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Conceptual Framework of Tourism

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Tourism Impacts - Conceptualization Dynamic: No. of people traveling to a destination, Static: No. of people staying at a destination, Consequential: A combination of dynamic & static where economic, physical & social subsystems come directly or indirectly in contact with the tourist. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conceptual Framework of Tourism


1
Conceptual Framework of Tourism
  • - Aritro Dasgupta

2
Tourism Impacts- Conceptualization
  • Dynamic No. of people traveling to a destination
  • Static No. of people staying at a destination
  • Consequential A combination of dynamic static
    where economic, physical social subsystems come
    directly or indirectly in contact with the
    tourist

3
Flow of Impacts
  • Impacts result from processes of change
  • Not a point event but a continuous process
  • Not necessarily immediate consequences but part
    of broader process of change which are unexpected
    difficult to predict
  • Changes may also be due to external
    uncontrollable factors like wars, natural
    disasters, political /economic causes etc.

4
Flow of Impacts
  • Expenditure of time money being discretionary,
    there are variations depending on individuals
    choice
  • Thus market gets fragmented

5
Dynamic Element
6
Components of Dynamic Element
  • Demand the actual requirement or willingness to
    embark upon tourism activities
  • Influencers of demand factors which influence
    the requirement willingness

7
Tourism Demand
  • Actual Demand the present, existing list of
    travelers
  • Potential Demand motivated to do so but unable
    to because of financial or other practical
    constraints
  • Deferred Demand will travel if motivated at a
    later date, but presently lack of awareness or
    knowledge of opportunities

8
Influencers of Tourism Demand
  • Changes in disposable income
  • Stress levels
  • Mobility
  • Level of Education
  • Growing Intermediaries

9
Influencers of Tourism Demand
  • Development of new tools
  • Coordination within tourist industry
  • Stimulation of demand by converting potential
    deferred demand to actual

10
Static Element
11
Components of Static Element
  • Carrying Capacity
  • Economic Capacity

12
Carrying Capacity
  • It is the maximum number of people who can use a
    site without an unacceptable alteration in the
    physical environment
  • No unacceptable decline in quality of experience
    for visitors
  • Limit beyond whose threshold, any change induced
    by tourist activity is primarily negative

13
Components of Carrying Capacity
  • Physical physical damage done to area beyond
    which recovery is improbable
  • Social irrevocable damage done to societys
    culture through spread of social contamination
    like usage of drugs, alcoholism etc.

14
Economic Capacity
  • Space available for various tourism related
    infrastructure development
  • Total capital available on land in given area for
    economic development

15
Influencers of Carrying Capacity
  • Tourist Characteristics
  • Destination Characteristics

16
Tourist Characteristics
  • Socio-economic characteristics of visitors- age,
    gender, income level, racial ethnic background
  • Visitor density- number of visitors in a given
    space, level of use
  • Length of stay
  • Types of tourist activity
  • Levels of tourist satisfaction

17
Destination Characteristics
  • Natural environmental features processes
  • Economic structure, development patterns of
    investment
  • Social structure, demographic profile of the host
    population, religious affiliations, attitudes
    values towards tourist
  • Political organization, political structure, host
    country destination
  • Level of tourism development- nature, diversity
    eating-out facilities

18
Consequential Element
19
Components of Consequential Demand
  • Economic Impacts monetary costs and benefits
    which result from the development and use of
    tourist facilities and services
  • Physical Impacts alteration to environmental
    capital i.e. soil, air, water etc.
  • Social Impact Changes in the lifestyle of local
    community trade-offs involved

20
Consequential Element- Carrying Capacity
  • Carrying capacity varies across all these three
    factors gives rise to conflicts. A tourist
    activity has positive economic and negative
    physical and social impacts e.g. A new resort in
    a backward area creates jobs. Less availability
    of water (shared with resort) and changing
    lifestyles (employees working in shifts)
    affecting social behavior

21
Tourist Buying Decision Characteristics
  • No tangible return virtually on the investment.
    (except business travel, where contracts are
    signed or opportunities explored)
  • Often substantial expenditure
  • Not spontaneous purchase, usually planned in
    advance, considerable financial implications.
  • Customers visit websites tourism marketing
    portals
  • Tourists travel extra mile to see something
    exotic

22
Steps in Decision Making Process
  • Felt need or travel desire
  • Information collection and evaluation
  • Travel agents advertising
  • Friends and relatives
  • Time and money available
  • Cost of various alternatives

23
Steps in Decision Making Process
  • Travel Decisions
  • Destination
  • Mode of travel
  • Type of accommodation
  • Activities
  • Travel Preparation bookings, funds organized,
    clothing and equipment decided
  • Travel satisfaction evaluation
  • expectation versus actual experience
  • influence subsequent travel decisions

24
Influencers of Tourism Decisions
  • Tourist profile
  • Travel awareness
  • Trip features
  • Destinations characteristics

25
Tourist Profile
  • Socio- economic characteristics
  • Behavioural characteristics

26
Socio Economic Characteristics
  • Age, education, income and previous experiences
    influence attitudes, perceptions and motivations
    and effect decisions.
  • Higher disposable incomes travelers prefer
    expensive hotels etc. vice-versa for lower
    income groups
  • Elderly people reluctant for mountain climbing
    other adventurous sports

27
Influencers of Behavioural Characteristics
  • Motivations
  • Attitudes
  • Needs

28
Motivations
  • Physical
  • Cultural
  • Personal
  • Prestige status

29
Motivations
  • Physical Motivations
  • Refreshment of body and mind
  • Pleasure, fun, romance, excitement
  • Health purposes (Medical or voluntary)
  • Cultural Motivations
  • Curiosity about people and places
  • Interest in art, music, architecture
  • Interest in historical places
  • Experience specific events (e.g Olympics)

30
Motivations
  • Prestige Status Motivations
  • Pursuit of hobbies
  • Continuation of education or learning
  • Business contacts and professional goal

31
Personal Motivations
  • Visiting friends and relatives
  • Meeting new people, friendship
  • Seek new and different experiences
  • Desire for a change
  • Personal excitement of traveling
  • Spiritual reasons (pilgrimage)
  • Travelling for travels sake

32
Travel Awareness
  • Formal sources (Magazines, travel brochures )
  • Informal sources (Relatives, friends or other
    travelers )
  • Image of potential destination

33
Trip Features
  • Distance
  • Duration of stay in single/multiple
  • Time constraints
  • Trip cost
  • Perceived risk and uncertainty

34
Destination Characteristics
  • Types of attraction
  • Availability and quality of services
  • Environmental conditions
  • Attributes of the host population
  • Practical barriers (customs, immigration,
    security)
  • Accessibility
  • Host attitudes

35
Cohens Classification
  • Organized Mass Tourist
  • Individual Mass Tourist
  • Explorer
  • Drifter

36
Organized Mass Tourist
  • Fixed itineraries
  • Planned and guided stops
  • Novelty minimum
  • Familiarity is at a maximum
  • Everything left to the organizer

37
Individual Mass Tourist
  • Not entirely planned by others
  • Some control over his / her itinerary
  • Major arrangements made through travel
    intermediary
  • Mixes little with members of the host community
  • Familiarity is still dominant

38
Explorer
  • Plan their own trips and try to avoid developed
    tourist attractions as much as possible
  • Novelty dominates but tourist does not become
    fully integrated with the host society

39
Drifter
  • Plan trips alone, visit tourist attractions and
    live with members of the host society
  • High involvement in the host culture, sharing its
    shelter, food and habits
  • Novelty dominant and familiarity disappears

40
Evaluation of Tourism Conceptualization
  • Impacts of tourism- outcome of complex array of
    phenomena
  • Comprises 2 sets of Frameworks

41
First Framework
  • Impacts of tourism are the result of interaction
    between tourists and the destination area and its
    population
  • Economic, physical and social sub-systems of the
    destinations area have carrying capacities
  • Magnitude and direction of tourist impact is
    determined by tolerance limits of each
  • Positive impacts are present until limits are
    exceeded when impacts become negative

42
Second Framework
  • Impacts of tourism are the consequences of
    tourist decisions
  • Impacts are dynamic, changing with corresponding
    changes in destination features, trip
    characteristics and the personal and behavioral
    attribute of tourists
  • Subsequent modules focus on a detailed
    examination of the consequences of tourist
    decisions on economic, physical and social
    sub-systems in destination areas

43
Thank You
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