nanomembrane usually called TFTs(thin
    filmTransistor).
  • Flexible resistors and capacitors structures are
    shown digramm-
  • atically usually called thin film resistors and
    thin film capacitors

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
8
Applications of Flexible Electronics
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
9
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Electroluminescent Electronic Devices
  • Electroluminescence the generation of light,
    other than blackbody radiation, by electrical
    excitation.
  • Organic semiconductors was first reported for
    anthracene single crystals in the 1960s
  • These early studies established that the process
    responsible for electroluminescence requires
    injection of electrons from one electrode and
    holes from the other, the capture of oppositely
    charged carriers (so-called recombination), and
    the radioactive decay of the excited
    electron-hole state (exciton) produced by this
    recombination process.
  • The first report of metallic conductivities in
    doped polyacetylene, the science of
    electrically conducting polymers has advanced
    very rapidly. More recently, much of a interest
    is shown in LEDs containing conducting polymers.

Electroluminescent (EL) Charge Sync Cable
Electroluminescent Cable
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
10
Light Emitting Diodes
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), based on
    PPV are now coming out as commercial products.
    When compared to inorganic or organic materials
    for LEDs, the main advantages are their fast
    response times, process ability, the possibility
    of uniformly covering large areas, low operating
    voltages, and the many methods were applied to
    fine-tune their optical and electrical properties
    by varying the structure.
  • Many techniques have been proposed to improve the
    performance of PLEDs by modifying the chemical
    structure of the polymer with bulky phenyl side
    groups, or PPV-based alternating copolymers
    polymer
  • The low molecular weight polymers are also known
    to have poor colour stability owing to easier
    chain motions under device operation. Elimination
    of the low molecular weight components is known
    to improve the performance .

Poly(2-methoxy-5-(2 ethyl-hexoxy)-1,4-pheny
lenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) is widely used in
red-orange PLEDs.
Conducting Polymer
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11
Organic LEDs
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Transparent conducting electrodes(TCE) like
    conducting polymers have been applied as
    transparent electrodes for OLED devices and
    achieved reasonably good performance or even
    higher device performance
  • The basic OLED structure is composed of a stack
    of several layers anode/hole transport layer
    (HTL)/emission layer (EL)/electron transport
    layer (ETL)/cathode.ITO glass has been commonly
    used as the anode for OLEDs, because ITO
    simultaneously provides good transparency and
    conductivity. But ITO is not flexible, and cant
    be used in flexible electronics and the
    sputtering deposition of high quality ITO is a
    low throughput process and requires elevated
    temperature.
  • PEDOTPSS and polyaniline (PANI) are currently
    the most popular materials to replace the
    conventional ITO electrode. These two materials
    are well-studied, conjugated polymers with
    excellent mechanical stability, flexibility and,
    more importantly, they can achieve a high
    conductivity and transparency.

Conducting Polymer
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12
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Transistor Field Effect Transistors
FET device poly(3,4-ethylene dioxy thiophene)
working as the source/drain/gate electrode
material and poly pyrrole acting as the
semiconducting layer. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) K60
(PVPK60),an insulating polymer, operates as the
dielectric layer.
Field Effect Transistors
a, Thin-film
transistor  b, Insulated gate field-effect
transistor
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
Conducting Polymer
13
Field Effect Transistors (FET)
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the active
    layerAll Plastics integrated circuits

Conducting Polymer Transistors Making Use of
Activated Carbon Gate Electrodes
Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single
Nanowires of Conducting Polymers
Conducting Polymer
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14
Conducting Polymer In Molecular Electronics
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Molecular electronics (ME) is rapidly evolving
    from physics, chemistry, biology, electronics and
    information technology
  • The linear-backbone polymers such
    as polyacetylene, polypyrrole, and polyaniline are
    the main classes of conductive polymers.
    Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) are the archetypical
    materials for solar cells and transistors
  • Molecular device based on conducting
    polymer-Diodes
  • One of the most exciting areas of research in
    molecular electronics lies in the development of
    biosensing devices (usually called biosensors or
    receptrodes).

Conductive polymers. Poly(3-alkylthiophene)
based on Schottky device
General principle of Biosensor
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
15
Technology of Plastic Optoelectronic devices
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Conductive polymers with high transmittance in
    the visible range can have important applications
    for optoelectronics devices,including liquid
    crystel displays(LCDs),light emmiting
    diodes(LEDs),solar cells,tuch pannel
    displays,lasers and detectors
  • Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)
    polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT PSS) emerges as a
    promising material for electrodes in
    optoelectronic devices. It has many advantages
    over other conducting polymers, such as high
    transparency in the visible range, excellent
    thermal stability, and aqueous solution
    processibility
  • Although indium-tin oxide (ITO) is frequently
    used as the transparent electrode in flexible
    devices
  • The high-conductivity PEDOT PSS film is ideal
    as the electrode for polymer optoelectronic
    devices.

Chemical structure of PEDOT,PSS
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
16
Conducting Polymers in Electronic Chemical Sensors
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Chemical Sensors based on Conducting Polymers
  • Sensors Based on Transduction
  • A) Potentiometric Sensors(Chemical Sensors Based
    on Semiconductor Electronic Devices)
  • B) Amperometric Sensors
  • C) Piezoelectric Sensors
  • D) Calorimetric/Thermal Sensors
  • E) Optical Sensors
  • Sensors Based on Application Mode
  • A. Industrial/Chemical Sensors
  • a) Gas Sensors
  • b) pH Sensors
  • c) Ion-selective Sensors
  • d) Alcohol Sensors
  • e) Humidity Sensors
  • B. Biosensors
  • a)Catalytic Biosensors
  • b)Affinity Biosensors
  • c)DNA Sensor

Conducting Polymer
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PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Applications Of Conducting Polymer In
Electrochemical Devices
  • Electrochemical cell is covert the chemical
    energy of the reaction directly in to electrical
    energy
  • An electrochemical cell consist of two
    half-cells .Each half cell consist of electrode
    and electrolyte
  • An electrochemical consist of three component an
    anode or negative electrode a cathode or positive
    electrode and electrolyte or ionic conductor
    during the chemical reaction
  • Most electrochemical conversion and storage
    device such as certain type of Fuel cells,
    Batteries, Capacitor
  • Electrochemical cells are classified in two
    types Galvanic and Electrolyte cell

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
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Supercapacitor
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs)
    also called supercapacitors (SC) - are
    electrochemical capacitors that have high
    capacitance and high energy density when compared
    to common capacitors, and higher power density
    when compared to batteries.
  • The electrode materials for supercapacitors have
    been classified into three categories transition
    metal oxides, high-surface carbons, and
    conducting polymers.
  • The supercapacitor stores energy by means of a
    static charge as opposed to an electrochemical
    reaction. Applying a voltage differential on the
    positive and negative plates charges the
    capacitor

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
19
Batteries
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • An electric battery is a device consisting of
    two or more electrochemical cells that convert
    stored chemical energy into electrical energy
  • Each cell has a positive terminal or cathode and
    a negative terminal or anode. The terminal marked
    positive is at a higher electrical potential
    energy than is the terminal marked negative
  • Batteries have several key components
  • the electrodes allow for collection of
    current and transmission of power
  • the cathode material becomes reduced when
    the anode material is oxidized and vice versa
  • the electrolyte provides a physical
    separation between the cathode and anode and
    provides a source of cations and anions to
    balance the redox reactions

Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
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Batteries
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • In 2013,Berkeley Lab scientists invented a new
    material for use in rechargeable batteries that
    can boost power storage capacity by 30 percent.
    It is called a Conducting Polymer Binder,
    literally a kind of flexible plastic glue that
    holds electrode materials together while
    facilitating the shuttling of electrons and
    positively charged lithium ions.
  • In their effort to make smaller, lighter and
    cheaper batteries, a Berkeley Lab team focused on
    improving the negative () electrode or anode.
    During charging of any lithium battery, lithium
    ions are driven to the anode, causing electrons
    to build up potential energy at the anode.
    Complete a circuit by turning on a switch and
    those electrons start flowing.
  • Conducting Polymer Binder is a lightweight,
    flexible, electrically conducting adhesive
    polymer. It is blended with particles of silicon
    in a slurry process to form a silicon composite
    anode.

Conducting Polymer
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Batteries vs Supercapacitor
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Conducting Polymer
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22
Fuel Cell
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • PAFC-Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  • AFC-Alkeline fuel cell
  • SOFC-Solid oxide fuel cell
  • DMFC-Direct methanol fuel cell
  • PEMFC-Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  • What is a fuel Cell?
  • A fuel cell produces electricity through a
    chemical reaction but without combustion. It
    converts hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in
    the process also creates electricity. Its an
    electro-chemical energy conversion device that
    produces electricity, water and heat.
  • Fuel cells operates much like a battery, except
    they dont require electrical recharging. A
    battery stores all of its chemicals inside and
    coverts the chemicals into electricity. Once
    those chemicals run out, the battery dies. A fuel
    cell, on the other had, receives the chemicals it
    uses from the outside therefore, it wont run
    out. Fuel cells can generate power almost
    indefinitely, as long as they have fuel to use.
  • The reactions that produce electricity happen at
    the electrodes. Every fuel cell has two
    electrodes, one positive, called the anode, and
    one negative, called the cathode. These are
    separated by an electrolyte barrier. Fuel goes to
    the anode side, while oxygen (or just air) goes
    to the cathode side. When both of these chemicals
    hit the electrolyte barrier, they react, split
    off their electrons, and create an electric
    current. A chemical catalyst speeds up the
    reactions here.

Types of fuel cells
How do fuel cells work?
Conducting Polymer
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Concluding Remarks
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • Conducting polymers such as Poly aniline,poly
    pyrrole,Poly Thiophene,Poly acetylene represent
    new advanced materials as a key issue for the
    development of new devices and structures
    offering the association of the various
    properties required in advanced applications.
  • Supercapacitors, due to their capability to
    deliver during high momentary periods are
    presently using as the electrical energy storage
    devices. They have technical and economic
    advantages in electrical appliances, such as
    power supplies, protection of computer memory,
    microchip, fuel cells and batteries.
  • Supercapacitors are unique devices exhibiting
    20-200 times greater capacitance than batteries
    and conventional capacitor.
  • Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used in
    applications as diverse as replacements for
    automative lighting, such as brake lamps, turn
    signals and automative traffic signals.
  • LEDs are also used in remote control units of
    many commercial products including DVD players,
    televisions and other domestic appliances.
  • Batteries are used to store the energy that is
    not needed immediately
  • The field effect transistor(FET) uses in
    electric field to control the shape and thus the
    conductivity of a channel of one type of charge
    carrier in a semiconductor material. FET
    technology is the basis for modern digital
    integrated circuits.
  • As a result, conducting polymers have been
    considered for important materials in
    microelectronics applications, electrocatalysis,
    fuel cell electrodes, light emitting diodes,
    biosensor microelectrodes

Conducting Polymer
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References
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
  • 1 Conducting polymer in microelectronics by
    Angelopoulos.
  • 2 Conducting polymer applications by Kareema
    Majeed Ziadan.
  • 3 Electrochemistry, Polymers and
    Opto-Electronic Devices by Marco-A. De Paoli and
    Wilson A.
  • Gazotti.
  • 4Conductive Polymers Applications for
    Electronic Devices YoonBoShim, Professor,
    Department of
  • Chemistry and Director, Institute of
    BioPhysio Sensor Technology, Pusan National
    University, South
  • Korea.
  • 5 Electrochemically synthesised conducting
    polymeric materials for applications
  • towards technology in electronics,
    optoelectronics and energy storage devices
  • 6 Conducting Polymers and their Applications by
    Murat Atesa, Tolga Karazehira and A. Sezai
    Saracb.
  • 7 Electrochemical switching in conducting
    polymers printing paper electronics Payman
    Tehrani.
  •  

Conducting Polymer
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PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Wherever you need power, a fuel cell could be
the solution.
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
26
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
Conducting Polymer
Centre for Nanoscience and Technology
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