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What is a Scientific Presentation ?

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Creating a presentation is not a hard task but to making it in a way that it looks like a Scientific Presentation need a proper knowledge and guidance. In this Presentation we will show you how to create a Scientific Presentations. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is a Scientific Presentation ?


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Scientific Presentation
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Todays Agenda
  • Aims of Scientific Presentation
  • Scientific Presentation Skills
  • Planning a presentation
  • Making oral presentation
  • Handling questions

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Aims of Scientific Presentation
Importance of scientific presentation
  • Important means of communicating scientific
    information
  • A straight and interactive way to make your
    scientific outcomes understood
  • A basic skill for graduate research and your
    further research career

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Aims of Scientific Presentation
Element 2 Element 2 Element 2 Element 2 Element 2
Title Presentation of Dissertation Proposal Presentation of Dissertation Proposal Presentation of Dissertation Proposal Presentation of Dissertation Proposal
Task details You are required to present your dissertation proposal and to defend your research approach. You will have 10 minutes to make a presentation to your supervisor. You should aim to have approximately 5-6 slides and leave 3 minutes for questions. An electronic copy of your slides must be submitted through Turn It In in Blackboard in PDF format by Friday of the week in which this element is due. You are required to present your dissertation proposal and to defend your research approach. You will have 10 minutes to make a presentation to your supervisor. You should aim to have approximately 5-6 slides and leave 3 minutes for questions. An electronic copy of your slides must be submitted through Turn It In in Blackboard in PDF format by Friday of the week in which this element is due. You are required to present your dissertation proposal and to defend your research approach. You will have 10 minutes to make a presentation to your supervisor. You should aim to have approximately 5-6 slides and leave 3 minutes for questions. An electronic copy of your slides must be submitted through Turn It In in Blackboard in PDF format by Friday of the week in which this element is due. You are required to present your dissertation proposal and to defend your research approach. You will have 10 minutes to make a presentation to your supervisor. You should aim to have approximately 5-6 slides and leave 3 minutes for questions. An electronic copy of your slides must be submitted through Turn It In in Blackboard in PDF format by Friday of the week in which this element is due.
Marking Guide Criteria Issues mark marking breakdown where appropriate
Marking Guide Quality of Presentation Quality of slides (5) Clarity and readability of information of slides (5) Structure and coherence of presentation (5) Ability to respond to questions and to defend proposal (5) 20 Quality of Presentation
Marking Guide Total 20
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  • Group discussion
  • What characterizes a good oral presentation
  • What characterizes a bad presentation

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Aims of Scientific Presentation
A good presentation
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Aims of Scientific Presentation
A good presentation
  • Audience can understand your work, be convinced
    and interested in your work, and inspired!
  • Content are well organized, clear, to the point
  • Good presentations reflect well on speaker!

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Aims of Scientific Presentation
A bad presentation
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Aims of Scientific Presentation
A bad presentation
  • Audience wont see your work is great
  • Slides are neither understandable nor easy to see
  • Not good impression on speaker

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Scientific Presentation Skills
Workflow of Presentation
Handle questions
Make presentation
Plan presentation
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Scientific Presentation Skills
  • Planning a presentation
  • Thinking about the aim
  • Developing presentation structure
  • Preparing presentation slides
  • Making oral presentation
  • Structuring presentation
  • Conducting presentation
  • Handling questions
  • Answering questions
  • Acting as opponent

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Planning a Presentation
Thinking about the aim first
Before preparing contents/slides of presentation,
always think about what is the aim of your
presentation
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Planning a Presentation
Ask yourself
  • What is the overall goal of my presentation?
  • To understand my research work
  • What is the title of my presentation?
  • Specific to my research work

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Planning a Presentation
Ask yourself
  • What are the main points /key messages I want to
    make to the audience?
  • 1, 2,3,
  • I, II, III,
  • a, b, c,
  • To which details ?
  • Include enough detail to make presentation
    understandable
  • Not including so much details which fails to fit
    within the time assigned

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Planning a Presentation
Ask yourself
  • What do I want the audience to do after listening
    to my presentation?
  • Comments / advice / suggestions to my research
  • Who, where, and when am I making the
    presentation?
  • Who is the audience? How many people will there
    be in the audience?
  • What are the benefits to the audience of my
    speech?
  • What do the audience know of the subject?
  • How does this change my approach?
  • What aspects will they be interested in?
  • Where will the presentation take place? Equipment
    do you need like laptop, data storage,
    whiteboard, projector, laser pointer, etc?
  • What time am I presenting? How long will be my
    speech?

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Planning a Presentation
Thinking about the aim
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Planning a Presentation
Developing presentation structure
  • What to say
  • In what order

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Planning a Presentation
Developing presentation structure
  • Title
  • Outline
  • Introduction/background
  • Arguments/motivations
  • Aim and objectives
  • Approach
  • Results
  • Conclusions
  • Future work

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  • Group discussion
  • What characterizes good presentation slides
  • How will you prepare presentation slides

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Planning a Presentation
Preparing presentation slides
Principles of slide design
  • Convey key information
  • Contain appropriate level of details
  • Be clear, concise, readable and understandable
  • Be interesting and avoid boring
  • Avoid over stimulation

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (1)
  • Layout
  • Try to use a consistent layout on all (or most)
    of your slides to make your presentations easier
    to understand
  • Placing heading at the same position
  • Use bullets and font sizes in a consistent way
  • Placing figures in relation to text in a
    consistent way

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (2)
  • Font size
  • Be noted that you are close to the projector
    while your audience is far from the screen - make
    sure the audience sitting at the rear can read
    clearly
  • Font should never be smaller than 18 points If
    the font size has reached less than 18 point, try
    to
  • Remove some of the text
  • Split up the text and put it on separate slides

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (3)
  • Use headings
  • Each slide has a short heading showing to which
    part of the presentation it belongs
  • Help audience to keep track of what aspect you
    are talking about at a particular moment

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (4)
  • Use short expressions
  • Do not put all the text, code, or explanation
    directly onto the slides
  • Use short expressions rather than sentences, but
    not be cryptic
  • Always explain shortened phrases on the slides

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (5)
  • Highlight/emphasis
  • If having a lot of text on a slide is unavoidable
    (e.g. showing quotes), highlight important words
    or concepts using color, boldface or underlining
  • Help audience to grasp the meaning quickly

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (6)
  • Use bullets well organized
  • Organize the levels of
  • Hierarchy do you think
  • You need to express
  • Your point
  • Use indentation and
  • Keep consistent across all slide
  • Decrease font size
  • With nested level of list

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (7)
  • Know slide boundaries
  • Audience cannot read text that runs off the side
    of the slides

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (8)
  • Color and contracts guidelines
  • White background, black text is clearest
  • Can use other dark text color
  • But be careful do not be distracting
  • Make sure to not use light-on-white or
    white-on-light
  • Do not using glaring colors
  • If not an art major, do not have to get fancy

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (9)
  • Numbering slides
  • Put a small slide number in the lower right hand
    corner of each slide
  • The number should be small and sufficiently close
    to the edge of the slide not be confused with the
    contents
  • Any one asking questions after your presentation
    can refer to the slide number in the question

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (10)
  • Use visuals
  • Graphs, charts, maps, drawings, models,
  • Images, photos, video, films, etc

Forms of visual
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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (10)
  • Use visuals
  • To illustrate points easier to understand in
    visual form but difficult in a verbal form -
    reinforce ideas and facilitate interpretation
  • To focus the audiences attention, involve and
    motivate the audience

Why use visualisation techniques
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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (10)
  • Use visuals
  • Graphs can also be enemy
  • Simplify graph and make audience easy to catch
  • Explain it - Pick a line, any line

Use graphs properly
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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (11)
  • Equations
  • Do you really need all those equations?
  • If you dont need them, do not use them complex
    equations make audience lost
  • If you do need them, keep it simple give a
    plain-text description of it. Do not get into too
    much details

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (12)
  • Results
  • Do not show lots of results
  • Give a simple description/summary of it. Do not
    get into too much details
  • Graphs are helpful

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Planning a Presentation
Guidelines for making slides (13)
  • Notes/manuscripts
  • Write down what you are going to say will
  • help practicing
  • Avoid losing points
  • Mainly used for practicing before presentation
    rather than during presentation

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Planning a Presentation
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Making Oral Presentation
Structuring your presentation (1)
  • A typical presentation has three parts
  • The beginning (Introduction)
  • The middle (body)
  • The end (conclusion)

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Making Oral Presentation
Structuring your presentation (2)
  • The Beginning
  • Get the audiences attention or signal the
    beginning
  • Greet audience
  • Introduce yourself

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Making Oral Presentation
Structuring your presentation (3)
  • The Beginning (contd)
  • Give title and introduce subject
  • Give your objectives (purpose, aim, goal)
  • Announce your outline
  • Make a transition between the introduction and
    the body

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Making Oral Presentation
Structuring your presentation (4)
  • The Middle
  • Sequencing your ideas
  • Keeping audiences attention
  • Signposting or signaling where you are
  • Linking ideas, sections/making transitions

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Making Oral Presentation
Structuring your presentation (5)
  • The End
  • Brief summary of what you have talked
  • A short conclusion
  • Thanks to audience for listening
  • A invitation to ask questions, make comments or
    open a discussion

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  • Group discussion
  • What skills are important in making presentation?

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (1)
  • Your attitude
  • Are you interested and confident about your
    topic?
  • If no, get another one
  • If you, act like it
  • If you are not excited, you cannot expect
    audience to be.
  • Do not talk down to audience
  • You know more than them about this topic
  • They know more than you about other stuff
  • Practice makes perfect
  • Rehearse in front of other people and seek
    feedback

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (2)
  • Creating interest and establishing a relationship
    with audience
  • Arouse listeners interest from the beginning.
    E.g., In the introduction show how your subject
    affects or may affect their lives
  • Other techniques are
  • Give an unusual fact or statistic
  • Use words like you, we, us, our
  • Illustrate with a real life story
  • Ask audience to do something, e.g. raise your
    hand if you know
  • Ask audience direct or rhetorical questions
  • Speaker should be lively and enthusiastic
  • Use a variety of media sources

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (3)
  • Talk to the audience and avoid dead man talking
  • Avoid talking to the floor, to the wall or to the
    screen
  • Avoid hiding behind the podium
  • Avoid back to the audience
  • Avoid staring at anyone
  • Avoid hand/face motionless

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (4)
  • Show the slides properly
  • Avoid showing a slide for just one or two second
    before going on to the next slide
  • Audience are new to your talk, give people
    sufficient time to grasp the information

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (5)
  • Explain things
  • Do not expect the audience to find out things for
    themselves by reading the slide
  • Avoid reading word by word from slides, and do
    not treat slides as part of manuscripts
  • Make your presentation more explanatory and
    clearly explain each slide what it shows
  • Give more explanations on visuals like graphs,
    tables, etc

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (5)
  • Explain things
  • Being precise in what you say helps the audience
    understand it quickly
  • Being concise is to use the briefest possible way
    of expressing you message, without losing any
    clarity

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (6)
  • Body language
  • Eye contact, facial expressions, posture,
    movements, gestures.
  • A nature part of communication
  • to clarify meaning it is very visual
  • to vent nervousness
  • to maintain interest
  • to emphasize and regulate

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (6)
  • Body language (Contd)
  • Constant eye contact to keep audiences attention
  • Natural and friendly facial expressions and
    smile!
  • Posture stand straight but relaxed
  • Movement and gesture to indicate a change of
    focus, keep audiences attention

Positive body language
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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (6)
  • Body language (Contd)
  • Loss of eye contact looking at notes, screen,
    board, floor.
  • Stare, or look blankly into peoples eyes
  • Nervous ticks
  • Movement slouch or lean, block the screen,
    swaying back and forth like a pendulum, a set of
    moves that repeat during talk
  • Gesture hands in pocket, point at laptop screen
    (audience cannot see it)

Negative body language
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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (7)
  • Use a pointing device or stick
  • Find out how the device works before your talk
  • Point to where you are explaining
  • Do not point at everything in the screen

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Making Oral Presentation
Guideline for conducting presentation (8)
  • Keep an eye on time
  • Use your allocated time well
  • Practice before presentation to ensure you can
    deliver the talk on time
  • Monitor the tempo
  • Do not talk too fast or too slow
  • Vary temp or voice to emphasize certain things

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Handling Questions
Answering questions
  • Be as clear as possible in your replies
  • Clarify the question if necessary
  • Do not try to avoid answering the question
  • Preparing for the defence

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
The role of opponent
  • Asking critical questions to
  • Judge whether presenter can defend the work
  • Test whether the work is solid and can withstand
    critical examination

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Problem statement
  • Has the author explained the problem that is to
    be investigated in a clear and understandable
    way?
  • Has the author provided convincing arguments for
    the need to investigate this problem?
  • Has the author provided convincing arguments that
    conducting the investigation will lead to the
    possibility of obtaining a solution, or
    increasing our understanding of the problem
    domain?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Aims and objectives
  • Has the author identified a specific aim to be
    achieved in the project?
  • Is the identified aim explained in a clear and
    understandable way?
  • Has the author derived a list of specific
    objectives from the aim?
  • Are the objectives presented in a clear and
    structured way?
  • Do the objectives support the aim, i.e. will
    fulfilling all the objectives lead to the aim
    being achieved?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Method
  • Has the author clearly identified and explained
    the methods that could potentially be used in the
    investigation?
  • Has the author provided an insightful discussion
    of advantages and disadvantages of each potential
    method for the investigation?
  • Has the author clearly stated which method (or
    methods) was selected for the investigation?
  • Has the author provided convincing arguments for
    the selected method(s)?
  • Has the author described clearly how the selected
    method(s) will be applied?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Data
  • Has the author presented the collected data in a
    clear, understandable, systematic and correct
    way?
  • Is the collected data sufficient, given the
    stated aims and objectives of the project?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Analysis
  • Has the author made a thorough and systematic
    analysis of the data obtained?
  • Is the analysis described in a clear and
    understandable way?
  • If the data are quantitative, has the author
    applied significance tests or other numerical
    evaluation techniques in a relevant and correct
    way?
  • Has the author evaluated the stated aims and
    objectives in the light of the data obtained?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Conclusions
  • Has the author provided conclusions that are
    relevant, given the stated aims and objectives?
  • If the work contains one or more hypotheses, does
    the author draw conclusions about whether these
    hypotheses are supported or falsified by the
    results?
  • Has the author provided valid arguments for the
    stated conclusions?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Discussion and future work
  • Has the author discussed the work in an
    insightful way, and thereby placed the work into
    a wider context?
  • Has the author identified relevant and plausible
    continuations of the work?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Overall assessment
  • Were the objectives of the project fulfilled?
  • Was the aim of the project reached?
  • Has the project furthered our understanding of
    the problem investigated?
  • Will this work be useful in the future?
  • Is the report well structured and understandable?
  • Is the report well written?

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Handling Questions
Acting as opponent
Questions you might ask
  • Additional questions
  • Does the author have a critical viewpoint, i.e.
    have sources used in the work been critically
    evaluated by the author?
  • Have terms of importance to the report been
    clearly defined?
  • Is the use of terms and definitions consistent
    throughout the report?
  • Is it clear when something is the authors own
    work, and when it is someone elses work?

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