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Title: Balance Your Thyroid


1
Simple Balance Thyroid Function and natural
treatments
2
The Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Hormones
3
Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland
4
What does the thyroid gland do?
  • Controls rate at which the body produced energy
  • Affects the operation of all body proceses and
    internal organs
  • Helps control body temperature by regulating heat
    and energy production
  • In children, helps control bodys rate of growth
  • Exerts a profound effect on mood an emotion
  • Plays an important role in immune function

5
What does the thyroid gland do?
  • All blood in the body passes through the thyroid
    gland every 17 minutes
  • Glands secretion of iodine kills weak germs that
    may have gained entry
  • Strong, virulent germs are rendered weaker during
    their passage
  • Iodine is one of the best antiseptics

6
What does the thyroid gland do?
  • Promotes normal oxygen use
  • Promotes glucose catabolism, mobilizes fats
    enhances livers synthesis of cholesterol
  • Promotes normal development of nervous system in
    fetus
  • Promotes normal functioning of the heart
  • Promotes normal muscular development and function
  • Promotes normal GI motility
  • Promotes normal female reproductive ability
  • Promotes normal hydration

7
Follicles the Functional Units of the Thyroid
Gland
  • Follicles Are the Sites Where Key Thyroid
    Elements Function
  • Thyroglobulin (Tg)
  • Tyrosine
  • Iodine
  • Thyroxine (T4)
  • Triiodotyrosine (T3)

8
The Thyroid Produces and Secretes 2 Metabolic
Hormones
  • Two principal hormones
  • Thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Required for homeostasis of all cells
  • Influence cell differentiation, growth, and
    metabolism
  • Considered the major metabolic hormones because
    they target virtually every tissue

9
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Regulates thyroid hormone production, secretion,
    and growth
  • Is regulated by the negative feedback action of
    T4 and T3

10
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Negative
Feedback Mechanism
11
Biosynthesis of T4 and T3
  • The process requires
  • Iodine
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

12
Iodine Sources
  • Available through certain foods (eg, seafood,
    bread, dairy products), iodized salt, or dietary
    supplements, as a trace mineral
  • The recommended minimum intake is 200 ?g/day
    not enough for most adults this is just enough
    to prevent goiter

13
Iodine
  • INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Two thyroid researchers in 1948 suggested that
    more than .2mg (200 mcgs) of iodine would result
    in thyroid gland suppression. This became known
    as the Wolff-Chaikoff Effect.
  • This premise helped sell a lot of more expensive
    thyroid drugs for the pharmaceutical companies
    rather than the previously used inexpensive
    iodine.
  • Further investigation of this faulty study as
    well as further research has proven this concept
    highly suspect. Actually, just plain wrong. (See
    the footnotes for relevant resources and research
    intormetion.)
  • For a number of reasons discussed in these
    research findings available through my website,
    iodine deficiency is now widespread and often
    severe.
  • Sufficient levels of iodine are needed to achieve
    whole body Iodine Sufficiency. Important to
    understand is that the thyroid and many other
    tissues of the body require considerably more
    iodine than the RDA 145 mcgs. According to
    research findings, around 13 mg/day, is needed in
    the body as follows
  • Thyroid gland 3-6 mg of Iodine/day
  • Breast tissue 5mg of iodine/day with larger
    breasts needing more
  • Combined other tissues of the body, including
    adrenals, ovaries, testes, insulin receptors and
    much more 2 mg of iodine/day

14
Iodine
  • Iodine belongs to the halogen family of elements.
    Other halogens such as fluorine, chlorine and
    bromine can interfere with iodine absorption
    (Fluorine, Chlorine Bromine) or actively
    displace it from the tissues (Bromine, a
    goitrogen).
  • During Iodine Loading, halogen toxins will be
    excreted as well as heavy metals such as mercury,
    cadmium, arsenic and others.
  • Iodine Loading too quickly can and usually does
    cause considerable and sometimes severe detox
    reactions, as the halogens and heavy metals are
    eliminated. These detox reactions are often
    mistakenly blamed on iodism, or toxic reactions
    to iodine.
  • Iodine Loading is best accomplished using a whole
    person, whole body approach, using nutritional
    synergists and not just iodine alone, as well as
    finding the individual's Iodine Tolerance, and
    not just using a standard one-size fits all
    dose.
  • Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, although
    iodine deficient, will not initially tolerate
    Iodine Loading and must be worked with
    differently. (See Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in the
    Thyroid, Adrenal Blood Sugar manual)
  • Iodine status can initially be determined via the
    Iodine Patch Test or the 24-hour urine Iodine
    Loading Test. (See Iodine Testing for
    specifics.)

15
Active Transport and I- Uptake by the Thyroid
  • Dietary iodine reaches the circulation as iodide
    anion (I-)
  • The thyroid gland transports I- to the sites of
    hormone synthesis
  • I- accumulation in the thyroid is an active
    transport process that is stimulated by TSH

16
Hashimotos
  • Hashimoto's Hypothyroidism - What Are The
    Treatment Options?
  • Eighty percent of hypothyroidism in the United
    States is caused by an autoimmune disease called
    Hashimoto's Hypothyroid. An autoimmune disease is
    an illness that occurs when the bodies tissues
    are attacked by its own immune system. With
    Hashimoto's it is the thyroid gland that is under
    attack.
  • Although, Hashimoto's Disease can cause
    hyperthyroidism, it most commonly causes
    hypothyroidism, which is a low thyroid state.
    Typically Hashimoto's is a slow gradual immune
    attack, resulting in thyroid cell death,
    eventually destroying enough cells to cause
    symptoms of low thyroid.
  • Medical management of Hashimoto's disease doesn't
    change because the mechanism is autoimmune,
    although it should. Replacement thyroid hormones
    are still the treatment of choice.  Absolutely no
    attention is given to the autoimmune destruction
    itself.
  • Focusing the clinical management on slowing and
    modulating the autoimmune attack is crucial in
    Hashimoto's Disease. How can you have a properly
    functioning thyroid if the body is continually
    attacking and killing it?
  • We take a functional endocrinology approach to
    naturally supporting and modulating the immune
    system in autoimmune cases. We do special lab
    panels to measure the specifics of the immune
    response. We look at inflammatory cytokines,
    lymphocyte subpopulation analysis, and natural
    killer cells. Natural management of autoimmune
    conditions is complex. Support that is specific
    to the individual immune system is essential if
    you truly want to help Hashimoto's Disease.

17
Thyroperoxidase (TPO)
  • TPO catalyzes the oxidation steps involved in I-
    activation, iodination of Tg tyrosyl residues,
    and coupling of iodotyrosyl residues
  • TPO has binding sites for I- and tyrosine
  • TPO uses H2O2 as the oxidant to activate I- to
    hypoiodate (OI-), the iodinating species

18
Conversion of T4 to T3 in Peripheral Tissues
19
Production of T4 and T3
  • T4 is the primary secretory product of the
    thyroid gland, which is the only source of T4
  • The thyroid secretes approximately 70-90 ?g of T4
    per day
  • T3 is derived from 2 processes
  • The total daily production rate of T3 is about
    15-30 ?g
  • About 80 of circulating T3 comes from
    deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues
  • About 20 comes from direct thyroid secretion

20
T4 A Prohormone for T3
  • T4 is biologically inactive in target tissues
    until converted to T3
  • Activation occurs with 5' iodination of the outer
    ring of T4
  • T3 then becomes the biologically active hormone
    responsible for the majority of thyroid hormone
    effects

21
Sites of T4 Conversion
  • The liver is the major extrathyroidal T4
    conversion site for production of T3
  • Some T4 to T3 conversion also occurs in the
    kidney and other tissues

22
T4 Disposition
  • Normal disposition of T4
  • About 41 is converted to T3
  • 38 is converted to reverse T3 (rT3), which is
    metabolically inactive
  • 21 is metabolized via other pathways, such as
    conjugation in the liver and excretion in the
    bile
  • Normal circulating concentrations
  • T4 4.5-11 ?g/dL
  • T3 60-180 ng/dL (100-fold less than T4)

23
Hormonal Transport
24
Carriers for Circulating Thyroid Hormones
  • More than 99 of circulating T4 and T3 is bound
    to plasma carrier proteins
  • Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), binds about 75
  • Transthyretin (TTR), also called
    thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA), binds about
    10-15
  • Albumin binds about 7
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL), binds about 3
  • Carrier proteins can be affected by physiologic
    changes, drugs, and disease

25
Free Hormone Concept
  • Only unbound (free) hormone has metabolic
    activity and physiologic effects
  • Free hormone is a tiny percentage of total
    hormone in plasma (about 0.03 T4 0.3 T3)
  • Total hormone concentration
  • Normally is kept proportional to the
    concentration of carrier proteins
  • Is kept appropriate to maintain a constant free
    hormone level

26
Changes in TBG Concentration Determine Binding
and Influence T4 and T3 Levels
  • Increased TBG
  • Total serum T4 and T3 levels increase
  • Free T4 (FT4), and free T3 (FT3) concentrations
    remain unchanged
  • Decreased TBG
  • Total serum T4 and T3 levels decrease
  • FT4 and FT3 levels remain unchanged

27
Drugs and Conditions That Increase Serum T4 and
T3 Levels by Increasing TBG
  • Conditions that increase TBG
  • Pregnancy
  • Infectious/chronic active hepatitis
  • HIV infection
  • Biliary cirrhosis
  • Acute intermittent porphyria
  • Genetic factors
  • Drugs that increase TBG
  • Oral contraceptives and other sources of estrogen
  • Methadone
  • Clofibrate
  • 5-Fluorouracil
  • Heroin
  • Tamoxifen

28
Drugs and Conditions That Decrease Serum T4 and
T3 by Decreasing TBG Levels or Binding of Hormone
to TBG
  • Drugs that decrease serum T4 and T3
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Androgens
  • L-Asparaginase
  • Salicylates
  • Mefenamic acid
  • Antiseizure medications, eg, phenytoin,
    carbama-zepine
  • Furosemide
  • Conditions that decrease serum T4 and T3
  • Genetic factors
  • Acute and chronic illness

29
Thyroid Hormone Action
30
Thyroid Hormone Plays a Major Role in Growth and
Development
  • Thyroid hormone initiates or sustains
    differentiation and growth
  • Stimulates formation of proteins, which exert
    trophic effects on tissues
  • Is essential for normal brain development
  • Essential for childhood growth
  • Untreated congenital hypothyroidism or chronic
    hypothyroidism during childhood can result in
    incomplete development and mental retardation

31
Thyroid Hormones and the Central Nervous System
(CNS)
  • Thyroid hormones are essential for neural
    development and maturation and function of the
    CNS
  • Decreased thyroid hormone concentrations may lead
    to alterations in cognitive function
  • Patients with hypothyroidism may develop
    impairment of attention, slowed motor function,
    and poor memory
  • Thyroid-replacement therapy may improve cognitive
    function when hypothyroidism is present

32
Thyroid Hormone Influences the Female
Reproductive System
  • Normal thyroid hormone function is important for
    reproductive function
  • Hypothyroidism may be associated with menstrual
    disorders, infertility, risk of miscarriage, and
    other complications of pregnancy

Doufas AG, et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci.
200090065-76. Glinoer D. Trends Endocrinol
Metab. 1998 9403-411. Glinoer D. Endocr Rev.
199718404-433.
33
Thyroid Hormone is Critical for Normal Bone
Growth and Development
  • T3 is an important regulator of skeletal
    maturation at the growth plate
  • T3 regulates the expression of factors and other
    contributors to linear growth directly in the
    growth plate
  • T3 also may participate in osteoblast
    differentiation and proliferation, and
    chondrocyte maturation leading to bone
    ossification

34
Thyroid Hormone Regulates Mitochondrial Activity
  • T3 is considered the major regulator of
    mitochondrial activity
  • A potent T3-dependent transcription factor of the
    mitochondrial genome induces early stimulation of
    transcription and increases transcription factor
    (TFA) expression
  • T3 stimulates oxygen consumption by the
    mitochondria

35
Thyroid Hormones Stimulate Metabolic Activities
in Most Tissues
  • Thyroid hormones (specifically T3) regulate rate
    of overall body metabolism
  • T3 increases basal metabolic rate
  • Calorigenic effects
  • T3 increases oxygen consumption by most
    peripheral tissues
  • Increases body heat production

36
Metabolic Effects of T3
  • Stimulates lipolysis and release of free fatty
    acids and glycerol
  • Induces expression of lipogenic enzymes
  • Effects cholesterol metabolism
  • Stimulates metabolism of cholesterol to bile
    acids
  • Facilitates rapid removal of LDL from plasma
  • Generally stimulates all aspects of carbohydrate
    metabolism and the pathway for protein degradation

37
Thyroid Disorders
38
Overview of Thyroid Disease States
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism

39
Hypothyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism is a disorder with
    multiple causes in which the thyroid fails to
    secrete an adequate amount of thyroid hormone
  • The most common thyroid disorder
  • Usually caused by primary thyroid gland failure
  • Also may result from diminished stimulation of
    the thyroid gland by TSH

40
Hyperthyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism refers to excess synthesis and
    secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid
    gland, which results in accelerated metabolism in
    peripheral tissues

41
Typical Thyroid Hormone Levels in Thyroid Disease
  • TSH T4 T3
  • Hypothyroidism High Low Low
  • Hyperthyroidism Low High High

42
Prevalence of Thyroid Disease
The Colorado Study
At a statewide health fair in Colorado (N25
862), participants were tested for TSH and total
T4 levels
  • 9.5 of subjects had elevated TSH most of them
    had subclinical hypothyroidism (normal T4 with
    TSH gt5.1 ?IU/mL)
  • Among the subjects already taking thyroid
    medication (almost 6 of study population), 40
    had abnormal TSH levels, reflecting inadequate
    treatment
  • Among those not taking thyroid medication, 9.9
    had a thyroid abnormality that was unrecognized
  • There may be in excess of 13 million cases of
    undetected thyroid failure nationwide

Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.
2000160523-534.
43
Prevalence of Thyroid Disease by Age
  • The incidence of thyroid disease increases with
    age

Elevated TSH, (Age in Years)
18 25 35 45 55 65 75 Male 3 4.5 3.5 5 6 10.5 16 F
emale 4 5 6.5 9 13.5 15 21
  • Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.
    2000160523-534.

44
Prevalence of Thyroid Disease by Gender
  • Studies conducted in various communities over the
    past 30 years have consistently concluded that
    thyroid disease is more prevalent in women than
    in men
  • The Whickham survey, conducted in the 1970s and
    later followed-up in 1995, showed the prevalence
    of undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis was 4.7 per 1000
    women and 1.6 to 2.3 per 1000 men
  • The Framingham study data showed the incidence of
    thyroid deficiency in women was 5.9 and in men,
    2.3
  • The Colorado study concluded that the proportion
    of subjects with an elevated TSH level is greater
    among women than among men

45
Increasing Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in the
US Population
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
    (NHANES I and III)
  • Monitored the status of thyroid function in a
    sample of individuals representing the ethnic and
    geographic distribution of the US population
  • NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T4,
    and thyroid antibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb)
    and to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb)
  • Hypothyroidism was found in 4.6 of those, 4.3
    had mild thyroid failure
  • Hyperthyroidism was found in 1.3

46
Hypothyroidism Types
  • Primary hypothyroidism
  • From thyroid destruction
  • Central or secondary hypothyroidism
  • From deficient TSH secretion, generally due to
    sellar lesions such as pituitary tumor or
    craniopharyngioma
  • Infrequently is congenital
  • Central or tertiary hypothyroidism
  • From deficient TSH stimulation above level of
    pituitaryie, lesions of pituitary stalk or
    hypothalamus
  • Is much less common than secondary hypothyroidism

Bravernan LE, Utiger RE, eds. Werner Ingbar's
The Thyroid. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott
Williams Wilkins 2000. Persani L, et al. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 853631-3635.
47
Primary Hypothyroidism Underlying Causes
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Agenesis of thyroid
  • Defective thyroid hormone biosynthesis due to
    enzymatic defect
  • Thyroid tissue destruction as a result of
  • Chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis
  • Radiation (usually radioactive iodine treatment
    for thyrotoxicosis)
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Other infiltrative diseases of thyroid (eg,
    hemochromatosis)
  • Drugs with antithyroid actions (eg, lithium,
    iodine, iodine-containing drugs, radiographic
    contrast agents, interferon alpha)
  • In the US, hypothyroidism is usually due to
    chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis

48
Clinical Features of Hypothyroidism
Tiredness
Puffy Eyes
Enlarged Thyroid (Goiter)
Forgetfulness/Slower Thinking
Moodiness/ Irritability
Hoarseness/ Deepening of Voice
Depression
Persistent Dry or Sore Throat
Inability to Concentrate
Thinning Hair/Hair Loss
Difficulty Swallowing
Loss of Body Hair
Slower Heartbeat
Dry, Patchy Skin
Menstrual Irregularities/ Heavy Period
Weight Gain
Infertility
Cold Intolerance
Constipation
Elevated Cholesterol
Muscle Weakness/ Cramps
Family History of Thyroid Disease or Diabetes
49
Mild Thyroid Failure
50
Definition of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Elevated TSH level (gt4.0 ?IU/mL)
  • Normal total or free serum T4 and T3 levels
  • Few or no signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds.
The Thyroid A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 8th
ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott, Williams
Wilkins 20001001.
51
Causes of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Exogenous factors
  • Levothyroxine underreplacement
  • Medications, such as lithium, cytokines, or
    iodine-containing agents (eg, amiodarone)
  • Antithyroid medications
  • 131I therapy or thyroidectomy
  • Endogenous factors
  • Previous subacute or silent thyroiditis
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

Biondi B, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2002137904-914.
52
Prevalence and Incidence of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Prevalence
  • 4 to 10 in large population screening surveys
  • Increases with increasing age
  • Is more common in women than in men
  • Incidence
  • 2.1 to 3.8 per year in thyroid
    antibody-positive patients
  • 0.3 per year in thyroid antibody-negative
    patients

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Caraccio N, et al. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2002871533-1538. Biondi B, et
al. Ann Intern Med. 2002137904-914.
53
Populations at Risk for Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Women
  • Prior history of Graves disease or postpartum
    thyroid dysfunction
  • Elderly
  • Other autoimmune disease
  • Family history of
  • Thyroid disease
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

Caraccio N, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2002871533-1538. Carmel R, et al. Arch Intern
Med. 19821421465-1469. Perros P, et al.
Diabetes Med. 199512622-627.
54
Mild Thyroid Failure Affects Cardiac Function
  • Cardiac function is subtly impaired in patients
    with mild thyroid failure
  • Abnormalities can include
  • Subtle abnormalities in systolic time intervals
    and myocardial contractility
  • Diastolic dysfunction at rest or with exercise
  • Reduction of exercise-related stroke volume,
    cardiac index, and maximal aortic flow velocity
  • The clinical significance of the changes is
    unclear

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds.
The Thyroid A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 8th
ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott, Williams
Wilkins 20001004.
55
Mild Thyroid Failure May Increase Cardiovascular
Disease Risk
  • Mild thyroid failure has been evaluated as a
    cardiovascular risk factor associated with
  • Increased serum levels of total cholesterol and
    low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
    levels
  • Reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
    (HDL-C) levels
  • Increased prevalence of aortic atherosclerosis
  • Increased incidence of myocardial infarction

56
The Rotterdam Study Design and Objectives
  • A population-based cross-sectional cohort study
    conducted in a district of Rotterdam, the
    Netherlands
  • Cohort included 3105 men and 4878 women aged 55
    and older
  • Thyroid status was determined from a random
    sample of 1149 elderly women (mean age 69 7.5
    years) selected from the study
  • The study's objective was to investigate whether
    mild thyroid failure and thyroid autoimmunity are
    associated with aortic atherosclerosis and
    myocardial infarction

57
Mild Thyroid Failure Increases Risk of Myocardial
Infarction (MI)
  • Findings from the Rotterdam Study
  • Mild thyroid failure contributed to 60 of MI
    cases in patients with diagnosed mild thyroid
    failure, and 14 of all MI instances in the study
    population
  • Mild thyroid failure appeared to be a strong
    indicator of risk for aortic atherosclerosis and
    MI in older women
  • Thyroid autoimmunity by itself was not associated
    with aortic atherosclerosis or MI

Hak AE, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2000132270-278.
58
Mild Thyroid Failure Associated With Aortic
Atherosclerosis
Presence of Aortic Atherosclerosis
Condition Present
100
Condition Absent
Patients,
50
0
Euthyroid Women Without Antibodies to Thyroid
Peroxidase
Women With Mild Thyroid Failure
Euthyroid Women
Women With Mild Thyroid Failure and Antibodies to
Thyroid Peroxidase
Hak AE, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2000132270-278.
59
Relationship Between Thyroid Hormone and LDL
Receptors
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) specifically binds
    and transports lt1 of total circulating T4
  • LDL facilitates entry of T4 into cells by forming
    a T4-LDL complex that is recognized by the LDL
    receptor
  • LDL receptors are down-regulated by cholesterol
    loading and up-regulated by cholesterol
    deficiency
  • Hypothyroidism is usually accompanied by elevated
    total- and LDL-cholesterol caused by increased
    cholesterol synthesis

60
Colorado Study Cholesterol End Points
  • Treating mild thyroid failure may aid in the
    treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevent
    associated cardiovascular morbidity
  • As TSH levels rise, cholesterol levels rise
    concomitantly

Mean Cholesterol by TSH
280
Abnormal TSH
270
267
270
Euthyroid
260
250
Mean Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)
239
238
240
229
226
230
223
216
220
209
210
200
lt0.3
0.3-5.1
gt5.1-
gt10-15
gt15-20
gt20-40
gt40-60
gt60-80
gt80
10
TSH (?IU/mL)
Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.2000160526-53
4.
61
The Rate of Progression of Mild Thyroid Failure
to Overt Hypothyroidism
  • Mild thyroid failure is a common disorder that
    frequently progresses to overt hypothyroidism
  • Progression has been reported in about 3 to 18
    of affected patients per year
  • Progression may take years or may rapidly occur
  • The rate is greater if TSH is higher or if there
    are positive antithyroid antibodies
  • The rate may also be greater in patients who were
    previously treated with radioiodine or surgery

62
Disorders Characterized by Hyperthyroidism
63
Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Hoarseness/ Deepening of Voice
Nervousness/Tremor
Mental Disturbances/ Irritability
Persistent Dry or Sore Throat
Difficulty Swallowing
Difficulty Sleeping
Palpitations/ Tachycardia
Bulging Eyes/Unblinking Stare/ Vision Changes
Impaired Fertility
Enlarged Thyroid (Goiter)
Weight Loss or Gain
Menstrual Irregularities/ Light Period
Heat Intolerance
Increased Sweating
Frequent Bowel Movements
Sudden Paralysis
Warm, Moist Palms
Family History of Thyroid Disease or Diabetes
First-Trimester Miscarriage/ Excessive Vomiting
in Pregnancy
64
Hyperthyroidism Underlying Causes
  • Signs and symptoms can be caused by any disorder
    that results in an increase in circulation of
    thyroid hormone
  • Toxic diffuse goiter (Graves disease)
  • Toxic uninodular or multinodular goiter
  • Painful subacute thyroiditis
  • Silent thyroiditis
  • Toxic adenoma
  • Iodine and iodine-containing drugs and
    radiographic contrast agents
  • Trophoblastic disease, including hydatidiform
    mole
  • Exogenous thyroid hormone ingestion

65
Graves Disease (Toxic Diffuse Goiter)
  • The most common cause of hyperthyroidism
  • Accounts for 60 to 90 of cases
  • Incidence in the United States estimated at 0.02
    to 0.4 of the population
  • Affects more females than males, especially in
    the reproductive age range
  • Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder possibly
    related to a defect in immune tolerance

66
Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis (Hashimoto
Thyroiditis)
  • Occurs when there is a severe defect in thyroid
    hormone synthesis
  • Is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease
    characterized by destruction of the thyroid gland
    by autoantibodies against thyroglobulin,
    thyroperoxidase, and other thyroid tissue
    components
  • Patients present with hypothyroidism, painless
    goiter, and other overt signs
  • Persons with autoimmune thyroid disease may have
    other concomitant autoimmune disorders
  • Most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes
    mellitus

67
Hashimotos
  • Hashimoto's Hypothyroidism - What Are The
    Treatment Options?
  • Eighty percent of hypothyroidism in the United
    States is caused by an autoimmune disease called
    Hashimoto's Hypothyroid. An autoimmune disease is
    an illness that occurs when the bodies tissues
    are attacked by its own immune system. With
    Hashimoto's it is the thyroid gland that is under
    attack.
  • Although, Hashimoto's Disease can cause
    hyperthyroidism, it most commonly causes
    hypothyroidism, which is a low thyroid state.
    Typically Hashimoto's is a slow gradual immune
    attack, resulting in thyroid cell death,
    eventually destroying enough cells to cause
    symptoms of low thyroid.
  • Medical management of Hashimoto's disease doesn't
    change because the mechanism is autoimmune,
    although it should. Replacement thyroid hormones
    are still the treatment of choice.  Absolutely no
    attention is given to the autoimmune destruction
    itself.
  • Focusing the clinical management on slowing and
    modulating the autoimmune attack is crucial in
    Hashimoto's Disease. How can you have a properly
    functioning thyroid if the body is continually
    attacking and killing it?
  • We take a functional endocrinology approach to
    naturally supporting and modulating the immune
    system in autoimmune cases. We do special lab
    panels to measure the specifics of the immune
    response. We look at inflammatory cytokines,
    lymphocyte subpopulation analysis, and natural
    killer cells. Natural management of autoimmune
    conditions is complex. Support that is specific
    to the individual immune system is essential if
    you truly want to help Hashimoto's Disease.

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Thyroid Nodular Disease
  • Thyroid gland nodules are common in the general
    population
  • Palpable nodules occur in approximately 5 of the
    US population, mainly in women
  • Most thyroid nodules are benign
  • Less than 5 are malignant
  • Only 8 to 10 of patients with thyroid nodules
    have thyroid cancer

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Multinodular Goiter (MNG)
  • MNG is an enlarged thyroid gland containing
    multiple nodules
  • The thyroid gland becomes more nodular with
    increasing age
  • In MNG, nodules typically vary in size
  • Most MNGs are asymptomatic
  • MNG may be toxic or nontoxic
  • Toxic MNG occurs when multiple sites of
    autonomous nodule hyperfunction develop,
    resulting in thyrotoxicosis
  • Toxic MNG is more common in the elderly

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Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Incidence
  • Thyroid carcinoma occurs relatively infrequently
    compared to the common occurrence of benign
    thyroid disease
  • Thyroid cancers account for only 0.74 of cancers
    among men, and 2.3 of cancers in women in the US
  • The annual rate has increased nearly 50 since
    1973 to approximately 18 000 cases
  • Thyroid carcinomas (percentage of all US cases)
  • Papillary (80)
  • Follicular (about 10)
  • Medullary thyroid (5-10)
  • Anaplastic carcinoma (1-2)
  • Primary thyroid lymphomas (rare)
  • Metastatic from other primary sites (rare)

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Association Between Goiters, Thyroid Nodules, and
Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Risk factors for carcinoma associated with
    presence of thyroid nodules
  • Solitary thyroid nodules in patients gt60 or lt30
    years of age
  • Irradiation of the neck or face during infancy or
    teenage years
  • Symptoms of pain or pressure (especially a change
    in voice)
  • Solitary nodules tend to present a higher but not
    significantly increased risk of cancer compared
    with nodules in multinodular goiters

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Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Thyroid Glandular
  • High quality glandular tissue contains the needed
    amino acids, fatty acids, co-enzymes, and other
    raw material needed to support the thyroid.
    Porcine glandular tissue, as opposed to other
    types of tissue such as bovine, has always been
    the preferred source to support the thyroid.

73
Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Aswaganda Withania Somnifera
  • Withania Somnifera contains compounds that have
    been shown to have a stimulatory impact on both
    T3 and T4 hormone synthesis. It also has been
    shown to reduce hepatic lipid peroxidation and
    increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and
    other antioxidant systems. This is important
    because numerous studies have demonstrated that
    feroxidation and oxidative stress significantly
    alter thyroid metabolism.

74
Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Vitamin A and Thyroid Function
  • Once thyroid hormones bind to receptor sites, a
    series of biochemical reactions called
    intercellular transduction is initiated. This
    intercellular transduction response carries the
    message of binding to the nuclear receptors.
    Once the nuclear receptor has been activated it
    will respond by producing proteins that express
    enhanced metabolic rate and energy production.
    Vitamin A appears to influence thyroid hormone
    nuclear receptors. Thyroid hormone nuclear
    transcription activation involves vitamin
    A-dependent, retinoic acid-specific receptors.

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Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Vitamin D and Thyroid Function
  • Elevated autoimmune thyroid antibodies are a very
    common pattern associated with the etiology of
    thyroid disorders. Vitamin D has shown to be an
    effective immune modulator as well as an
    effective suppressor of autoimmune disorders.
  • Selenium and Thyroid Function
  • Selenium is the major co-factor for the enzyme
    5'deiodinase, which is responsible for converting
    T4 into T3 as well as degrading rT3. Studies have
    confirmed lower production of T3 in individuals
    with lower selenium status. Numerous studies have
    demonstrated increased T3 synthesis as well as
    decreased reverse T3 production with selenium

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Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Zinc and Thyroid Function
  • It has been shown that low zinc status
    compromises T3 production. Studies have also
    demonstrated that zinc supplementation Improves
    thyroi hormone production. These effects may be
    due to the co-factor role zinc plays with type I
    5' deiodinase. In addition zinc may playa role
    in reducing thyroidal antibodies.
  • Commiphora Muku (Guggulu) and Thyroid Function
  • The guggulsterones compounds in this herb have
    been shown to stimulate the synthesis of T3
    hormones. They also appear to have the ability to
    reduce LDL cholesterol and decrease lipid
    peroxidation. Commiphora's ability to increase T3
    production, its ability to reduce cholesterol,
    and its antiperoxidative effects make it a very
    useful herb to consider with low T3 patterns.

77
Nutrients and Formulas to Support the Thyroid
  • Iodine should not be taken without the guidance
    of a healthcare specialist

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  • Gloria Moreira, Dipl. Ac., A.P., ABAAHP
  • Miami Holistic Center
  • 1267 Coral Way, Miami, Florida 33145
  • Miami, FL 33143
  • PH 786.306.8009
  • FAX 305.328.8323
  • www.MiamiHolisticCenter.com
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