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9th Grade Health Test #8


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Title: 9th Grade Health Test #8

Test 8
  • Chapters 26-27

Personal Safety and Protection
  • Chapter 25 Lesson 1
  • pp. 726-730

  • 10 of teens found pictures of themselves posted
    online without their permission.
  • 13 of teens learned that a cyber bully
    pretended to be them while communicating with
    someone else.

Safety Strategies
  • The key to personal safety is learning how to
    recognize and avoid dangerous situations.
  • Personal Safety the steps you take to prevent
    yourself from becoming the victims of a crime.

Tips When Leaving Your Home
  • If you carry a cell phone, make sure it is easy
    to get to.
  • Avoid walking alone at night.
  • Carry your wallet or purse in a place that makes
    it difficult to grab.
  • If you drive, park your car in a well lit area.
  • Never hitchhike or give a ride to a stranger.
  • Get on and off public transportation in well lit
  • Know the locations of nearby public places where
    you could get help if needed.
  • Let your family know where you will be going and
    when you will be getting back. Call if there is
    a change of plans.

Learning to Protect Yourself
  • Self Defense any strategy for protecting
    yourself from harm.
  • Project a strong, confident image.
  • Criminals are more likely to attack those who
    look vulnerable, confused, or inattentive.

Staying Safe Online
  • Teens need to protect themselves online.
  • Tips
  • Keep your identity private.
  • Dont respond to inappropriate messages.
  • Let your parents or guardians know what you are
    doing online.

Coping with Cyberbullies
  • Cyberbullying cruel or hurtful online contact.
  • To avoid becoming a target of cyberbullying, be
    careful how you communicate online.
  • When you use a Web site, learn and follow its
    rules for postings.
  • Be careful how you word your messages.

Avoiding Internet Predators
  • Internet predators use online contact to build up
    trust so they can lure victims into a
    face-to-face meeting.

Safety at Home and in Your Community
  • Chapter 26 Lesson 2
  • pp. 731-738

The Accident Chain
  • Many accidental injuries are preventable.
  • Unintentional Injuries injuries resulting from
    an unexpected event.
  • Accident Chain a sequence of events that leads
    to unintentional injury.

Keeping Your Home Safe
  • Safety precautions can prevent injuries at home.
  • Look at Figure 26.4 on p. 732 as a class.

Preventing Fires
  • Common causes of household fires include burning
    candles and incense, smoking, kitchen fires, and
    faulty electrical wiring.
  • Prevention Tips
  • Keep matches, lighters, and candles away from
  • Make sure that smokers extinguish their
    cigarettes completely.
  • Dont leave cooking food unattended.
  • Follow the operating instructions for using a
    space heater.

2 Lifesaving Devices If A Fire Occurs
  • Fire Extinguisher a portable device for putting
    out small fires.
  • Keep an all-purpose fire extinguisher in your
  • Smoke Alarm a device that produces a loud
    warning noise in the presence of smoke.
  • Having working smoke alarms in your home more
    than doubles your chances of surviving a house

Staying Safe with Electricity
  • Safety Tips
  • Avoid overloading your electrical system.
  • Inspect electrical cords regularly.
  • Mae sure extension cords are properly rated for
    their intended use.
  • Do not run electrical cords under rugs.
  • Avoid using electrical appliances near water.
  • Cover unused outlets, in homes with small

Preventing Falls
  • Falls are responsible for about half of all
    accidental deaths in the home.
  • Safety Precautions
  • Stairs keep stairways well lit and free of
  • Bathrooms put nonskid mats down on the floor.
  • Windows install window guards if there are
    small children in the home.
  • Kitchens keep the floor clean and wipe up any
    spills promptly.
  • Living Areas keep the floor clear of clutter.

Preventing Poisonings
  • Many common household items can be harmful or
    even fatal if swallowed.
  • Safety Tips
  • Store products safely.
  • Pay attention to labels.

Using Computers Safely
  • Using a computer for a long time can lead to eye
    strain and sore muscles.
  • Tips
  • Adjust your position from time to time.
  • Stand up and walk around for a few minutes every
  • Sit in a neutral body position, a comfortable
    posture in which your joints are naturally
  • Blink your eyes to moisten them and reduce eye

Handling Firearms Safely
  • Nearly half the households in the Unites States
    contain one or more guns. Guns accidents result
    in an estimated 650 deaths and 15,000 injuries
    per year.
  • Children need to know that guns are dangerous and
    can kill people.
  • Instruct them never to touch a gun and to leave
    the area and tell an adult if they find one.

Guarding Against Intruders
  • To keep intruders out follow these guidelines
  • Keep your doors and windows locked.
  • Use a peephole to identify people who come to the
  • Make sure your answering machine does not tell
    callers you are away from home.
  • If you come home and see something suspicious,
    such as an unfamiliar car parked in your driveway
    or a window that has been forced open, dont go
    inside. Instead call the police from a
    neighbors house.

Keeping Your Community Safe
  • You can work with others to protect your safety
    at school, at work, and in your community.
  • Tips
  • Increased police presence.
  • Neighborhood Watch programs.
  • After-school programs.
  • Improved lighting in public areas.

Safety at School
  • Violence in schools can include fights between
    students, bullying, gang activity, and the
    presence of weapons.
  • Eliminating these problems takes a joint effort
    by school staff, students, and parents.
  • Read p. 737 as a class.

Safety on the Job
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA) is the agency within the federal
    government that is responsible for promoting safe
    and healthful conditions in the workplace.

Outdoor Safety
  • Chapter 26 Lesson 3
  • pp. 739-743

Outdoor Recreation
  • Planning ahead can protect you from injury during
    outdoor activities such as camping, hiking, and
    winter sports.
  • Tips
  • Know your limits.
  • Bring Supplies.
  • Plan for the weather.
    Read p. 739 as a class!
  • Wear apppropriate clothing.
  • Tell people your plans.

Camping and Hiking
  • Tips
  • Camp with a group.
  • Stick to well-marked trails.
  • Be cautious around wildlife.
  • Take care with fires.
  • Respect the environment.

Winter Sports
  • When you take part in cold-weather activities,
    wear warm, layered clothing to protect you from
    frostbite and hypothermia. To avoid sunburn you
    should also wear sunscreen.
  • Tips for specific winter activities
  • Sledding.
  • Ice Skating.
  • Skiing, snowboarding, and snowmobiling.
  • Read p. 741 as a class.

Water Safety
  • Following safety precautions can prevent drowning
    and other water related injuries.
  • Every year nearly 3,000 people die from drowning
  • Swimming and Diving the most important rule for
    safety in the water is to KNOW HOW TO SWIM!

Swimming and Diving
  • Rules for safe swimming and diving
  • Swim only in designated areas where a lifeguard
    is present.
  • Dive only into water that you know is deep
  • When swimming always enter the water feet first.
  • Avoid swimming near piers and reefs.
  • If you get caught in a current, swim with the
    current until it releases you.
  • Pay attention to the weather.
  • Be prepared for emergencies.

  • Every year more people die in boating accidents
    than in airplane crashes or train wrecks.
  • Guidelines
  • Make sure the person handling the boat is
  • Always wear a personal flotation device (PFD).
  • Plan ahead and check weather reports.
  • Make sure someone on land knows where you are and
    when to expect you back.

Preventing Drowning
  • Personal Flotation Device a life jacket
  • Look at Figure 26.11 as a class on p. 743

Safety on The Road
  • Chapter 26 Lesson 4
  • pp. 744-749

Auto Safety
  • Paying attention and following the rules of the
    road are the keys to safe driving.
  • Vehicular Safety obeying the rules of the road
    and exercising common sense and good judgment
    while driving.
  • The most important rule of driving safety is

Auto Safety
  • Thing you need to pay attention to when you are
    in the drivers seat
  • Other Drivers
  • Road Conditions
  • Your Physical State
  • Your Emotional State

Teen Drivers
  • Young drivers may be more likely to get into an
    accident because they lack the experience and
    skills needed to drive safely.
  • Graduated Licensing a system that gradually
    increases driving privileges over time.
  • Learner
  • Provisional
  • Full Drivers License

Avoiding Road Rage
  • Road Rage responding to a driving incident with
  • Examples of road rage include
  • Honking, shouting, gesturing, or flashing lights.
  • Chasing or tailgating another vehicle.
  • Cutting off another car or forcing it off the
  • Deliberately hitting or bumping another car.
  • Threatening or physically attacking another

Being a Responsible Driver
  • Defensive Driving being aware of potential
    hazards in the road and taking action to avoid
  • Look at Figure 26.13 as a class on p. 746.

Sharing the Road
  • Everyone on the road shares a responsibility to
    follow traffic laws.
  • Pedestrian Safety always use the sidewalks.
  • Bicycle Safety on next slide.
  • Skating Safety wear the proper equipment to
    protect yourself.
  • Small Motor Vehicle Safety Read p. 748.

Bicycle Safety
  • Tips for safe cycling
  • Always wear a helmet that is safety-approved and
    fits properly.
  • Signal turns about half a block before reaching
    the intersection.
  • Ride single file and keep to far right side of
    the road.
  • Do not tailgate motor vehicles or ride closely
    behind a moving vehicle.
  • Look left, right, and left again before riding
    into the stream of traffic.
  • Wear bright colors in the daytime and reflective
    clothing at night.

ATV Guidelines
  • Only one person should ride on an ATV at a time.
  • Avoid using attachments that will reduce the
    stability and braking of the ATV.
  • Wear appropriate gear when riding an ATV.
  • Avoid taking an ATV out on paved roads.
  • Avoid ATV drivers who have been using alcohol or

Myths Reality
  • Myth By not fastening the safety belt, a
    passenger has a good chance of surviving an
    accident by being thrown clear of the car.
  • Fact By not wearing a safety belt, a passenger
    might be thrown from the car in an accident.
    That would normally not be helpful, though.
    There is a 25 percent greater chance of being
    killed in an accident if you are thrown from the

Providing First Aid
  • Chapter 27 Lesson 1
  • pp. 758-763

First Steps in an Emergency
  • The three steps for responding to an emergency
    are check, call, and care.
  • First Aid the immediate, temporary care given
    to an ill or injured person until professional
    medical care can be provided.

3 Cs
  • Check the victim
  • Call 911 or your local emergency number
  • Care for the victim
  • Good Samaritan Laws statutes that protect
    rescuers from being sued for giving emergency
  • Read p. 759 as a class!

Universal Precautions
  • Universal Precautions steps taken to prevent
    the spread of disease through blood and other
    body fluids when providing first aid or health
  • Universal precautions include
  • Wearing sterile gloves whenever you could come
    into contact with someones blood or body fluids.
  • Washing hands immediately after providing first
  • Using a mouthpiece, if one is available, when
    providing rescue breathing.

First Aid for Bleeding
  • The steps for treating bleeding depend on the
    type of injury and how severe it is.
  • Types of Open Wounds
  • Abrasions
  • Lacerations Read p. 760 as a
  • Punctures
  • Avulsions

Controlling Bleeding
  • Follow these steps to control the bleeding
  • If possible raise the wounded body part above the
    level of the heart.
  • Cover the wound with sterile gauze or a clean
  • Press the palm of your hand firmly against the
  • If blood soaks through the gauze, add another
    piece of gauze.
  • Once the bleeding slows or stops, secure the pad
    firmly in place with a bandage.
  • If you cant stop the wound after 5minutes, or if
    the wound starts bleeding again call for medical
    help. Continue to apply pressure to the wound
    until help arrives.

First Aid for Burns
  • Treatment for burns depends on the severity of
    the burn.
  • Burns caused by heat are the most common type.
  • Types of Burns
  • First Degree Burns
  • Second Degree Burns
  • Third Degree Burns
  • Look at Figure 27.2 on p. 762 and read as a class.

Burn Treatment
  • Cool the burned area by holding it under cold,
    running water for at least 5 minutes.
  • Cover the burn loosely with a sterile gauze
  • The victim may take an over the counter pain
  • Minor burns usually heal without further
    treatment, though the skin may be discolored.
  • Some second degree burns and all third degree
    burns require immediate medical attention and

  • What are the 3 Cs of emergency care?

CPR and First Aid for Shock and Choking
  • Chapter 27 Lesson 2
  • pp. 764-770

The Chain of Survival
  • In a medical emergency, a victims life depends
    on a specific series of actions called the chain
    of survival.
  • Chain of Survival a sequence of actions that
    maximize the victims chances of survival.

Links to the Chain of Survival
  • A call to emergency medical services
  • CPR
  • Defibrillation
  • Defibrillator a device that delivers an
    electric shock to the heart to restore its normal
  • Advanced Care

  • CPR can save the life of a person whose heartbeat
    or breathing has stopped.
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation chest
    compressions to supply oxygen to the body until
    normal body function can resume.

  • CPR for Adults
  • Look at Figure 27.4 on p. 767 as a class.
  • CPR for Infants and Children
  • Read p. 766 as a class.

Other Emergencies
  • Choking and shock are life-threatening medical
    emergencies that require immediate attention.
  • First Aid for Choking
  • Choking occurs when an object, such as a piece of
    food, becomes stuck in a persons windpipe,
    cutting off the flow of air.
  • Help the person immediately by performing
    abdominal thrusts on the person who is choking.
  • Look at Figure 27.6 on p. 769 as a class.

First Aid for Shock
  • Shock a life-threating condition in which the
    heart is not delivering an adequate supply of
    blood to the body.
  • Symptoms
  • Cold, clammy skin, which may appear pale or
  • Weak, rapid pulse and altered breathing.
  • Dull, staring eyes, which may have dilated
  • Faintness, weakness, confusion, or loss of

  • No homework today. Sit quietly at your seat
    working on homework or studying.

Responding to Other Common Emergencies
  • Chapter 27 Lesson 3
  • pp. 771-777

Muscle, Joint, and Bone Injuries
  • Muscle and joint injuries can be minor or sever,
    but bone injuries are always medical emergencies.

Muscle and Joint Injuries
  • Two common and fairly minor injuries are strains
    and sprains.
  • Strain tear in a muscle.
  • Sprain an injury to the ligaments around the

  • Protect
  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compress
  • Elevate

Fractures and Dislocations
  • Fracture a break in the bone.
  • Dislocations a separation of bone from its
    normal position in a joint.
  • Fractures and dislocations are emergencies that
    require immediate medical care.

Fracture and Dislocations
  1. Call 911 or your local emergency medical service.
  2. Do your bets to keep the victim still and calm.
  3. If the skin is broken, rinse it carefully to
    prevent infection, taking care not to disturb the
  4. If necessary, apply a splint.
  5. Apply an ice pack to reduce pain and swelling.
  6. If the injury does not affect the head, neck,
    legs, or spine, have the victim lie down and
    raise his or her legs about 12 inches to prevent

  • A victim who loses consciousness for any amount
    of time requires medical care.
  • Unconsciousness the condition of not being
    alert or aware of your surroundings.

  • Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness
    that occurs when not enough blood is flowing to
    the brain.
  • If you see someone faint, try to catch the person
    to stop him or her from falling.
  • Lay the victim on the ground and elevate the
  • Loosen any tight clothing around the victims

  • Concussion a jarring injury to the brain that
    can cause unconsciousness.
  • If the victim is conscious, have him or her lie
  • If the victim is unconscious, avoid moving him or
    her if there is reason to suspect a head or neck

Other Common Emergencies
  • Its important to learn first-aid procedures for
    emergencies such as animal bites, nosebleeds, and
  • Animal Bites can transmit serious diseases such
    as rabies.
  • Nosebleeds can occur after an injury to the
    nose or very dry air causes the lining of the
    nose to become irritated.
  • Poison (poisoning) any substance that causes
    injury, illness, or death when it enters the body.

  • Poison Control Center a round-the-clock service
    that provides emergency medical advice on how to
    treat victims of poisoning.
  • Call the National Poison Control Hotline.
  • Be prepared to provide
  • Your name, location, and telephone number.
  • The victims condition, age, and weight.
  • The name of the poison, when it was taken, and
    the amount of poison that was involved. If you
    do not have this information, tell as much as you

  • Certain types of snakes can inject venom.
  • Venom a poisonous secretion, into the victims
  • Read p. 776 Snakebite as a class.
  • Insect and Spider Bites or Stings
  • The stings of insects such as bees, hornets, and
    wasps, as well as the bites of certain spiders,
    are painful but usually not dangerous.
  • Poisonous Plants
  • Most people are allergic to poison ivy, poison
    oak, and poison sumac. Exposer to these plants
    will cause itching, swelling, redness, and

Myths and Reality
  • Myth Apply a tourniquet on the limb between the
    heart and the bite to prevent the venom from
    flowing through the body.
  • Fact The tourniquet can cut off blood flow to
    the limb, which can result in the loss of the

Emergency Preparedness
  • Chapter 27 Lesson 4
  • pp. 778-783

Storm Safety
  • It is important to pay attention to weather
    warnings and follow safety guidelines during a
    sever storm.
  • Sever Thunderstorms typically produce heavy
    rain and are accompanied by lightning, strong
    winds, and sometimes hail or tornadoes.
  • Hurricanes a powerful storm that generally
    forms in tropical areas, producing winds of at
    lest 74 miles per hour, heavy rains, and
    sometimes tornadoes.
  • Tornadoes a whirling funnel-shaped windstorm
    that causes destruction as it advances along the
    ground in a narrow path.

  • Danger signs to look for
  • Darkened or greenish looking skies.
  • A hailstorm that produces large hailstones.
  • A large, dark, low-lying cloud that may be
  • A loud roar like that of a freight train.

Winter Storms
  • Severe winter storms can block roads, knock down
    power lines, and cause floods.
  • Blizzard a snowstorm with winds that reach 35
    miles an hour or more.
  • Guidelines
  • Stay indoors.
  • Wear layers of clothing if you must go outside.
  • Watch for signs of frostbite.

Natural Disasters
  • Know what to expect during natural disasters.
  • Flash Floods floods in which a dangerous volume
    of water builds up in a short time.
  • Earthquakes a series of vibrations in the earth
    caused by a sudden movement of the earths crust.

  • Precautions
  • If you are indoors drop to the ground. Take
    cover under a sturdy table or desk and hold on
    until the shaking stops.
  • If you are outdoors stay clear of buildings,
    trees, streetlights, and power lines.
  • If you are in a car stop the car and stay inside.
    Avoid stopping near or under trees, buildings,
    freeway overpasses, and power lines.

  • Wildfires are most likely to occur in especially
    dry regions.

Being Prepared for Emergencies
  • Emergency Survival Kit a set of items you will
    need in an emergency situation.
  • A 3 day supply of food or water.
  • A battery powered radio or television.
  • A change of clothing for each family member.
  • Sleeping bags or bedrolls for each family member.
  • First-aid supplies.
  • Duct tape and plastic sheeting.
  • Copies of important documents such as passports.
  • Money
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