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Power Quality Analysis - ADDVALUE - Nilesh Arora

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Introduction and Principles of Layout and Line Design presented by Nilesh arora - a founder of AddValue Consulting Inc. Find details of P.Q. analysis, Functional vs. Process layout and number of lines etc. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Power Quality Analysis - ADDVALUE - Nilesh Arora


1
Layout and Line Design
by
Best Performing Consulting Organization
Adding Value In Totality !!
2
I.1. Layout and Line Design
  • Introduction
  • P.Q. analysis
  • Process graph and time estimate
  • Functional vs. Process layout and number of
    lines
  • One Piece Flow lines
  • Large vs Small Lines
  • Takt time
  • Shojinka and multiskilled operators
  • Small in line machines
  • Line balancing
  • Workstation design.
  • 20 principles of Layout and Line Design.

5. Low Cost Automation
4. Smed
3. Standard Work
2. Border of Line
  1. Layout and Line Design

3
Introduction
  • It is important to differentiate between PROCESS
    and OPERATION
  • PROCESS is flow (movement) of materials from dock
    to dock. It includes many operations
  • Material transportation
  • Material waiting batch size end
  • Material transformation
  • Material batch waiting
  • Material being inspected.
  • OPERATION is flow of operator movements to
    perform above operations
  • TARGETS of Layout and Line Design
  • Elimination of operations other than Value Added
  • Creation of 1 piece flow value added operations.

4
P.Q. analysis
  • 3 references 45 of the quantity sold in 1 year
  • 10 references 35 of the quantity sold in 1 year

Q Quantity
A1
  • 15 references 15 of the quantity sold in 1 year

A2
(3 ref)
(10)
  • 120 references 5 of the quantity sold in 1 year

B (15)
C (120)
P Product References
  • Layout and Line Design always starts with a PQ
    analysis
  • The A references (high runners) are good
    candidates for semi automated lines (maintaining
    1 piece flow)
  • The B references are good candidates for manual,
    less automated lines
  • The C references (low runners) are good
    candidates for single bench/manual lines,
    flexible for many references.

5
Process Graph and Time Estimate
  • A Process graph represents a possible order of
    assembly or production
  • 3 types of information
  • Blue components
  • Yellow value added operations
  • Green times.
  • It should be done for each A (high runners)
    reference
  • Starts with the main component (the one where all
    the others will be agregated, the grey body). Ex
    the chassis of an automobile
  • No representation of Muda operations (only value
    added operations)
  • Time should be estimated without Muda (net
    operation times)
  • At this stage times represent a rough estimate of
    net operation times (be carefull with standard
    times given by time study departments, usually
    include too much Muda).

6
Functional vs Process Layout
Functional
Layout
Functional
Layout
Big
Batch
Production
Big
Batch
Production
Sub
Assembly
Assembly
Sub
Assembly
Assembly
Control
Control
W
W
A
A
R
R
E
E
H
H
O
O
U
U
S
S
E
E
Work
in
Process
Waiting
Work
in
Process
Waiting
7
Functional vs Process Layout
Line Layout Small Batch Production
WAREHOUSE
Sub Assembly
Assembly
Control
Material Flow
8
One Piece Flow Lines
Cell Layout One Piece Production
Control
Pack
Material Flow
Supermarket
Sub Assembly
Assembly
9
One Piece Flow Lines
Layout before Kaizen
Layout after Kaizen
Results
Before
After
Lead Time
Cycle Time
Workers
Flexible
WIP
Area
Productivity
10
One Piece Flow Lines
Situation Before Kaizen (very poor FTQ/Efficiency)
Situation After Kaizen (excellent FTQ/Efficiency)
11
Functional vs Process Layout
  • The evolution of a Functional Layout (job shop
    type) to a Process Layout (flow shop type) at a
    Kawasaki Motorcycle machining plant
  • Step 1 one operator for each isolated machine
  • Step 2 one operator for 2/3 machines
  • Step 3 process flow cells
  • Step 4 process flow cells in-line and multi cell
    operators

12
Functional vs Process Layout
  • Aluminium Die Casting plant
  • From a Functional Layout to ...
  • ...Process Flow Layout...
  • Check the savings in material flow (lines).

13
Functional vs Process Layout
Product vs Process Matrix
Operations
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
X
X
X
X
X
X
Possible product family for 1 process flow line
design
B
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
A Product References
X
X
X
X
D
X
X
X
X
E
X
X
X
X
F
  • Make a Process Graph for each of the A
    references
  • Check the Product vs Process matrix to group
    similar Process Products
  • After, check B and C references (for the best fit
    within A families or stand alone benches/lines).

14
Large vs. Small Lines
Number of Lines New Models Imply Design and modification of machinery and equipment Training and preparation of workforce. Models Variety Imply Frequent model changovers Need to constantly change size of workforce and rotate workers.
Large Multistaffed Single Line (short cycle time, ex lt25 sec) Time required for preparation and trainning This commitment impacts on manufacture of other products. Large loss due to changeover One person seriously affects efficiency of entire workforce.
Several Smaller Lines (longer cycle time, ex gt25 sec) Time needed for preparation shorthened, only one special line needs to be changed No impact to other product lines during startup period. Number of setups reduced Rotation of people simplified, small number of people involved Less Muda of work balancing.
  • Small number of product references flow on 1 or
    more automated lines (Low Cost Automation)
  • Large number of product references flow on 1 or
    more smaller less automated lines.

15
Takt Time
  • The production cycle should obey the Takt Time,
    i.e., match the demand cycle
  • Usually the Line Design Cycle Time is smaller
    than the Takt Time (because of Efficiency Losses).

(1) Total Time without programmed
stoppages. (2) Number of units required in that
period of time.
16
Shojinka and Multiskilled Operators
  • Shojinka line is able to adapt output to Takt
    Time by changing nº of operators


17
Shojinka and Multiskilled Operators
  • 2 operators cell.
  • Daisy Line Design
  • Operators work together in a common area
  • Operators dont work inside isolated islands
    (with machines between)
  • Machine Input and output position are side by
    side (this implies new machine designs)
  • Automation is separated from manual work.
  • 3 operators cell.
  • Multiskilled operators
  • Supervisors are responsible for developing
    Multiskilled operators
  • Supervisors must be skilled in JI Job
    Instruction training
  • Train operators using Training Plans and
    Breakdown Sheets.

18
Small In-line Machines
  • To change a Functional Layout to a Process based
    Layout, usually more machines are necessary
  • The Small In-Line Machines concept refers to
    smaller less universal machines
  • It is possible to develop this type of machines
    in-house
  • Usual in-house developed machines are
  • Cleaning and rinsing machines
  • Simple machining operations
  • Small presses
  • Use oil pans for cleansing
  • Use hair dryers and home use ovens for drying and
    heating.
  • Looking at a universal automated centralized
    machine, the Kaizen eye tries to spot
  • What are the real value added operations done
    inside the machine
  • How can the machine be simplified to fit a one
    piece flow line.

High Speed Machines
Small In-line Machines
Parts feeder
19
Line Balancing
Product Work Contet
Work Team A (Regular Team)
Work Team B (Mura Team)
A
B
Product Families
C
  • Responsible to operate a fixed number of
    operations in-line
  • Line balancing based on product family C Work
    Content
  • Constant workload, independent from product mix.
  • Responsible for off-line work ,or
  • Responsible for variable operations (Mura)
  • Made up of fewer workers
  • Made up of most skilled wokers (work load varies
    according to product mix).

20
Line Balancing
Mura is spread all over the line Operator
Stress Muda
Line Takt Average Operator Takt
Time (sec)
A B C
A B C
A B C
Operator 2
Operator 1
Operator 3
21
Line Balancing
  • Balance operations using the process graph
  • Workstation 1 P1M1P2M2 29 seg
  • Workstation 2 M3M4 28 seg
  • Workstation 3 M5M6 28 seg
  • Start on top of the graph (main component)
  • 1st operation is P1 because is the 1st
    subassembly to go into the main component
  • Use Balancing Charts with magnets (yamazumi
    chart), in case of many operations
  • Use Excell worksheets.

22
Workstation Design
23
20 Principles of Layout and Line Design
24
20 Principles of Layout and Line Design
25
20 Principles of Layout and Line Design
26
ADDVALUE Services
VALUE ADDED COACHING-VAC
BUSINESS COACHING
LIFE COACHING
Operation Excellence
Counselling
Team Excellence
Therapy
Adding Value In Totality !!
Business Excellence
Astrology
27
AddValue at a glance
Best Performing Consulting Organization
Business Coaching
Life Coaching
28
Thank You
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