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Chemotherapy side effects on the Body

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Title: Chemotherapy side effects on the Body


1
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a category of cancer treatment
that uses chemical substances, especially one or
more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents)
that are given as part of a standardized
chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given
with a curative intent, or it may aim to prolong
life or to reduce symptoms (palliative
chemotherapy). Along with hormonal therapy and
targeted therapy, it is one of the major
categories of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy
for cancer). These modalities are often used in
conjunction with other cancer treatments, such as
radiation therapy, surgery, and/or hyperthermia
therapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are also used to
treat other conditions, including AL amyloidosis,
ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis,
Crohn's disease, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis,
systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid
arthritis, and scleroderma.
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2
Chemotherapy in the Body
Chemotherapy Side Effects on the Body
Cancer cells divide more quickly than healthy
cells, and chemotherapy drugs effectively target
those cells. Unfortunately, fast-growing cells
that are healthy can be damaged too. There are
many different chemotherapy drugs with the
potential for many different side effects. These
effects vary from person to person and from
treatment to treatment.
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3
Chemotherapy in the Body
Chemotherapy in the Body
Chemotherapy can interfere with the body's
ability to Produce Healthy Blood platelets,
redblood cells and white blood cells. Low blood
cells, Low blood counts can lead to a variety of
serious side effects.
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4
Chemotherapy in the Body
Chemotherapy and the Heart
Chemotherapy can weaken the heart muscle,
especially in someone who has a preexisting heart
condition. Chemotherapy side effects may increase
the risk of heart disease, including weakening of
the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and rhythm
disturbances (arrhythmias). Certain types of
chemotherapy also may increase the risk of heart
attack. Treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors
and certain other targeted medications has been
linked to high blood pressure (hypertension).
Fortunately, heart disease associated with
chemotherapy is rare and not all chemotherapy
drugs carry the potential side effect of heart
damage.
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5
Chemotherapy in the Body
Digestive Distress
Cancer drugs can have various effects on your
digestive system. Some drugs can affect your
appetite, or cause diarrhoea or constipation.
Some of them may make you more likely to have
heartburn (indigestion). Other digestive issues
include loose stools or diarrhea. In some people,
hard stools and constipation can be a problem.
This may be accompanied by pressure, bloating,
and gas. Take care to avoid dehydration by
drinking plenty of water throughout the day.Side
effects involving the digestive system can
contribute to loss of appetite and feeling full
even though you havent eaten much. Weight loss
and general weakness are common. Despite all
this, its important to continue eating healthy
foods.
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6
Balding
Chemotherapy in the Body
The Signature Side Effects
Its not cancer that causes baldheadedness is
cancer patients. Its the Chemotherapy. Some forms
of chemo damage the hair follicles, so you might
lose all your body hair. hair loss (alopecia) due
to chemotherapy is one of the most distressing
side effects of chemo treatments. Hair loss
happens because the chemotherapy affects all
cells in the body, not just the cancer cells.
The lining of the mouth, stomach, and the hair
follicles are especially sensitive because those
cells multiply rapidly just like the cancer
cells. The difference is that the normal cells
will repair themselves, making these side effects
temporary. Hair loss can be sudden or slow.
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7
Chemo's Long-Term Effect on Bones
A Long Term side effect of Chemotherapy is cancer
related osteoporosis. Cancer survivors who
received chemotherapy, steroid medications, or
hormonal therapy, particularly those who are not
physically active, may develop thinning of the
bones (osteoporosis) or joint pain. Early
menopause can also affect bone health. Menopause
can cause a loss of bone density (osteopenia or
osteoporosis). And, some women who go through
menopause have muscle or joint aches.
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8
Anxiety and Depression
Chemotherapy and Its side effects add to the
stresses of everyday life and can become
overwhelming. Complementary therapies and support
groups can lighten the load. Depression may also
be known as sadness, feeling "down," despair, or
hopelessness. Depression and its side effects
affect both men and women.
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9
Chemo in the kidneys
The kidneys work to excrete the powerful
chemotherapy drugs as they move through your
body. In the process, some kidney and bladder
cells can become irritated or damaged. Symptoms
of kidney damage include decreased urination,
swelling of the hands and feet (edema), and
headache. Symptoms of bladder irritation include
a feeling of burning when urinating and increased
urinary frequency. Some chemotherapy drugs can
damage the kidneys (nephrotoxicity). The kidneys
break down and remove many chemotherapy drugs
from the body. When chemotherapy drugs break
down, they make products that can damage cells in
the kidneys, ureters and bladder. The potential
for kidney damage varies with the type of
chemotherapy drug used.
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10
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