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Disorders of Adrenals


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Title: Disorders of Adrenals

Adrenal glands and Disorders
  • M.Prasad Naidu
  • MSc Medical Biochemistry,
  • Ph.D.Research Scholar

Disorders of adrenal glands
  • Hyperactivity-
  • 1. Cushings syndrome
  • 2. Hyperaldosteronism
  • 3. Adrenogenital syndrome
  • Hypoactivity-
  • 1. chronic adrenal insufficiencyAddisons
  • 2. acute adrenal insufficiency Addisonian crisis
    or Adrenal crisis
  • 3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Cushings syndrome
  • A disorder characterized by obesity due to
    hypersecretion of GCs.
  • Causes-
  • Due to excessive secretion of GCs.
  • Particularly due to oversecretion of cortisol
  • If it is due to pituitary origin?cushings Di
  • If it is due to adrenal origin? cushings Sy

Pituitary origin(cushings disease)
  • ? of ACTH causes ? secretion of GCs
  • Elevation of ACTH secretion occurs due to
  • 1. Tumor in pituitary cells particularly in
    basophils which secrete ACTH.
  • 2. cancer of lungs
  • 3. hypothalamic disorder causing ? CRF

Adrenal origin(cushings syndrome)
  • Increased secretion of Cortisol occurs in the
    following conditions.
  • 1. Tumor in zona fasciculata of A.cortex.
  • 2. carcinoma of adrenal cortex.
  • 3. Treatment with excessive dose of ACTH which
    stimulates A.cortex excessively.
  • 4. Treatment with excessive GCs can also cause
    Cushings syndrome.

  • there is redistribution of fat in abnormal manner
    (pot belly)
  • Obesity affecting the face
  • The muscles become weak bcos of protein
  • Osteoporosis develops and bones become
    susceptable to fracture.
  • Hyperglycemia ? due to gluconeogenesis
  • Hyperglycemia leads to glucosuria and adrenal
  • Hypertension.

Addisons disease
  • Causes- failure of a.cortex to secrete
    corticosteroids occurs due to the following
  • 1. atrophy of A.cortex due to autoimmune diseases
  • 2. destruction of the gland during TB
  • 3. destruction of hormone secreting cells in
    A.cortex by malignant tissues.
  • 4. congenital failure to secrete cortisol
  • 5. failure of anterior pituitary
  • 6. lesion in area of hypathalamus where
    corticotropin releasing hormone is produced.

Signs and symptoms
  • Pigmentation of skin mucus membrane
  • Muscular weakness
  • Hypotension
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Nausea, vomitting diarrhea (if prolonged leads
    to dehydration loss of body wt.)
  • Susceptibility to any type of infection and
  • Inability to withstand any stress
  • ?cardiac output and decreased workload of the
    heart leading to decrease in the size of heart.
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