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Title: NIGERIA FOREIGN POLICY


1
NIGERIA
  • GROUP 10
  • Elizabeth Neema Mkerenga
  • Elizabeth Nthambi Ongaro
  • Charity Kawira Kemama
  • Austin Kalimanjira

2
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3
NIGERIA
  • The country is located in West Africa and shares
    land borders with the Republic of Benin in the
    west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in
    the north. Its coast in the south lies on Gulf of
    Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. There are over 500
    ethnic groups in Nigeria, of which the three
    largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba.
  • Title Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Capital City Abuja
  • Government
  • President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan
  • V.P Namandi Sambo

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5
HISTORY
  • 1st October, 1960 Nigeria gains its independence.
  • Prior to this, Nigeria was divides into 4 empires
  • The Northern Empire
  • The Calabar Kingdom
  • The Oduduwa Empire
  • The Benin Empire
  • These empires formed the 3 major ethnic division
    in Nigeria today- the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba
    people.
  • Elements
  • Natural resources Oil and Natural Gas
  • Largest population in Africa (170 M est. 2014)
  • Geographic positioning coastline advantage
  • Leadership

6
HISTORY
  • In 1963, Nigeria becomes a Republic.
  • Nnamdi Azikiwe first President of Nigeria
  • 1965, tension and violence in the western region
    is triggered by the elections
  • 1966, the Nigerian army staged its first coup.
  • General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, overthrew the
    central and regional governments,
  • killed the prime minister,
  • took control of the government, and got rid of
    the federal system of government to replace it
    with a central government with many Ibos as
    advisors.
  • This caused a lot of riots and a lot of Ibos were
    killed in the process.
  • In July of the same year, a group of northern
    army officers revolted against the government (it
    seems this started a long history of military
    coups), killed General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, and
    appointed the army chief of staff, General Yakubu
    Gowon as the head of the new military government.

7
BIAFRA CIVIL WAR (1967-1970)
  • In 1967, Gowon moved to split the existing 4
    regions of Nigeria into 12 states.
  • However, the military governor of the Eastern
    Region (Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu)
    refused to accept the division of the Eastern
    Region, and declared the Eastern Region an
    independent republic called Biafra. This led to a
    civil war between Biafra and the remainder of
    Nigeria. The war started in June 1967, and
    continued until Biafra surrendered on January 15,
    1970 after over 1 million people had died.
  • There have been continued disputes in Nigeria due
    to land, ethnic differences, religious
    differences. For example, in 1992 there were
    major clashes in the north between Christians and
    Muslims, and over 3000 people were killed in the
    clashes.

8
MOVEMENT FOR THE SURVIVAL OF OGONI PEOPLE (MOSOP)
  • In 1993, 300,000 Ogoni marched peacefully to
    demand a share in oil revenues and some form of
    political autonomy.
  • They asked the oil companies to begin
    environmental remediation and pay compensation
    for past damage.
  • They were a minority and felt that they were not
    being given their human rights, and they were
    being tortured just so the country could make
    money off the oil that was on their land.
  • Once Abacha took over the government, in November
    of 1993, Ken Saro-Wiwa (Leader of MOSOP) amongest
    other leaders were imprisoned and later executed.
    Even after urges from international organization
    to spare the lives of these environmental
    activists.
  • As a result, Nigeria was suspended from the
    Commonwealth almost immediately, and sanctions
    were placed against the country, including oil
    sanctions, which accounted for over 90 of the
    nation's exports. Also, Shell had to halt it's
    operations in Ogoni territory.

9
TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY
  • The idea by Atiku Abubakar (1998) was to return
    the country to democracy .
  • Steps taken
  • Releasing prisoners
  • Ensure economic growth
  • Fights against corruption
  • With the benefit of a doubt
  • Sanction were uplifted
  • Reinstatement to Commonwealth
  • Improved international relations
  • 2 M to aid transition by the US

10
NIGERIAS FOREIGN POLICY
  • After independence, Nigeria sought to pursue its
    F.P. of leadership on behalf of the African
    continent
  • For a decade since independence, FP has been
    dictated by the rule of military governments.
  • Thus, NFP greatly influenced by its internal
    leadership and the external global environment
  • Today, Nigeria considered one of Africas
    strongest economies

11
MEMBERSHIP to IOs
  • United Nations- On the 7th October, 1960, Nigeria
    was admitted to the United Nations as the 99th
    member. Earliest act to the UN was to furnish
    troops for the peacekeeping operating in Zaire
    and later on the main thrust of Nigeria's
    activism on the world stage was to eradicate
    apartheid and racism from Africa.
  • African Union (AU)
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • The World Bank (WB)
  • The Economic Community of West African States
    (ECOWAS)
  • Organization for the Petroleum Exporting
    Countries(OPEC)
  • The New Economic Partnership for African
    Development (NEPAD)
  • African Development Bank (ADB) Group

12
REGIONAL INTEGRATION
  • The West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)
  • The West African Monetary Institute (WAMI)
  • The West African Monetary Agency (WAMA)
  • The West African Institute for Financial
     Economic Management (WAIFEM) 

13
N.F.P INTERNAL FACTORS
14
LEADERSHIP AND FOREIGN POLICY
  • The first republic was a parliamentary system and
    the prime minister had a great impact to pursue
    foreign policy within constraints of federal
    legislature. The countrys conservative policies
    were influenced by Tafawa Balewa and Alhaji
    Ahmadu Bella who were both Muslims and supported
    close relations with the west especially Britain.
    They were both assassinated in 1966 in Nigerias
    first military coup.
  • The second republic being the Obasanjo
    government, the legislative body has little power
    over decisions. In Nigeria many actors are
    involved in development and implementation of the
    countrys example during the second republic
    President Alhaji Shehu Shagari left much of
    foreign policy making to others.
  • External affairs ministry plays a role in shaping
    and implementing foreign policy objectives.
    According to Ibrahim Gambari who was the former
    external affairs minister and Nigerian ambassador
    to UN stated that when he served in government
    critical decisions were made by military
    government itself therefore the ministry was not
    a key player in formulating foreign policy.

15
INTEREST GROUPS AND LOBBIES
  • Agencies also helped formulating foreign policy.
    They include Nigerian institute for
    International affairs, Nigerian institute for
    policy and strategic studies and Nigerian
    institute for social and economic research.
    Opinions of elite also shaped the policies e.g.
    Kaduna Mafia. These include Media, Trade unions,
    NGOs who are very active in this. Religion and
    ethnicity also have an impact on Nigerian Foreign
    policy example relations with Israel and Arab
    states. Nigeria is a complicated mosaic of
    several distinct ethnic groups which include
    political parties and interest groups. Ethnic
    politics also has been complicated by role of
    minority groups who felt excluded from the
    Nigerian state.
  • Value of national currency which is the Naira is
    of benefit to the internal elites who benefit
    from its higher exchange rate. Politics and
    external economic conditions can also influence
    these rates.
  • Petroleum is the key influence of Nigerias
    foreign policy. Misappropriation of petroleum
    revenues over the past three decades has left the
    country in a weaker foreign policy position. As
    Gambari states, The management of petroleum
    resources has been so inept and the oil boom is
    becoming the countrys economic and social doom.

16
N.F.P EXTERNAL FACTORS
17
GLOBALIZATION
  • Nigerians are seen to share similarities with
    Italians natural swagger (Maier, 2002).
  • Throughout 1980s Nigeria had good relations with
    the international community. Margaret Thatcher's
    visit 1988 thereafter led to World Bank holding
    Nigeria as a model for economic reform in Africa.
  • In the turn of the century Nigeria's constitution
    reflects the American style i.e. devolution.

18
U.N. INVOLVEMENT
  • Within the United Nations (U.N.) Nigeria acts
    through six committees
  • Disarmament and International Security
  • Economic and Financial Committee
  • Social Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs
  • Special Political and Decolonization Committee
  • Administrative and Budget
  • Legal Committee

19
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • Member of the G77 133 members of developing
    states for economic interest. Joined in 2000.
    Aligned with the G24, an intergovernmental group
    of twenty four on international monetary affairs
    and development.
  • Member of the African Union unanimity within the
    continent in line with socio-economic
    integration.
  • Member of ECOWAS the Economic Community of
    Western African States promoting economic
    integration.

20
ALLIANCES (Economic)
  • Contributed 20 million to post Apartheid to
    South West Africa Peoples Organization in 1989.
  • Financial and Military support for liberation
    movement in Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique,
    Zimbabwe and South Africa.
  • Part of the Monetary zone with Gambia, Ghana,
    Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone within ECOWAS
    aiming at creating a common currency in West
    Africa by 2015 i.e. the ECO.

21
ALLIANCES (Military)
  • Involved in mediation talks including crisis
    between Liberia and Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso
    and Mali, and Togo and Ghana.
  • In liaison with the United Nations Department of
    Peace Keeping Operations (UNDPKO) deployed 12,000
    personnel to Namibia, Angola, Rwanda, Somalia,
    Sierra Leone and Liberia throughout the 1960s.
  • From 1996-1999 as part of the Economic Community
    of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG)
    deployed 13,000 troops to Sierra Leone in 1998.
    Ceasefire led to the signing of the Lome Peace
    Agreement in July 1999.
  • Signed the treaty of Pelindaba also known as the
    African Nuclear Weapon-Free Treaty on July 1st
    2009.
  • Good Luck Jonathan and Shiman Peres joined hands
    in the war against terror in November 2013.

22
GEOPOLITICS
  • Worlds 6th largest oil producer.
  • Illegal fuel trade across the border into Chad,
    Niger, Benin and Cameroon.
  • Approximated 50 of Nigeria's 2 million barrels
    of oil a day in production are exported to
    America, 25 to the rest of the world and 400,000
    used as domestic consumption.
  • Julius Berger , German based construction
    company, virtually built Abuja through
    multimillion contracts.
  • August 1990 through to February 1991 several
    billions of dollars worth of oil revenue earned
    from sudden rise in prices during the Gulf War
    with Americas attack on Iraq went missing.

23
GEOPOLITICS OF OIL
  • Babangida ruled a government of the contractors,
    by the contractors, for the contractors( as
    cited in Maier, 2000).
  • Nigeria seemed to be becoming a model of non
    productive economy addicted to petrodollars,
    ruled by a coterie of army officers and
    bureaucrats growing fat on contract kickbacks and
    siphoning off the oil revenues (as cited in
    Maier, 2000).

24
COLD WAR
  • Emphasis on West African region reign in a form
    of sub regional political and economic hegemony.
  • ECOWAS
  • Active support for liberation movements within
    Africa predominantly financially based.
  • Apartheid movements
  • Angolan/Zimbabwean decolonization
  • Maintain the alliances with western states
    primarily on the economic front.
  • Core trading partners for oil gas are western
    MNCs
  • IMF WB
  • Keep subtle relations with the socialists despite
    their policy of supposed non-alignment.
  • Trade with socialist bloc
  • Great endorsement in supporting the work of
    International Organizations.
  • Chair for UNSC
  • Peacekeeping operations

25
POST COLD WAR
  • The 1990s were seen as years of missed
    opportunities for foreign policy reforms for the
    state with the aim of maintaining a hegemonic
    rule in West Africa.
  • Under the military rule of General Ibrahim
    Babangida (85-93) and General Sani Abacha
    (93-98) promised openness and democratization
    were mere far fetched promises as manipulation
    and corruption still overpowered the state.
  • Hostile reaction to Nigeria's switch to
    democratic rule after Babangidas re-election in
    1993. Coup d'état on November 17 put Abacha in
    power to abolish the democratization of Nigeria.
  • By 1998 Nigeria was in a political limbo with
    embezzled funds and struggling oil battles
    tainting its foreign policy.

26
Olusegun Obasanjo
  • Served in the Nigerian army from 1958.
  • Served as an army general from 1976 to 1979.
  • Served as the 3rd chair of the Commonwealth
    Nations from 2003 to 2005.
  • Served as the President of Nigeria from 1999 to
    2007.
  • Part of the Peoples Democratic Party.
  • Sought to salvage Nigeria's economy via foreign
    relations through organizations such as NEPAD
    (New Partnership for Africas Development).

27
Umaru Mua YarAdua
  • Served as governor of Katsina state from 1999 to
    2007.
  • Served as the President of Nigeria from 2007 to
    2010.
  • Part of the Peoples Democratic Party.
  • Believed in the governance of democracy and his
    foreign policy reflected the idea of asserting
    Nigeria's interests in realpolitik in line with
    building its global competitiveness.
  • Suffered from Pericarditis and succumb to his
    death on 5th May 2010.

28
Goodluck Jonathan
  • Served as governor of Bayelsa state from 2005 to
    2007.
  • Served as Vice President of Nigeria from 2007 to
    2010.
  • Serves as the current president of Nigeria from
    2010.
  • Part of the Peoples Democratic Party.
  • Aims at encouraging foreign direct investment to
    develop the growing Nigerian economy and better
    the livelihood of the peoples. National interest
    is the priority.

29
NIGERIAS RELATIONS WITH OTHER NATIONS
30
NIGERIAN vs AFRICAN STATES
  • Nigerians championing of South African liberation
    was useful in the 1970s and 1980s but ever since
    the aparthied and the down fall of the soviet
    union it was left with a small role.
  • For a permanent seat in the UN security council
    the nigerians supported their government by
    helping to fight against south africa. As a
    result the relation between the two coountries
    deteriorated.
  • Due to its expulsion of millions of the west
    africans did little to support the ECOWAS treaty
    despite various agreements on freedom of
    movement and curreny transactions.
  • The mobilisation of ECOWAS was the first time
    nigeria had overtly exerted military force
    outside its own bordrs.
  • Though the militiray used force outside its
    borders peace and democracy but at the same time
    using force to prevent democracy

31
continue
  • ECOMOG were accused of running illicit drugs and
    diamond smuggling rackets, allegations that
    undermined Nigerias role in the region.
  • Nigerias national interests were fostered by a
    military presence and some semblance of peace and
    unity within west Africa.
  • After 2000 the lack of success of the ECOMOG
    force it was uncertain what role nigeria could
    play.

32
NIGERIA vs USA RELATIONS
  • NigeriaUnited States relations are bilateral
    relations between Nigeria and the United States.
  • The United States is Nigeria's greatest trading
    partner and is undeniably its most important
    diplomatic partner
  • With the nullification of Nigeria's June 12,
    1993, presidential election, the substantial
    amount of human rights abuses, and the failure to
    embark on a meaningful democratic transition, the
    United States has imposed numerous sanctions on
    Nigeria. After a period of increasingly strained
    relations, the death of General Abacha in June
    1998, and his replacement by General Abubakar
    opened a new phase of improved bilateral
    relations.

33
continue.
  • As the transition to democracy progressed, the
    removal of visa restrictions, increased
    high-level visits of U.S. officials, discussions
    of future assistance, and the granting of a Vital
    National Interest Certification on
    counter-narcotics, effective in March 1999, paved
    the way for re-establishment of closer ties
    between the United States and Nigeria as a key
    partner in the region and the continent.
  • Since the inauguration of the Obasanjo
    government, the bilateral relationship has
    continued to improve, and cooperation on many
    important foreign policy goals, such as regional
    peacekeeping, has been excellent.

34
Continue..
  • Nigeria is consistently a pro-America nation.
    According to the 2012 U.S. Global Leadership
    Report, 77 of Nigerians approve of U.S.
    leadership, with 9 disapproving and 14
    uncertain, and according to a 2013 BBC World
    Service Poll, 67 of Nigerians view U.S.
    influence positively, with 22 expressing a
    negative view.

35
References
  • Beasley, R. K., Kaarbo, J., Lantis, J. S.,
    Snarr, M. T. (2002). Foreign Policy in
    Comparative Perspective. Washington, D.C.
    Congressional Quartely Inc.
  • Kayode, S. (2009). Political Transition in
    Nigeria 1993-2003. Lagos Malthouse Press
    Limited.
  • Maier, K. (2002). This House Has Fallen Nigeria
    In Crisis. Middlesex Penguin Press.
  • Oyediron, O., Agbaje, A. (1999). Nigeria
    Politics of Transition and Governance 1986-1996.
    Basford Russell Press Limited.
  • Alao, Abiodun. "Globalization and the Changing
    Nature of Conflict in Africa."Rethinking Peace
    and Security in Africa (M. Ozonnia Ojielo Ed.)
    14-22. LagosCentre for Peace in Africa, 2002
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