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Title: audio video production basics


1
Audio Video Production Basics
  • BOOBALAKRISHNAN, Assistant Professor
  • Department of Visual Communication
  • and Electronic Media
  • PSG College of Arts Science, Coimbatore

2
Microphones
  • Microphones can be extremely breakable
  • Do not blow or tap into them
  • Do not drop them or throw them around

3
Popping the Ps
  • Announcing words that emphasize p, b, or t sounds
    naturally produce a sharp puff of air
  • This can result in a pop or thumb in your
    recording if you speak too close to the
    microphone
  • A windscreen on the mic can help

4
Windscreens
  • Foam ball-shaped accessory for the microphone
  • Used to reduce unwanted sounds

5
Dynamic Microphones
  • Contains a mylar diaphragm attached to a small
    coil surrounding a tiny fixed magnet.
  • When sound wave strikes, the diaphragm vibrates.
  • A tiny voltage is generated based on the
    interaction between the magnet and coil.

6
Microphone Pickup Patterns
7
General Mic Tips
  • Get your microphone as close to the source as
    possible.
  • Even directional microphones pick up a little
    sound from most directions, so the closer the
    better - as long as you're not getting negative
    effects (plosives,
  • mouth noises, etc)

8
General Mic Tips
  • Eliminate the Competition Think about the OTHER
    sounds in the room where you are recording. Two
    main sources of unwanted sound are
  • noise this can be the noisy air conditioner,
    traffic outside, crowds in the hall.
  • ambience may be the "live nature" of the room
    you're in, the unwanted echo.
  • Do what you can to eliminate the problem and
    place your mic as close to your subject as
    possible.

9
Lighting
  • Three purposes of lighting
  • Provide adequate illumination for the picture to
    be processed correctly by the camera
  • To tell us what the objects on the screen look
    like, including space/depth relationships and
    time of day
  • To establish the mood of a scene

10
Hard and Soft Light
  • Hard Light Very pronounced Directional
    Casts strong shadows
  • Soft Light Light is diffused/spread out less
    shadows
  • People look better with soft lights

11
Directional vs. Diffused Light
  • Directional Diffused

12
Directional light
  • Hard light casts a sharp, clearly defined shadow.
  • When hard light is used to illuminate a face,
    imperfections in the skin stand out. The result
    is less than flattering.
  • But in other applications, such as bringing out
    the texture in leather, or the engraving on a
    piece of jewelry, this can be an advantage. 

13
Diffused light
  • Soft (diffused) light has the opposite effect.
  • It tends to hide surface irregularities and
    detail.
  • Diffusers are used over the front of lights to
    soften and diffuse their beams. At the same time,
    diffusers also reduce the intensity of light. 

14
How the Camera Works
  • White light reflected off the subject is picked
    up by camera lens

15
How the Camera Works
  • A beam splitter fragments light into Red, Green,
    and Blue signals
  • Each signal is sent to a respective color pickup
    tube or chip

16
CHARGE COUPLED DEVICE - CCD
  • - An integrated circuit (computer chip)
  • Contains photosensitive pixels on the surface
    of the chip
  • Each pixel emits electric signal when struck by
    light

17
White Balance
  • White Balance Used to balance the color of your
    shot.
  • Point the camera at a white object (piece of
    blank paper or white wall)
  • Object should be in the same light that you will
    use in shooting
  • Press white balance button to adjust the
    sensitivity of the camera to the current light
    source

18
White Balance
  • An improperly white balanced camera can cause
    your video to appear yellow, greenish or reddish
    or yellower than it should
  • Example

19
White Balance
  • If you move the camera into different light or
    the light source changes, then you will need to
    redo the white balance setting
  • Some cameras do automatically re-balance the
    white

20
Establishing Shots
  • Many directors follow this simple formula
  • First scene shot Wide, establishing shot to
    orient the viewer
  • Second scene shot Closer proximity to main
    subject
  • Third shot Main subject

21
Camera Angles
  • Use angles to keep the production interesting
  • Angles can be used to manipulate audience
    perception

22
High Camera Angle
  • Positions the camera above eye level
  • Camera shoots down at subject
  • Used to show overview of area
  • Used to make subject appear smaller

23
Low Camera Angle
  • Positions the camera below eye level
  • Camera shoots up toward the subject
  • Used to give sense of power to subject

24
Canted Angle
  • Camera is tilted on a horizontal plane
  • Used to convey sense of excitement or instability
  • Simply tilt the camera to achieve this effect

25
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