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Integrating wind and solar energy for a smart grid platform

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This presentation is actually an analysis into the heart of the Indian power sector; what are the problems that the Indian grid is facing and what is the best possible solution to solve them. Smart Grid proposes a dynamic electricity management system which seems to be the need of the hour for the Indian electricity System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Integrating wind and solar energy for a smart grid platform


1
Integrating Wind and Solar Energy in India for a
Smart Grid Platform
With Support and Editorial by Mr Peter Meissen
  • Farhan Beg

2
Indias Location
Source Esri
3
India, Latitude and Longitude
Source www.wikipedia.org/india
4
Population
Current Population 1.27 Billion
Source CIA world Factbook
5
Indias Population Density
Source https//wikis.engrade.com/imperialisminind
ia/2
6
Energy Consumption (quadrillion Btu)
Source IEA
Currently
7
Indias Energy Consumption and GDP
Source EIA
8
The Two Fastest Growing Major Economies
Peoples Republic of China vs. Republic of
India
China India
Population (July 2013 est.) 1.34 billion 1.28 billion
Electricity Installed generation capacity (2012 est.) 1100.78 GW 220.23 GW
Electricity from fossil fuels 69.5 of installed capacity 69.9 of installed capacity
Electricity from Renewable sources 29.6 of installed capacity 27.6 of installed capacity
Carbon dioxide emission from consumption of energy.(est 2010) 8.321 billion Mt 1.696 billion Mt
Source CIA world Factbook
Carbon dioxide emission of China is nearly 5
times more as that of India!
9
  • Acknowledging Power Supply and Demand
  • The Gap between demand and supply is wide and
    growing.
  • Growing economy and massive urbanization is
    putting more stress on energy and the
    environment.
  • The average electricity consumption in India is
    still among the lowest in the world at just 630
    kWh per person per year, but this is expected to
    grow to 1000 kWh in the near future.

Source CEA, Ministry of Power India
10
Population Growth, Electricity Production, and
Electricity Consumption
Population Growth
Electricity Production
Electricity Consumption
Source Indian Ministry of Power
11
Source EIA
12
Electricity Scenario of India
Key regulatory bodies in the Indian Power Sector
Department of Atomic Energy
Ministry of Power
Central Electricity Regularity Commission
State Electricity Regularity Commissions
Central Electricity Authority
Installed Capacity 220 GW Peak
Demand 170 GW Peak Deficit 8.6 Energy
Deficit 4.8 Growth Rate 8-9
PA
For the Year 2011
Source Central Electricity Authority
13
Issues Facing Indias Power Sector
Generation Side
Transmission Side
Distribution Side
14
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15
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16
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17
Before And Now
  • Grid infra-structure established over a 100 years
    ago
  • Main purpose was to supply electricity to a few
    loads
  • Power Generation was localized and built around
    small communities

(State of Transition)
  • The needs of the civilization are not modest
    anymore
  • Grid structure is becoming complex with every
    passing day and loads are increasing in size
    and convulsion
  • A constant interest related to integrating
    variable sources of energies that give rise to
    harmonic instability.

18
Grid Modernization
w
Source www.enel.com
19
Smart Grid, A Remedy
What a Smart Grid can do?
Issue
A Smart Grid better manages the integration of
all available resources of energy into the grid.
  • Supply Shortfalls
  • Huge Losses

Allows the integration of Distribution Energy
Resources (DERs) that can allow localised
generation hence reducing the transmission and
equipment losses
Provides the platform for introduction of
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for a
better User Interface (UI)
  • Human element in system operations

Allows a perceptive load control which can
prevent the peak time shortfall
  • Peak Load Management

Manages problems caused by intermittency and
distributed power
  • Integration of renewable energy

20
Smart Grid Deployment
The Smart in a Smart Grid is an Information
Communication Technology (ICT) that brings
together a variety of computing and
telecommunications technologies. The ICT enables
the Smart Grids envisioned benefits to become a
reality.
Source www.siemens.com
21
Technology of Smart Grids
  • Smart Grids encompass a wide range of operations
    such as
  • detecting and identifying faults and a quick
    response to power outages,
  • providing consumers with near real-time
    information on the amount and cost of the power
    they use,
  • improving the security of the system, and
  • linking all elements of the grid to enable better
    decision making on the resource use.

Various technologies in action
  • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
  • Distribution Management System (DMS)
  • Distribution Automation System (DAS)
  • Automated Meter Reading (AMR)
  • Geographical Information System (GIS)
  • Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs)

Source www.sandiegofreepress.org
22
Home Area Network
Home Area Network (HAN) connects thermostats,
refrigerators and other electrical devices in a
Smart Home to an energy management system.
Source www.smartgrid portal.org
23
Integration of Renewable Energy
Integration of Renewable Energy is probably the
biggest thrust for a Smart Grid Deployment in
India
  • Has to be converged at grid operator level and
    requires a superior Energy Management System
  • The Smart Grids superior capability of
    introducing new sources of energy to the grid
    clearly signifies that more Distributed
    Generation can be integrated into it

Solar and Wind energy are crucial and primary
factors of a cleaner and greener energy future
24
Demerits of Conventional Fuels
25
Indias Renewable Scenario
  • As on November 2012, 12 of total installed
    capacity (210 GW) through renewable sources
  • Wind (18.3 GW)
  • Small Hydro (3.4 GW)
  • Biomass (1.2 GW)
  • Solar (1 GW)

Progressive Renewable Sector
2012
2017 estd
26
The Role of Renewable Energy
  • The notion of renewable energy as an alternate
    form of energy is no longer a valid argument.
  • India is currently ranked 5th in the world in all
    renewable energy fronts.

Source www.indexmundi.com
27
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28
Wind Energy in India
  • Wind Energy program initiated in 1983-84
  • Total Potential of Wind Energy in India is
    estimated at 45000 MW

Source Weather Department of the University of
Delhi
29
Solar Energy in India
  • The average intensity of solar radiation in India
    is on the order of 20 MW/square km
  • The total solar energy potential tends to as high
    as 657.4 million MW

30
Why do we need a Smart Grid for integrating
Renewable Energies into the Grid?
  • Location Dependent Resources
  • Variability
  • Unpredictability

31
Location Dependence
  • Wind and Solar Resources are highly Location
    Dependent
  • Quality wind and solar resources that are most
    feasible for RE generation are based on specific
    locations

Source www.windturbineshome.net
32
Solar Energy Resources in India
Source http//www.mapsofindia.com/maps/nonconvent
ional/windresources.htm
33
Wind Energy Resources in India
Source http//www.mapsofindia.com/maps/nonconvent
ional/windresources.htm
34
Non-Controllable Variability and the Smart Grid
  • Grid operators need to deal with fluctuations in
    voltage and frequency in a second to minute
    scale.
  • If left unchecked can do a significant damage to
    the System and all the attached instruments.

The Smart Grid provides a wide range of ancillary
services
  • Frequency regulation
  • Spinning Reserves
  • Non-Spinning Reserves
  • Voltage Support
  • Black-Start Capacity

www.siemens.com/controlcentres
35
What has been done in India?
  • Smart Grid provides the platform for a more
    reliable, secure and sustainable grid in India.
  • Pilot Smart Grid projects
  • Gujarat
  • Chandigarh
  • Smart Metering Infrastructure is being planned
    for a number of states.
  • Dr Sam Pitroda, chairman India Smart Grid Task
    Force launched the Smart Grid portal in 2013
    www.IndiaSmartGrid.org

36
If you have any questions, or would like to help
further this research, please contactMr Farhan
Beg, via email farhan.beg_at_geni.org
Farhan Beg is a Power Engineer from the National
Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India
(www.NITSRI.net) and is a researcher at the
Global Energy Network Institute, San Diego USA
(www.GENI.org)
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