Roles, Duties & Responsibilities of a Confined Space Attendant/Standby-man/Spotter(Emmanuel Essen Presentation) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Roles, Duties & Responsibilities of a Confined Space Attendant/Standby-man/Spotter(Emmanuel Essen Presentation)


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Title: Roles, Duties & Responsibilities of a Confined Space Attendant/Standby-man/Spotter(Emmanuel Essen Presentation)

Roles, Duties and Responsibilities of Stand-by
  • Presented
  • By
  • Emmanuel Essen
  • As Part Of The On-going Knowledge Sharing Amongst
    Maintenance Teams

  • Objectives
  • At the end of the presentation, the participants
    will know
  • Why this course is necessary.
  • Who is a Standby-man.
  • The definition and Characteristics of a confined
  • Examples of confined spaces.
  • Hazards in a confined space.
  • How to eliminate hazards in a confined space.
  • Major factors that lead to fatalities in a
    confined space.
  • Characteristics of a competent Standby-Man.
  • Roles, Duties and Responsibilities of a

Why Standby-man Training/Confined Space Training
Is Necessary. It has been
reported that, many workers are either injured or
killed each year in confined space incidents.
About 1.6 million people have been reported dead
working in a confined space and 60 of this
number are untrained would-be rescuers. To
reduce the number of incidents among the would-be
rescuers which standby-man (otherwise called
spotter/confined space attendant) form an
integral part, an accident prevention program in
the form of training should be implemented to
reduce the number of fatal incidents in confined
spaces. This measure is expected to reduce 85
of the annual deaths. Beside this, the training
will also improve Safety, Morale, Productivity,
Employee wellbeing and Reputation.
Who is a Standby-man Whenever a confined space
job is to be carried out, the team meets and
nominates another worker who is competent and
qualified to act as a Standby-man. This
Standby-man must be properly equipped to carry
out this duties and responsibilities at ease
without any hindrance as the fate of all the team
members rest on him. This standby man must
acquired the necessary training will qualified
him to work independently and during emergency
situation. Then, the question is, Who is a
  • Therefore, a Standby-man may be defined as a
    competent person who is
  • Assigned to remain on the outside and in closed
    proximity to a confined space.
  • Capable of being in continuous communication
    with and, if practicable, able to observe persons
    working inside the confined space.
  • Capable of operating monitoring equipment used
    to ensure safety during entry to and working in
    the confined space.
  • Capable of initiating emergency procedures
    (including rescue procedures). But the golden
    rule while working as a standby-man is,

  • The Definition and Characteristics of a confined
  • Confined space may be defined as
  • The space with limited/restricted opening for
    entry and exit.
  • The space which is not intended for continuous
    human occupancy or habitation.
  • The space which is large enough for personnel to
    enter and conduct work.
  • Graphically see next slide

Restricted entry or exit
Space is not intended for continuous human
Space is large enough for Personnel to enter and
conduct work
Is not a confined space
Is a confined space
  • Characteristics Of A Confined Space
  • The following are the characteristics of a
    confined space
  • It contains or could contain hazardous
    atmosphere e.g Sewer, Manhole, Gasoline storage
    tank etc.
  • It contains material that could engulf the
    person entering into the space e.g. Mole sieve
    vessel, Activated carbon filter vessel.
  • It has a inwardly converging wall or floor that
    slopes downward and taper to a small cross
  • It contains any other recognised safety hazard
    e.g. electrocution, loose objects.

Examples of confined spaces This includes Tanks,
sewers, pipes, boilers, manholes, silos, hoppers,
trenches etc.
  • Hazards In a Confined Space
  • Confined space may contain the following hazards
  • Hazardous atmosphere including insufficient
  • Toxic air (poisonous gas fumes).
  • Explosive atmosphere (flammable).
  • Physical hazards
  • Structural hazards, entanglement, slip, trip and
  • Other hazards include
  • Process related hazards such as residual
    chemicals, release of content of supply line.
  • Barrier failure resulting in flood or release of
    free flowing solids. Etc.

  • How to eliminate hazards in a confined space
  • In order to eliminate hazards in confine spaces,
    the following safety tips should be constantly
  • Ensure that, all personnel assigned to work in a
    confined space are trained.
  • Confirm isolations, LOTO.
  • Ensure that only trained Standby-man is used.
    Incompetent standby man is an hazard to all the
    team members in the confined space.
  • Ensure total compliance to permit to work and
  • Ensure that safe system of work is used.
  • Ensure proper use of PGM and that gas test was
    carried out.
  • Ensure that all intervention and rescue apparatus
    are readily available as specified.

  • Major Factors that lead to Fatal Injuries in
    Confined Spaces
  • Failure to recognize and control the hazards
    associated with the confined spaces.
  • Inadequate and inaccurate emergency response.
  • Characteristics of a Competent Standby-man
  • The following are the characteristics of a
    competent standby-man
  • He must attend HSE training.
  • He must be trained to work in a confined space.
    i.e has attended and passed Confined space
  • He must be trained to use breathing apparatus.
  • He must be trained as a standby-man.

  • Roles, Duties and Responsibilities of a
  • To carry out work in a confined space, work area
    should be barricaded and LMRA/JHA carried out by
    the team.
  • A trained standby-man should assumed the
    responsibility of evaluating all existing and
    potential hazards before confined space entry.
  • He should use the Personal Gas Monitor (PGM) to
    test for air quality and presence of other
    hazardous gases like CO2 and H2S. (testing must
    be done side to side, top to bottom and it should
    be done at interval).
  • Standby-man with the aid of the team members must
    check the direction of the wind(using the
    windsock) as this will determine the position of
    placing the PGM. The PGM must be placed at the
    downstream of the wind direction. (see the image
    of the wind sock next slide)

Wind sock
  • Standby-man must create LOG-SHEET (attached at
    the back page) to keep accurate record of the
    team members entering and exiting confined space
    with the time.
  • He must ensure that, only authorized persons are
    allowed into the confined space.
  • He must take possession of all the ID cards of
    team members entering the confined space.
  • He must maintain constant communication with the
    team members in a confined space through the use
    of radio, life-line etc.
  • A standby-man must visually observe or otherwise
    continuously monitor the wellbeing of the
    workers inside the space.
  • A standby-man must have the means of initiating
    emergency response in case of emergency situation
    by using MCP, emergency number 3999, area
    operator/supervisor etc.
  • There must be a continuous means of summoning the
    standby-man from the confined space.
  • He must continuously monitor the condition of the
    confined space and the outside.

  • Know the hazards that may be faced during entry
    (mode, signs, symptoms, and consequences of
  • He must know how to properly use all required
  • He must ensure that all safety apparatus as spelt
    out in the Permit to Work and JHA are available
    and in good usable condition.
  • The standby-man must not assumed, but know the
    exact position of the MCP before commencement of
  • A standby-man must continuously monitor status
    and alert entrants of need to evacuate if
    condition changes both outside and inside the
    confined space.
  • He must alert entrants whenever any warning sign
    or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation
    or a prohibited condition is detected.
  • He must order the entrants to evacuate if he
    detects a prohibited condition or if need arises,
    activate evacuation alarm.
  • He must properly informed the emergency rescue
    team and also assist them during rescue

  • Summary
  • Follow all safety procedures before entry into
    confined space.
  • If a permit and JHA are required, be sure to use
    and adhere strictly to it.
  • Confined spaces are to be demarcated with warning
    sign when work is carried out .
  • Confined space attendant should never enter
    confined space.
  • Always contact your entry supervisor when in doubt

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