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Health Test #3 Notes


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Title: Health Test #3 Notes

Test 3 Notes
  • Chapters 10-12

The Importance of Nutrition
  • Chapter 10 Lesson 1
  • pp. 254-257

Why Nutrition Matters
  • The food you eat affects your health and quality
    of life.
  • Nutrition the process by which your body takes
    in and uses food.
  • Nutrients substances in food that your body
    needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply
    you with energy.
  • Calorie a unit of heat used to measure the
    energy in your body.

Why Nutrition Matters
  • The calories in the food you eat provide the
    energy your body needs for activities such as
    walking, doing chores, and playing sports.
  • Nutrition also affects your lifelong health. It
    can lower the risk of developing these
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Stroke
  • Certain cancers
  • Osteoporosis

What Influences Your Food Choices?
  • A variety of factors influence food choices.
  • Hunger the natural physical drive to eat,
    prompted by the bodys need for food.
  • Appetite the psychological desire for food.

Food and Emotions
  • Sometimes people eat in response to an emotional
    need, like when they feel stressed, frustrated,
    lonely, or sad.
  • Some people may engage in mindless eating.
  • Using food to relieve tension or boredom can
    lead to weight gain, since your eating when your
    body doesnt need food.

Food and Environment
  • The people and things around you also affect what
    you choose to eat.
  • Environmental influences include
    Read p. 256
  • Family and Culture
  • Friends
  • Time and Money
  • Advertising

Class Discussion
  • Seeing what your friends and peers eat can
    influence your own food choices. What are some
    ways your friends have influenced your eating

  • Chapter 10 Lesson 2
  • pp. 258-265

Giving Your Body What It Needs
  • Each of the six nutrients has a specific job or
    vital function to keep you healthy.
  • Your body uses nutrients in many ways
  • As an energy source
  • To heal, and build and repair tissue
  • To sustain growth
  • To help transport oxygen cells
  • To regulate body functions

6 Types of Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Nutrients That Provide Energy
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide your
    body with energy and help maintain your body.
  • 1 gram of carbohydrate or protein 4 calories of
  • 1 gram of fat 9 calories of energy

  • Carbohydrates starches and sugars found in
    foods, which provide your bodys main source of
  • 45-65 of daily calories should come from this
  • 3 Types of Carbohydrates
  • Simple sugars (fructose) found in fruit or
    lactose found in milk
  • Complex starches (grains, pasta, bread, beans)
  • Fiber a tough complex carbohydrate that the
    body cant digest
  • Eat 20-35 grams of fiber per day!
  • Read p. 260 (Carbs and Fiber Benefits)

  • Proteins nutrients the body uses to build and
    maintain its cells and tissues.
  • Made up of amino acids
  • Types of Proteins
  • 20 amino acids found in food
  • Body synthesizes 9 of them
  • The Role of Proteins
  • Basic building material of all your body cells.
  • Help carry oxygen to all your body cells.

  • Types of Fat
  • Unsaturated Fats vegetable oil, nuts, seeds
  • Saturated Fats found in meat and dairy products
  • Trans Fats formed by hydrogenation
  • Health Issues of Fats
  • Because fat is high in calories it is important
    to limit the consumption of it.
  • Role of Fats
  • Provide energy and are essential to brain
    development, blood clotting, and controlling

  • Cholesterol a waxy, fatlike substance---in your
  • Consume less than 25-35 of your calories from
    fat because of the health risks associated with
  • What are the benefits of choosing snacks labeled
    no trans fat?

  • Unsaturated fats are better for health because
    they may help decrease the risk of heart disease
    saturated fats may increase the risk of heart

Other Types of Nutrients
  • Vitamins, minerals, and water do not provide
    energy, but perform a wide variety of body
  • Vitamins compounds found in food that help
    regulate many body processes. Read p. 262
  • Minerals elements found in food that are used
    by the body.
  • Water essential for most body functions.

  • Important mineral that promotes bone health.
  • Osteoporosis condition in which the bones
    become fragile and break easily.
  • Most common in women over the age of 50.

  • Waters functions include
  • Moving food through the digestive system.
  • Digesting carbohydrates and protein, and aiding
    other chemical reactions in the body.
  • Transporting nutrients and removing wastes.
  • Storing and releasing heat.
  • Cooling the body through perspiration.
  • Cushioning the eyes, brain, and spinal cord.
  • Lubricating the joints.

  • Teen girls need 9 cups of water a day
  • Teen boys need about 13 cups of water a day
  • About 20 of your total daily water intake comes
    from the foods you eat, since all foods contain
    some water.
  • Make sure you drink extra water before, during,
    and after exercise, even if you are not feeling

  • If you feel thirsty, you waited too long to take
    in fluids.
  • You should also drink extra fluids in hot weather
    to prevent dehydration.
  • Limit your consumption of coffee, tea, and soft
    drinks that contain caffeine.
  • Caffeine is a substance that eliminates water
    from your body, so caffeinated drinks can
    actually make you dehydrated.

Healthy Food Guidelines
  • Chapter 10 Lesson 3
  • pp. 266-273

Guidelines for Eating Right and Active Living
  • MyPyramid helps you apply what you know about
    nutrients to choose healthful foods.
  • Dietary Guidelines for America a set of
    recommendations about smart eating and physical
    activity for all Americans
  • Make smart choices from every food group.
  • Find your balance between food and activity.
  • Get the most nutrition out of your calories.

Making Smart Choices
  • MyPyramid an interactive guide to healthful
    eating and active living.
  • p. 267

  • Look at figure 10.9 in your book on p. 267
  • Which food group is represented by the brown
  • What are examples of foods in this group?
  • Which food group is represented by the blue band?

Your Best Choices
  • Focus On Fruits
  • Vary Your Veggies
  • Get Your Calcium-Rich Foods
  • Make Half of Your Grains Whole
  • Go Lean with Protein
  • Limit Certain Foods
  • Read pp. 268-269 as a class!

Balancing Food and Physical Activity
  • Even if you eat the right amount and mix of
    healthful foods, you can still be overweight if
    you arent getting enough physical exercise. The
    guidelines recommend that teens should be
    physically active for 60 minutes every day to
    avoid unhealthy weight gain.

Getting the Most Nutrition Out of Your Calories
  • Nutrient-Dense Foods a high ratio of nutrients
    to calories.
  • To make sure you get enough nutrients out of the
    foods you eat you should consume these kinds of
  • The more nutrient dens a food is, the more
    nutrients it packs into a given number of
  • Example
  • A single large carrot and a half ounce of potato
    chips have about the same number of calories, but
    the carrot is higher in nutrients.

Nutrient-Dense Foods
  • Nutrient Dense food are typically low in fats and
  • Why are high fat foods usually not as nutrient

Healthful Eating Patterns
  • You can use MyPyramid and the information in the
    Dietary Guidelines to plan all your meals and
  • Whats on your plate? Figure 10.111 p. 271
  • What is your idea of a nutritious meal?

Starting the Day Off Right
  • Ready p. 271 272
  • Sensible Snacks
  • Fresh Fruit
  • Cut Up Vegetables
  • String Cheese
  • Unsalted Nuts
  • Air-Popped Popcorn
  • Fat Free Yogurt

Eating Right When Eating Out
  • Watch portion size.
  • Pay attention to how foods are prepared.
  • Add fresh vegetables and fruits.
  • Go easy on toppings.
  • Dont drink your calories.

Nutrition Labels and Food Safety
  • Chapter 10 Lesson 4
  • pp. 274-281

Nutrition Label Basics
  • Food labels provide information about the
    ingredients and nutritional value of foods.
  • What is on a Food Label?
  • The name of the food product.
  • The amount of food in the package.
  • The name and address of the company that makes,
    packages, or distributes the product.

Nutrition Label Basics
  • What is on a Food Label continued
  • The ingredients in the food.
  • The nutrition facts panel, which provides
    information about the nutrients found in the food.

Ingredient List
  • The ingredients in a food appear on the label in
    descending order by weight.
  • Food Additives substances added to a food to
    produce a desired effect.

Nutritional Claims
  • Free
  • Low
  • Light
  • Reduced
  • High
  • Good Source Of
  • Healthy
  • Read pp. 275-276 as a class!

Organic Food Labels
  • USDA Organic
  • Foods labeled as organic are produced without the
    use of certain agricultural chemicals, such as
    synthetic fertilizers or pesticides.
  • Cannot contain genetically modified ingredients
    or be subjected to certain types of radiation.

Open Dating
  • Types of open dates
  • Sell by dates show the last day on which a
    store should sell the product.
  • Use by or expiration dates show the last day on
    which a products quality can be guaranteed.
  • Freshness dates appear on items with a short
    shelf life, such as baked goods.
  • Pack dates show the day on which a food was
    processed or packaged.

Food Safety
  • Handling food carefully can help you avoid
    foodborne illnesses and other hazards.
  • Foodborne Illness food poisoning
  • 76 million Americans a year become ill as a
    result of this.

How Foodborne Illness Occurs
  • The most common sources are the bacteria
    Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli, and a group
    of viruses known as the Norwalk.
  • Symptoms
  • A fever higher than 101.5 degrees F
  • Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
  • Blood in the stool
  • Signs of dehydration, including a decrease in
    urination, dry mouth and throat, and feeling
    dizzy when standing

Keeping Food Safe to Eat
  • Pasteurization treating a substance with heat
    to kill or slow the growth of pathogens.
  • Wash and dry your hands frequently to keep
    pathogens on your skin from entering food.
  • Cross-Contamination the spreading of pathogens
    from one food to another.
  • Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils, and
    countertops with hot soapy water.
  • Rinse fresh fruit and vegetables with running

Keeping Food Safe to Eat
  • Separate
  • The food most likely to carry pathogens are raw
    meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs.
  • Separate them when preparing or storing the food.
  • Cook
  • Heat food to a high enough temperature that will
    kill the pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses
  • Chill
  • Refrigeration slows the growth of harmful
    bacteria. Refrigerate or freeze meat, poultry,
    and other perishable foods as soon as you bring
    them home.

Safe Food Temperature
  • Figure 10.7 p. 280
  • Why is the area in the middle of the thermometer
    called the danger zone?

Food Sensitivities
  • Food Allergy a condition in which the bodys
    immune system reacts to substances in some foods.
  • Most common allergens are found in milk, eggs,
    peanuts, wheat, fish, soybeans, shellfish, and
    tree nuts.
  • Food Intolerance a negative reaction to food
    that doesnt involve the immune system.
  • More common than a food allergy.
  • Example - Lactose Intolerant

  • We have completed Chapter 10 and tomorrow we will
    start Chapter 11.
  • Nutrients are the substances in food that your
    body needs. To have a healthful diet, your body
    needs SIX basic nutrients.

Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Chapter 11 Lesson 1
  • pp. 290-296

  • Turn in Food Label/Discuss some of them!
  • Watch Video!
  • Maintaining a healthy weight can protect health
    and prevent disease. Can you identify a way in
    which a persons weight can impact each side of
    his or her health triangle?

  • 25 of teens do not participate in at least 60
    minutes of physical activity at least once a
  • 35 of teens watch three or more hours of TV on
    an average school day.

The Calorie Connection
  • You maintain your weight by taking in as many
    calories as you use.
  • If you consume more calories than your body
    needs, you will gain weight.

Your Energy Balance
  • Metabolism the process by which the body breaks
    down substances and gets energy from food.
  • It takes about 3,500 calories to equal 1 pound of
    body fat.
  • Thus if you consume 500 fewer calories than you
    use every day, you will lose 1 pound per week.

How Many Calories?
  • As a rule, foods that are high in fat will also
    be high in calories. A gram of fat contains 9
    calories while a gram of protein or carbohydrate
    contains 4 calories.
  • Look at Figure 11.2 Chart on p. 291

Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Body mass index and body composition help you
    judge whether your weight is healthy.
  • The right weight for each person is based on
    several factors, including age, gender, height,
    body frame, and stage and rate of growth.

Body Mass Index
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) a measure of body weight
    relative to height.
  • Overweight heavier than the standard weight
    range for your height.

Body Composition
  • A person who is very muscular, may have a higher
    BMI but still be very healthy.
  • Body Composition ratio of fat to lean tissue in
    your body
  • Skin Fold Testing one common way to measure
    your BMI
  • It involves measuring the thickness of skin folds
    at different points on the body.

Your Weight and Your Health
  • Being either overweight or underweight carries
    health risks.
  • Weighing Too Much
  • Obese having an excess of body fat.
  • Weighing Too Little
  • Underweight below the standard weight range for
    your height.
  • Read Your Weight and Your Health pp. 292-293

Managing Your Weight
  • Stay physically active and eat healthful foods.
  • Target a healthy weight.
  • Set realistic goals.
  • Personalize your plan.
  • Put your goals and plan in writing.
  • Evaluate your progress.

Healthful Ways to Lose Weight
  1. Choose nutrient dense foods.
  2. Watch portion sizes.
  3. Eat fewer foods that are high in fats and added
  4. Enjoy your favorite foods in moderation.
  5. Be active.
  6. Tone your muscles.
  7. Stay hydrated.

Healthful Ways to Gain Weight
  • Select foods from the 5 major food groups that
    are higher in calories.
  • Choose higher-calorie, nutrient-rich foods.
  • Eat nutritious snacks.
  • Get regular physical activity.
  • Read p. 295

Physical Activity and Weight Management
  1. It helps relieve stress.
  2. It promotes a normal appetite response.
  3. It increases self-esteem, which helps you keep
    your plan on track.
  4. It helps you feel more energetic.

Body Image and Eating Disorders
  • Chapter 11 Lesson 3
  • pp. 297-302

Your Body Image
  • Body Image the way you see your body.
  • During your teen years, you will experience many
    physical changes at a rapid pace. You may feel
    unhappy with your body type and wish you were
    taller, shorter, thinner, shapelier, or more

Accepting Yourself
  • Try to accept yourself the way you are, or talk
    to a parent or other trusted adult about your

Fad Diets
  • Fad Diets weight-loss plans that tend to be
    popular for only a short time.
  • People on these diets may lose weight
    temporarily, but they usually regain it after
    going off of the diet.
  • Fad diets can potentially pose serious health
  • Weight Cycling a repeated pattern of losing and
    regaining body weight.

Types of Fad Diets
  • Miracle Foods
  • Magic Combinations Read p. 299
  • Liquid Diets
  • Diet Pills
  • Fasting

Recognizing Fad Diets
  • How can you tell the difference between a fad
    diet and a legitimate weight-loss plan?
  • Any plan that does not follow the MyPyramid
    guidelines may deprive your body of nutrients.
  • Plans that promise ultra-fast weight loss (more
    than 2 pounds a week) are likely to be unsafe or

Fad Diets Class Discussion
  • Have you ever seen an advertisement for a
    weight-loss plan that seemed to good to be true?
    What claims were made about the weight-loss
    plans results?

Eating Disorders
  • Eating disorders are extreme and dangerous
    eating behaviors that require medical attention.
  • Eating Disorders extreme, harmful eating
    behaviors that can cause serious illness or even

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anorexia Nervosa an eating disorder in which an
    irrational fear of weight gain leads people to
    starve themselves.
  • Mainly affects girls and young women.
  • Symptoms of Anorexia
  • Avoiding food and meals.
  • Eating only a few kinds of food in small amounts.
  • Weighing or counting the calories in everything
    you eat.
  • Exercising excessively.
  • Weighing themselves repeatedly.

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder that
    involves cycles of overeating and purging, or
    attempts to rid the body of food.
  • People with bulimia regularly go on binges,
    eating a huge amount of food in a single sitting.
    After the binge they purge, forcing themselves
    to vomit or taking laxatives to flush the food
    out of their systems.

Binge Eating Disorder
  • Binge Eating Disorder an eating disorder in
    which people overeat compulsively.
  • Binge eating is more common in males than any
    other disorder, accounting for more than a third
    of all cases.

Seeking Help
  • Eating disorders are serious and dangerous
  • Medical Help May Involve
  • Counseling
  • Nutritional Guidance
  • Doctors Care
  • Support Groups

  • Your body image is influenced by many factors.,
    including the media. How is a positive body
    image related to self-esteem?

Lifelong Nutrition
  • Chapter 11 Lesson 3
  • pp. 303-309

Lifelong Nutritional Needs
  • Your age, gender, lifestyle, and health needs can
    affect your bodys food needs.
  • Read p. 303
  • Factors That Affect Your Nutritional Needs
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Activity Level

Vegetarian Diets
  • Vegetarian a person who eats mostly or only
    plant-based foods.
  • Different types of Vegetarians p. 304
  • Pros to a Vegetarian Diet
  • Plant based foods are lower in cholesterol
  • High in Fiber
  • May help reduce the risk of Cardiovascular
  • Cons to a Vegetarian Diet
  • Plant based food tend to be lower in certain
    nutrients (protein, iron, calcium, zinc, etc)
  • May need to take Dietary Supplements

Dietary Supplements
  • Dietary Supplements products that supply one or
    more nutrients as a supplement to, not a
    substitute for, healthful foodsto obtain all

Health Conditions
  • Diabetes
  • Food Allergies
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Celiac Disease
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol
  • Read p. 305

Key Fact
  • High blood pressure is often called the silent
    killer because it can result in heart problems,
    stroke, or kidney problems with few or no warning

Nutrition for Athletes
  • Eating right affects an athletes performance.
  • Teen athletes may need from 2,000 to 5,000
    calories per day, depending on their sport and on
    the intensity, length, and frequency of their
  • Need more protein and carbohydrates than inactive

  • Teen girls should drink about 9 cups of
    non-caffeinated fluids each day.
  • Teen boys should try to drink 13 cups.
  • Student athletes may need more fluids.
  • Dehydration occurs when you have not consumed
    enough liquid can lead to an imbalance of
  • Drink water before and after your exercise to
    prevent hydration as well as periodically
    throughout the day.

Avoiding Performance Enhancers
  • Performance Enhancers substances that boost
    athletic ability.
  • TYPES OF ENHANCERS Using any type of
  • Anabolic Steroids performance enhancer
  • Androstenedione is not worth the risk!
  • Creatine
  • Energy Drinks Read p. 307 as a class.

Eating Before a Competition
  • Eating before a competition provides your body
    with the energy it needs to get through the
  • Try to eat about 3-4 hours before a competition
    so that your stomach is empty by the time you
  • Try to choose meals that are high in
    carbohydrates and low in fat and protein.
  • Good choices of foods to eat before a competition
    include pasta, rice, vegetables, breads, and
  • Also remember to drink plenty of water before,
    during, and after the competition.

Using Supplements
  • Dietary supplements can help people meet their
    nutrient needs if they cannot do it with food
  • Herbal Supplements dietary supplements
    containing plant extracts.
  • Note Supplements are not a substituted for
    eating a variety of healthful foods.

Concern About Dietary Supplements
  • Do not take supplements that provide more than
    100 of the Daily Values for any nutrient.
  • Megadoses very large amounts
  • Taking megadoses of any supplement can be
    dangerous. Some vitamins such as A, D, E, and K
    can build up in the body and become toxic.

Benefits of Physical Activity
  • Chapter 12 Lesson 1
  • pp. 318-323

Big Idea
  • Watch Video!
  • Making time for physical activity has mental,
    emotional, and physical benefits. In what
    particular ways does being physically active
    benefit a person?

Physical Activity and Your Health
  • Physical activity benefits all aspects of your
  • Physical Activity any form of movement that
    causes your body to use energy.
  • It benefits just about every system in your body,
    and also benefits your mental/emotional and
    social health.

Physical Benefits
  • Physical Fitness the ability to carry out daily
    tasks easily and have enough reserve energy to
    respond to unexpected demands.
  • 60 minutes of physical activity a day
  • Exercise purposeful physical activity that is
    planned, structured, and repetitive, and that
    improves or maintains physical fitness.
  • Figure 12.1 The Active Body p. 319

Mental and Emotional Benefits
  • Stress Relief
  • Mood Enhancement
  • Better Sleep
  • Improves Self Esteem

Social Benefits
  • Taking part in sports can teach teamwork and
  • Physical activity can be a great way to make new
    friends and spend time with the friends you
    already have.

Risks of Being Inactive
  • An inactive lifestyle puts you at risk for a
    variety of health problems.
  • Sedentary involving little physical activity
  • Sedentary teens may spend their free time
    watching TV, playing video games, or surfing the
  • All of us devote some time to sedentary
    activities, but being sedentary all the time puts
    you at risk for a variety of health problems.

Health Problems
  • Health problems that may result form being
    sedentary include
  • Cardiovascular Disease, such as heart attack and
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Certain Types of Cancers
  • Asthma and other Breathing Problems
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Psychological Problems
  • Premature Death

Making Time For Physical Activity
  • There are several ways to fit physical activity
    into your daily life.
  • Look at Figure 12.4 on Active Alternatives
  • p. 323

Improving Your Fitness
  • Chapter 12 Lesson 2
  • pp. 324-330

Elements of Fitness
  • There are 5 elements of fitness that affect your
    health in different ways
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Muscular Strength
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Body Composition

Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance the ability of your
    heart, lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and
    oxygen to your tissues during long periods of
    moderate to vigorous activity.
  • By maintaining good cardiorespiratory health, you
    can run a mile or go on a long hike without

Muscular Strength
  • Muscular Strength the amount of force your
    muscles can exert.
  • You need muscular strength for all kinds of
    activities that put stress on your muscles, such
    as lifting, pushing, and jumping.

Muscular Endurance
  • Muscular Endurance the ability of your muscles
    to perform physical tasks over a period of time
    without tiring.
  • Example Carrying boxes up and down the stairs.

  • Flexibility the ability to move your body parts
    through their full range of motion.
  • Example If you are flexible you can touch your
    toes without bending your legs.

Body Composition
  • Body Composition ratio of fat to lean tissue in
    your body.
  • Having low overall body fat reduces your risk of
    cardiovascular disease and other health problems
    associated with being overweight.

Evaluating Your Fitness
  • You can use different tests to evaluate each
    element of your fitness.
  • Read pp. 325-327
  • Measuring
  • Cardiorespiratory Endurance
  • 3 Minute Step Test
  • Muscular Strength and Endurance
  • Partial Curl Up Right Angle Push Ups
  • Flexibility
  • Sit and Reach Test

Getting Fit
  • Use different forms of exercise to improve the
    various elements of your fitness.
  • Aerobic Exercise includes all rhythmic
    activities that use large muscle groups for an
    extended period of time.
  • Examples Jogging, Swimming, and Riding a Bike
  • Anaerobic Exercise intense, short bursts of
    activity in which the muscles work so hard that
    they produce energy without using oxygen.
  • Examples Sprinting and Lifting Weights

Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance
  • 3 Ways To Use Resistance To Work Your Muscles
  • Isometric Exercises use muscle tension to
    improve strength with little or no movement of
    the body part.
  • Example Pushing against a wall
  • Isotonic Exercises combine movement of the
    joints with contraction of the muscles.
  • Free weights, pull ups, push ups, and sit ups
  • Isokinetic Exercises exert resistance against a
    muscle as it moves through a range of motion at a
    steady rate of speed.
  • Weight Machines

Exercise and Bone Strength
  • Exercise helps increase bone density and lowers
    the risk of osteoporosis. Weight-bearing
    exercises work with gravity and are good for
    strengthening bones. Strength training, walking,
    aerobics, and dancing are all weight-bearing
    activities. p. 330

Planning a Personal Activity Program
  • Chapter 12 Lesson 3
  • pp. 331-336

Personal Needs
  • Factors Affecting Activity Choices
  • Cost
  • Where You Live
  • Your Schedule
  • Your Fitness Level
  • Your Overall Health
  • Personal Safety
  • Read p. 332 Personal Needs

Types of Activities
  • Moderate-Intensity Physical Activities
  • Aerobic Activities
  • Strength Training
  • Flexibility Exercises
  • Read p. 332-333 Types of Activities as a class.

Principles of Building Fitness
  • Effective fitness plans focus on four principles
  • Specificity
  • Overload
  • Progression
  • Regularity

  • Specificity choosing the right type of
    activities to improve a given element of fitness.
  • Example Strength training activities will build
    muscular strength.

  • Overload exercising at a level thats beyond
    your regular daily activities.
  • Increasing the demands on your body will make it
    adapt and grow stronger.

  • Progression gradually increasing the demands on
    your body.
  • Try working a little harder or longer during each
    session, and more often during the week.

  • Regularity working out on a regular basis.
  • You need at least 3 balanced workouts a week to
    maintain your fitness level.

Stages of a Workout
  • An exercise session has THREE stages
  • Warm-Up
  • Workout
  • Cool-Down

  • Warm-Up gentle cardiovascular activity that
    prepares the muscles for work.
  • Increases blood flow, delivering oxygen and fuel
    to your muscles.

  • Workout the part of an exercise session when
    you are exercising at your highest peak.
  • FITT Principle
  • Frequency of Workouts
  • Intensity of Workouts
  • Type of Activity
  • Time of Workouts

  • Cool-Down low level activity that prepares your
    body to return to a resting state.
  • Allows your heart rate, breathing, and body
    temperature to return to normal gradually.

Track Your Progress
  • Track your progress to see how your fitness level
    increases over time.
  • Resting Heart Rate the number of times your
    heart beats per minute when you are not active.
  • Typical pulse rate for teens is between 60-100
    beats per minute.

Fitness Safety and Avoiding Injuries
  • Chapter 12 Lesson 4
  • pp. 337-343

Real Life Issues
  • 25 of injured bicyclists were between 15-24
    years old.
  • 20-25 of all bicyclists wear bicycle helmets.

Watching the Weather
  • Check the weather and avoid exercising outside
    during extreme weather, such as thunderstorms or
  • Tips for Cold Weather Safety
  • Warm up and cool down, even in cold weather.
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Cold air can lead to
  • Cover your nose and mouth to prevent breathing
    cold, dry air. If you have asthma, talk to your
    doctor before exercising outdoors in cold weather.

Cold Weather
  • Look at p. 339 Figure 12.16 as a class.
  • Class Discussion
  • What do you have that you could wear as a base

Cold Weather Health Risks
  • Frostbite damage to the skin and tissues caused
    by extreme cold.
  • The skin becomes pale, hard, and numb.
  • Hypothermia dangerously low body temperature,
    occurs as a result of exposure to extreme cold,
    submersion in cold water, or wearing wet clothing
    in cold or windy weather.
  • Causes drowsiness, weakness, and confusion.

Hot-Weather Risks
  • Heavy sweating while exercising in hot weather
    can lead to dehydration, or excessive loss of
    water from the body. Drinking fluids before,
    during, and after physical activity can prevent

Hot-Weather Risks
  1. Overexertion
  2. Heat Exhaustion
  3. Heatstroke

  • Overexertion overworking the body.

Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Exhaustion a form of physical stress on
    the body caused by overheating.
  • Symptoms
  • Heavy Sweating
  • Cold, Clammy Skin
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Fainting
  • Weak, Rapid Pulse
  • Cramps
  • Shortness of Breath or Nausea

  • Heatstroke a dangerous condition in which the
    body loses its ability to cool itself through
  • Heatstroke can cause sudden death.
  • Call for medical help if you recognize the
    symptoms of a heat stroke.

Sun and Wind Exposure
  • Windburn
  • Sunburn Read p. 340
  • Skin Cancer
  • Eye Damage

Coping with Injuries
  • You can treat minor sports injuries yourself, but
    major injuries require professional medical
  • Blisters
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Strains
  • Sprains
  • Tendonitis

  • Blisters are fluid filled bumps caused by
    friction. Well-fitting shoes and athletic socks
    can prevent blisters.
  • Treatment cover the blistered area, leave
    blisters intact, and let them heal.

Muscle Cramps
  • Muscle Cramps sudden and sometimes painful
    contractions of the muscles.
  • Can occur when muscles are tired, overworked, or
  • Stretching the affected muscle will usually
    relieve the cramps.

  • Strains result from overstretching and tearing
    a muscle.
  • Warm up before exercise to reduce the risk of
  • The symptoms are pain, swelling, and difficulty
    moving the affected muscle.
  • Use the PRICE procedure outlined in Figure 12.18
    on p. 342 to treat strains.

The P.R.I.C.E Procedure
  • P rotect
  • R est
  • I ce
  • C ompress
  • E levate

Sprains Tendonitis
  • Sprains injuries to the ligaments around the
    joint that produce pain, swelling, and stiffness.
  • Tendonitis inflammation and swelling in the

Major Injuries
  • Fractures
  • Broken Bones
  • Dislocations
  • Occur when a bone pops out of its normal position
    or joint.
  • Concussion
  • An injury to the brain can result in a severe
    headache, unconsciousness, or memory loss.

  • A concussion is an injury to the brain that
    results from a blow to the head, which causes the
    brain to rock violently back-and-forth within the
    skull. Concussions are a common injury among
    teens about 1 in 10 high school athletes suffer
    concussions each year. p. 342

  • What is the difference between a STRAIN and a
  • A STRAIN is a tearing of the muscle whereas a
    SPRAIN is a tearing of the ligaments.