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Different type of pest..........

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Title: Different type of pest..........


1
Type of Pests (Insects, Non-insect Pests)
Introduction A pest is an organism which is
detrimental to humans or human interest. Living
organisms are derided as pests as they cause
damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or
parasitizing livestock or acting as carrier of
diseases of man and livestock. The term "plant
pest" is any species or strain of plant, animal,
or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant
products. The most important pests in the order
of importance are constituted by insects and
non-insect pests like mites, nematodes and
gastropods (snails and slugs). Although rodents,
birds and mammals, which are inimical to welfare
of man are also called pests.
Bollworm damage in cotton
Cabbage butterfly larvae
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Insects as pests
Insects are the most diverse and dominant pests
among animals. They damage crops right from
germination to harvest in field and also in
godowns during post-harvest storage. No plant
part is virtually spared by insect pests.
Different insects can utilize different plant
parts due to specialized mouth parts. In this
way, they have reduced competition among
themselves. Pests like termites feed on
underground plants parts as well crop residues
and also damage timber, furniture, books and
other commodities.
Cabbage butterfly damage
Planthopper damage in rice
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Types of insect pests
  • Based on feeding habits insects can be
    categorized as
  • Tissue consumers
  • Sap suckers
  • Tissue consumers include pest affecting stems,
    leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and also crop
    residues.
  • Sap suckers suck sap from different plant parts
    affecting growth and development of crops.

Stem borer damage in rice
Planthoppers in rice
Crop lodging due to planthopper damage
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Tissue consumers A. Stem damaging insects
Stem borer Rice stem borer, maize stem borer,
sugarcane early shoot borer, top shoot
borer banana pseudo stem borer, mango stem
borer Shoot fly Maize, sorghum and wheat shoot
fly Node borer Sugarcane internode
borer Cutworms Gram cutworm
Banana pseudo stem borer
Mango stem borer
Cutworm larva
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C. Leaf damaging insects Leaf folder Rice leaf
folder, cotton leaf roller, grape leaf
roller Leaf miner Pea leaf miner, citrus leaf
miner, mustard leaf miner Defoliators
Grasshoppers, defoliating beetles
Rice leaf folder larva and adult
Grasshopper
Hadda beetle
Leaf miner damage
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Flower feeding insects Rice gundhi bug Banded
blister beetles Thrips
Rice gundhi bug
Banded blister beetle
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B. Fruit damaging insects Fruit borer Tomato
fruit borer, lady finger fruit borer, brinjal
shoot and fruit borer Pod borer Gram pod
borer, pigeon pea pod borer, pea pod borer
Bollworms Cotton pink bollworm, spotted
bollworm, American bollworm Fruit fly Mango
fruit fly, cucurbit fruit fly, guava fruit
fly Fruit sucking moth Orange sucking moth
Pod borer damage in gram
Fruit borer damage
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Root damaging insects Termites Wheat, maize,
sugarcane, gram White grubs Sugarcane, ground
nut, maize Root weevils Rice root
weevil Mole cricket Wheat, maize, gram, rice
Termite galleries
Termite workers
White grubs
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Sucking insects Stem suckers Rice planthoppers,
sugarcane woolly aphid Leaf suckers Rice
leafhopper, cotton leafhopper, lady finger
leafhopper, cotton whitefly, cotton
mealy Flower suckers Rose thrips, mungbean
thrips, rice panicle thrips, mustard
aphid Fruit suckers Fruit sucking moth Root
suckers Wheat root aphid
White fly
Mustard aphid
Rice green leafhopper
Rice brown planthopper
Thrips
Rice white-backed planthopper
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Non-insect pests A. Mites
Mites also known as acarina belong to phylum
Arachnida, to which spiders also belong. These
are minute organisms that can rarely be seen with
naked eyes. Mites cause heavy damage in crops
especially in vegetables and ornamentals. Mites
constitute a large group with its members
inhabiting a variety of habitats like soil,
water, plants, animals, processed food and animal
waste. Mites damage crops by sucking sap from
them.
Red spider mite
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Damage Phytophagous mites infest a wide variety
of plants leading to yellowing, discolouration,
curling or other type of deformation of leaves or
defoliation development of galls on leaves
deformities of plants such as swelling of nodes
and internodes, stunting of shoots or
malformation of fruits.
Mite damage in brinjal
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Predatory mites Predatory mites feed on
phytophagous mites thus aiding in biological
control of harmful mites. Amblyseius fallacis,
Agistemus fleschneri and Zetzellia mali are some
of the species of predatory mites. Their size is
more or less similar to that of spider mites
Predatory mites
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B. Snails and Slugs
Snails and slugs belong to phylum, Mollusca and
hence also known as molluscs. Giant African
snails is most important snail pest having spread
worldwide due to accidentally as well as
deliberately. Snails possess a protective shell
covering, formed by their own secretion, while
slugs lack protective shell. The snails are very
active during rainy season. Their activities are
very much correlated with the rainfall and
humidity.
Giant African snail
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Damage Garden flowers and ornamentals are among
the most susceptible plants to attack of giant
African snail. Host range of giant African snail
is very big and includes papaya, banana, cole
crops, lobhia, beans, cucurbits, brinjal,
marigold, portulacea, violet, money plant,
arecanut, rubber buds and coffee seedlings.
Marigold and Luffa are among the most preferred
food of this pest. It also drinks rubber sap.
Papaya is also damaged to serious level. All
parts of papaya plant are susceptible to the
attack of the giant African snail.
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Plant Parasitic Nematodes Nematodes are popularly
called as round worms. Nematodes belong to the
phylum Aschelminthes. Plant parasitic nematodes
constitute one of the important groups of
organisms which live in soil around plant roots.
They are often microscopic, long and slender,
confined usually to the top soil of 20-25 cm.
Plant parasitic nematodes cause extensively
damage to cultivated plants, resulting in heavy
losses. Damage may be caused directly, or
indirectly when the phytoparasitic nematodes
transmit plant viruses or allow pathogens to gain
entry into the plant through damaged areas
created by these nematodes.
Magnified picture of root knot nematode
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Symptoms of Nematode Damage Root knot
nematode Galls on roots, stunting and wilting as
in ladys finger. Cyst nematode Shallow root
system, chlorosis (yellowing of leaves) and
wilting during hot weather even in presence of
sufficient soil moisture Ear cockle
nematode Stunted growth with wrinkled and twisted
leaves, reduced and irregularly developed
earheads, wheat grains converting into seed galls
or cocks White tip nematode Yellowing, browning
and finally whitening of 2-5 cm leaf tips which
then dry up and hangs down, kernels becoming
chaffy and distorted as in the case of paddy
Root knot nematode damage
Ear cockle nematode damage
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Crabs Crabs are arthropods which belong to group
Crustacea and are aquatic by nature. The rice
fields crab, Paratelphusa hydrodrumus lives in
holes in the sides of field bunds and irrigated
channels etc., where water does not stand.
Channels and holes are protected by heaping soil
around their openings. Nature of
damage Seedlings are cut down into bits at ground
levels and carried to the holes for feeding. In
addition to crop damage, crab holes made into
bunds lead to beaches and water loss.
Crab
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Millipedes Millipedes are also arthropods and
nocturnal, which live beneath leaves, stones,
bark and logs as well as in soil. As the name
indicates, these have a large number of
legs. Millipedes commonly occurring in India are
Lulas sp. on Jowar and Harpurostreptus sp. on
tapioca. They are brownish black in colour and
about 8.7 cm in length. Nature of damage The
adults and juveniles feed on tender buds and
roots of newly planted crops. The tapioca
millipedes feed on tender buds and roots of newly
planted sets resulting in stunting and often
death of plants. Some of the millipedes consume
groundnut kernels.
Millipedes
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Rats and mice Rats cause severe damage to crops
and domestic commodities, thereby requiring to be
controlled effectively. The atmosphere and
surroundings of human habitations are fouled by
them to the extent that it becomes intolerable
for man. Several types of diseases are known to
be transmitted by rats. Besides consuming
considerable quantity of food, they contaminate
much more by urine, faeces, and hairs and
sebaceous secretions. Religious sentiments of
some people come in the way of rat control.
Mus booduga
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Hare and rabbit Hares and rabbits are one of the
best known wild mammals and of considerable
economic importance. They are nocturnal and
graze mainly on grass, herbs, scrubs, bulbs,
roots, bark etc. Instances of their becoming
pests on agricultural crops are widely known
throughout the country. They do considerable
damage to crops like wheat, barleygram, maize,
jowar, bajra, pea, mustard, bean, cabbage and
others. They are browse on young fruit trees and
forest plants.
Hare
Rabbit
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  • Lets Sum Up
  • A pest is an animal which is detrimental to
    humans or human interest.
  • Most important pests are among insects and
    non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, and
    snails and slugs.
  • Based on feeding habits insect pests can be
    categorized as tissue consumers and sap suckers.
  • Tissue consumers damage stems, leaves, flowers,
    fruits and roots, and also crop residues.
  • Sap suckers like aphids and whiteflies suck sap
    from plant parts.
  • Mites such as red spider mites cause heavy damage
    in crops especially in vegetables and
    ornamentals.
  • Giant African snails is most important snail pest
    having spread worldwide and causes heavy damage
    in ornamentals and vegetables.
  • Crabs and millipedes also damage crops in certain
    localities.
  • Rodents and some birds and mammals are also
    harmful to man.

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