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Organization culture and quality

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1.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN THE FOLLOWING QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2.THE NATURE OF WORK ATTITUDES 3.THE NATURE OF MOODS AND EMOTIONS 4.THE WORK SITUATION 5.ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 6.TERMINAL VALUE 7. INSTRUMENTAL VALUE 8.ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organization culture and quality


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Quality In Unrest
  • Organization Culture Quality Concept-Overview

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Contents
1.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN THE FOLLOWING QUALITY
MANAGEMENT 2.THE NATURE OF WORK ATTITUDES
3.THE NATURE OF MOODS AND EMOTIONS 4.THE WORK
SITUATION 5.Organizational Citizenship Behavior
6.Terminal value 7. Instrumental
value 8.Organisational climate
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1.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN THE FOLLOWING QUALITY
MANAGEMENT6 Frederick Winslow Taylor who is
credited as the founder of scientific
management They were treated as work gangs, not
as individuals. Management's role was to plan and
give orders, and the worker's role was to execute
the plans set by management (Person, 1912). Refer
the Fig.SM.1 Scienfic management,1 As the
decades passed, Taylor's vision2 of the perfect
factory soured in practice. Workers became
increasingly unwilling to put forth their best
efforts, knowing that they were not part of the
decision-making process. Bosses became more
reluctant to visit the factory floor to find out
what was really happening, and they became less
interested in finding out what their customers
wanted.
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Administrative management emphasized the best way
to do a job based on the belief that monetary
incentive is the motivation. Fayol (1949)
proposed fourteen management principles and
identified Planning, Organizing, Commanding,
Coordinating and Controlling as the five elements
of management. Weber (1947) proposed the
organization structure for technical
efficiency. The next management school to evolve
was Human Relations, which was popular from 1930
to the early 1950s (Wren, 1979). The writers in
this school expanded on the classical school of
management to include social aspects of human
behavior in the work environment using scientific
procedures. This need for social skills in
addition to the technical skills emphasized by
the classical school added a new dimension to
management. The Modern Management era started
during World War II and encompassed Management
Science and Behavior Science. Management science
is characterized by the use of mathematical
models and computers in decision making. The
Behavioral Science approach to the study of
management involved the scientific study of
observable and verifiable human behavior in
organizations, drawing significantly from the
literature of psychology, sociology and
anthropology. It studied the needs of people in
organizations and provided motivation theories
that are applicable today. Behavior science is
largely inductive and problem centered (Filley
and House, 1969). Key contributors to behavior
science include Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow,
Frederick Herzberg and Chris Argyris. The
following tables for understanding the Quality
management.
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Work Design Example for Behaviour science Figure
WD-1, Figure WD-2
Figure WD-1,Example of High and Low Job
characteristics 3
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Figure WD-2, The job Characteristics Model 3
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  • 2.THE NATURE OF WORK ATTITUDES
  • Work attitudes 4 are collections of feelings,
    beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that
    people currently hold about their jobs and
    organizations. Work attitudes are more specific
    than values and not as long lasting because the
    way people experience their jobs often changes
    over time. For example, a persons work situation
    might be altered due to a job transfer or being
    given or denied a promotion. As a result, his or
    her work attitudes might change, too. Values, in
    contrast, can and often do remain constant from
    job to job and organization to organization. Two
    work attitudes that have especially important
    implications for organizational behavior are job
    Satisfaction and organizational commitment.
  • Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings
    and beliefs that people have about their current
    jobs. Peoples levels or degrees of job
    satisfaction can range from extreme satisfaction
    to extreme dissatisfaction. ....... In addition
    to having attitudes about their jobs as a whole,
    people also can have attitudes about various
    aspects of their jobs such as the kind of work
    they do their coworkers, supervisors, or
    subordinates and their pay.
  • 3.THE NATURE OF MOODS AND EMOTIONS
  • ........... moods can change from hour to hour,
    day to day, and sometimes minute to minute. Think
    about how your own moods have varied since you
    woke up today or about how your moods today
    differ from how you felt yesterday. Then you will
    have some idea about the fluctuating nature of
    work moods.
  •  
  • 4.THE WORK SITUATION............Sometimes people
    are dissatisfied with their jobs because of real
    problems in the workplace. Perhaps they are
    overloaded with responsibilities. Or perhaps they
    are required to use inefficient processes and
    procedures, lack the autonomy to expediently
    solve problems or institute more efficient and
    effective ways of doing things, or feel
    frustrated that their organization is not taking
    a more proactive approach to seizing
    opportunities.
  •  

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When employees voluntarily help each other out on the job, they are engaging in organizational citizenship behavior.
5.Organizational Citizenship Behavior Although
job satisfaction4 is not related to job
performance, new research suggests it is related
to work behaviors that are of a more voluntary
nature and not specifically required of
employees. Organizational citizenship behavior
(OCB) is behavior above and beyond the call of
duty that is, behavior not required of
organizational members but nonetheless necessary
for organizational survival and effectiveness.
Examples of OCB include helping coworkers
protecting the organization from fire, theft,
vandalism, and other misfortunes making
constructive suggestions developing ones skills
and capabilities and spreading goodwill in the
larger community. These behaviors are seldom
required of organizational members, but they are
important in all organizations.
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Helping coworkers is 4an especially important
form of OCB when it comes to computing in the
workplace and learning new information
technologies. Employees have considerable
discretion over whether or not they engage in
acts of organizational citizenship behavior. Most
employees job descriptions do not require them
to come up with innovative suggestions to improve
the functioning of their departments.
Nevertheless, employees often make valuable
innovative suggestions, and it may be that
employees most satisfied with their jobs are most
likely to do so. Once again, because these
behaviors are voluntarythat is, there are no
strong situational pressures to perform themit
is likely they are influenced by attitudes such
as job satisfaction. As we saw earlier, work
moods are also likely to have some impact on
these behaviors. Employees in positive moods are
especially likely to perform forms of OCB such as
helping customers or suggesting new ideas. OCB
concerns the 5voluntary behavior of employees
towards the benefit t of the organization in
excess of the requirements of both the contract
of employment specifications and the norms of
behavior of similar employees (Organ, 1988) the
employees of the organization go the extra mile
(for the organization's benefi t). For such
behavior to occur, employees must feel committed
to the organization, which results from their own
disposition and their perception of how the
organization (and its superiors) treats them.
Thus, adopting the perspective that an
organization has a personality and behavior
separate from its members (Wayne, Shore and
Linden, 1997), it is appropriate to examine the
reciprocations in the relationship between
employees and the organization.
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How Is an Organizations Culture Transmitted to
Its Members? 4 The ability of an organizations
culture to motivate employees is directly related
to the way in which members learn the
organizations values and norms. They learn
pivotal values and norms from an organizations
formal socialization practices, and from the
signs, symbols, stories, rites, ceremonies, and
organizational language that develop informally
as an organizations culture matures.(Fig.WD-4).
A terminal value is a desired end state or
outcome that people seek to achieve.
Organizations might adopt any of the following as
terminal values, or guiding principles quality,
responsibility, innovativeness, excellence,
economy,morality, and profitability. An
instrumental value is a desired mode or type of
behavior. Modes of behavior that organizations
advocate include working hard, respecting
traditions and authority, being conservative and
cautious, being frugal, being creative and
courageous, being honest, taking risks, and
maintaining high standards. An organizations
culture thus consists of the end states that the
organization seeks to achieve (its terminal
values) and the modes of behavior the
organization encou rages (its instrumental
values). Ideally, instrumental values help the
organization achieve its terminal values.
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For example, computer companies like HP and
Microsoft whose cultures emphasize the terminal
value of being innovative strive to attain this
outcome by encouraging employees to adopt
instrumental values such as working hard, being
creative, and taking risks. That right
combination of terminal and instrumental values
may create an entrepreneurial cultureone in
which employees are challenged to take risks or
go out on a limb to test their ideas.
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  • 8.Organisational climate
  • Organizational climate is 5 based on the
    perceptions of members towards the organization.
    Organizational climate operates between
    organizational culture and organizational
    behaviour and so, may change more quickly than
    organizational culture, but far less rapidly than
    organizational behavior.
  • Victor and Cullen (1988) discuss organizational
    climate at two levels. The first level is
    aggregate perceptions of organizational
    conventions concerning forms of structure and
    procedures for rewards and control (perceptions
    of practices and procedures Schneider, 1975).
    The second level is aggregate perceptions of
    organizational norms concerning warmth towards
    and support for peers and subordinates
    (organizational values Denison, 1996 Ashforth,
    1985).
  • Organizational Climate is a relatively enduring
    quality of the internal environment of an
    organization that (a) is experienced by its
    members, (b) influences their behavior, and (c)
    can be described in terms of the values of a
    particular set of characteristics (or attributes)
    of the organization. (Tagiuri and Litwin, 1968
    27). Thus, the climate of an organization
    distinguishes it from other, similar
    organizations. As shared experience of members of
    an organization, it reflects their perceptions
    about autonomy, trust, cohesion, fairness,
    recognition, support, and innovation and so leads
    to the members of the organization having shared
    knowledge and meanings. Organizations' climates
    are important contributors to homogeneity amongst
    members.
  •  

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1 QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PRACTICES, Edited by
Kim-Soon Ng, Published by InTech, Janeza Trdine
9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia 2 Total Quality
Management Proceedings of the first world
congress Edited by Gopal K. Kanji 3 Essentials
of Organizational Behavier ,7th edition by
Stephen P.Robbins 4 Understanding and Managing
Organizational Behavior, SIXTH EDITION, Jennifer
M. George Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of
Business Rice University Gareth R. Jones Mays
Business School Texas A M University 5
Constructi on Supply Chain Management Concepts
and Case Studies , Edited by Stephen Pryke,Senior
Lecturer in Constructi on and Project Management
Bartlett School of Graduate
Studies,University College London,A John Wiley
Sons, Ltd., Publication 6 http//core.kmi.open.
ac.uk/download/pdf/14343394.pdf
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-END-
Thanking You
M.Karikalan
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