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Title: "Web Designing Courses, Web Designing training, CAD Designing Courses,


1
AUTOCAD
  • ACT AN ACADEMY OF HIGHER EDUCATION

2
WHAT IS AUTOCAD ?
  • AutoCAD is a CAD (Computer Aided Design or
    Computer Aided Drafting) software
    application for 2D and 3D design and drafting. It
    is developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. First
    released in December 1982, AutoCAD was one of the
    first CAD programs to run on personal computers.
  • AutoCAD is a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program
    used by just about every Engineering and Design
    office in the world. Although there are
    alternative CAD packages, AutoCAD is by far the
    most widely used system. Autodesk's AutoCAD is
    the industry leader in CAD packages. Used by
    Civil Engineers, Architects, Mechanical and
    Electrical Engineers, Aeronautical Engineers plus
    many other disciplines.
  • There have been several versions of Autocad over
    the years, with each new version introducing new
    and more powerful features than its predecessor

3
WHAT IS CAD?
  • Computer aided design is a creative design
    process that is based on a computer system. It
    can be either hardware or software based
    however, it is usually a software based program
    that is used for design purposes. This design
    process uses computer technology to assist
    certain types of professionals in the design and
    drawing of technical drawings. Computer aided
    design is also referred to as CAD or Computer
    aided drafting.

4
AUTOCAD WINDOW
Drawing Name
Standard Toolbar
Object Properties Toolbar
Optional Toolbar Locations
Pull-down Menu Headings
Cursor
Coordinate Display
Status Line
5
Drawing Area
  • The large area in the center of the screen.
  • This is where you draw.
  • The size can be changed at any time.

Model
  • Switches your drawing between paper space and
    model space.

6
CrossHairs/ Cursor
  • The movement is controlled by the movement of the
    pointing device (mouse).
  • Use to locate points, make selections and draw
    objects.

7
Command Line
  • The three lines at the bottom of the screen.
  • This is where you enter commands and AutoCAD will
    prompt you to input information.
  • The number of lines visible can be changed.

8
Status Bar
  • Displays your content settings
  • The settings can be turned on/off by clicking on
    the word (SNAP, GRID, ORTHO, etc) or by pressing
    the function keys associated with each.

9
2. Introducing Tool BarsYou can see there is a
number of different tool bars on the screen. The
main tool bar which is located under the Menu
bar. These are the most frequently used tool
bars. If you place your mouse on it and right
click, you will get a list of other tool bars
that you may want to display (by scrolling down
and clicking on them).
This tool bar offers different shapes and
objects to draw. You can see what they do by
putting your mouse on each one and waiting
until a balloon with description pops up.
This tool bar offers different ways of editing
your drawing(s). Remember the name of the
command that pops up in the help balloon by
putting your mouse over each button. If you
remember the command, you can later type it in
the command line and achieve the same result.
10
Toolbars
  • There are many toolbars available in AutoCAD. Go
    to View gt Toolbars from the drop down menu to see
    them all. For now make sure that the following
    toolbars are checkedDraw - Contains AutoCADs
    most common drawing tools
  • Modify - Contains all of the common editing
    commands such as erase, copy etc.Object
    Properties - Contains 'layer' information as well
    as object colours and line style
    options.Standard Toolbar - Contains open save
    options as well as zoom pan options.Object
    Snap - AutoCAD's intelligent drawing aid - joins
    lines at specific points.

11
  • CAD Coordinate System
  • Any point in CAD can be located precisely using
    X, Y and Z coordinates.
  • The Cartesian coordinate system has three axes
    X, Y, and Z that intersect at the origin (0,0,0).
  • Coordinate values are always expressed as (X,
    Y, Z)

ANGLES in CAD
Coordinates in CAD
12
AutoCAD Coordinates System
  • There is only 3 AutoCAD coordinates system you
    should know.
  • Absolute coordinates
  • Relative coordinates
  • Polar coordinates.

13
Absolute Coordinates
  • All input points specify in your drawing using
    standard Cartesian coordinates x and y. Using
    absolute coordinate, points entered by typing x,y
    Enter

14
Relative Coordinates
  • After first points entered, your next points can
    be entered by specifying the next coordinate
    compare/relative from the first points. The
    relative coordinate started with symbol _at_ tell
    AutoCAD it was a relative coordinates. Using
    relative coordinate, points entered by typing
    _at_x,y Enter

15
Polar Coordinates
  • Polar coordinates used when you need to draw the
    next points at specify angle. Polar coordinates
    system in AutoCAD specifies distance length at
    which angle. Using polar coordinate, points
    entered by typing _at_distanceltangle Enter

16
Function Keys
  • F1 HELP
  • F2 FLIPSCREEN
  • F3 OSNAP
  • F4 TABLET
  • F5 ISOPLANE
  • F6 COORDINATE DISPLAY
  • F7 GRID
  • F8 ORTHO
  • F9 SNAP
  • F10 POLAR
  • F11 OTRACK

17
Special Function Keys
  • ESC- Cancels the current command, menu, or dialog
    box.
  • ENTER- Ends a command or will repeat the
    previous command if the command line is blank
  • SPACE BAR- Same as the end key except when
    entering text.

18
Coordinate Display (F6)
  • In the ABSOLUTE mode Displays the location of
    the crosshairs/ cursor in reference to the
    origin. The first number represents the
    horizontal (x axis) and the second number
    represents the vertical (y axis).
  • In RELATIVE POLAR mode displays the distance and
    angle of the cursor from the last point entered.

19
SNAP (F9)
  • Increment Snap controls the movement of the
    cursor. If it is off the cursor will move
    smoothly. If it is ON, the cursor will jump in an
    incremental movement. The increment spacing can
    be changed, at any time using TOOLS/DRAFTING
    SETTINGS. The default spacing is .250

20
GRID (F7)
  • The grid is merely a visual drawing aid. The
    default spacing is 1 unit. You may change the
    grid spacing at any time using TOOLS/DRAFTING
    SETTINGS.

ORTHO (F8)
  • When ORTHO is ON, the cursor movement is
    restricted to horizontal or vertical. When ORTHO
    is OFF, the cursor is free to move.

21
POLAR (F10)
  • POLAR TRACKING creates alignment paths at
    specified angles.

OSNAP (F3)
  • RUNNING OBJECT SNAP- specific object snaps can be
    set to stay active until you turn them off.

OTRACK (F11)
  • OBJECT SNAP TRACKING creates alignment paths at
    precise positions using object snap locations.

22
Important commands which used for making
drawings
1.Line This command is used to draw the line,
you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write L at command prompt   LINETYPE This
option is basically used to change the type of
line you can change your continuous line in to
center, dashed zigzag and many other types. For
this click on the line or any other object you
want to change than select the line type control
from properties toolbar as you click on this
option all the line type will show click on the
line which you want selected line will change in
to that.   LINEWEIGHT This option is use to
change thickness of line this change will show
only in Printing not on computer Click on the
line or any other object you want to change than
select the line weight Control from properties
toolbar as you click this option all weights will
show click on the thickness you want thickness of
selected line will change. COLORCONTROL This
option is use to change color of any object click
on the line or any other object you want to
change than select the color control from
properties toolbar as you click this option all
colors will show click on the color you want
color of selected object will change.
23
Important commands which used for making
drawings
2.Circle This command is used to draw the
circle, you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write C at command prompt. 3. Polygon
This command is used to draw the figure of
three sides or more than three sides, you can
choose the command from your toolbar or write Pol
at command prompt.   4.Rectangle This command
is used to draw the rectangle, you can choose the
command from your toolbar or you can write Rec at
command prompt 5.Arc This command is used to
draw the arc, you can choose the command directly
from your toolbar or write A at command
prompt   6.Xline This command is used to draw
the construction line, you can choose the command
from your toolbar or write XL at command
prompt 7. Erase- This command is used to draw
erase the objects, you can choose the command
from your toolbar or can E at command prompt   8.
Copy - This command is used to copy the objects,
you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write Cp at command prompt
24
Important commands which used for making
drawings
9. Move- This command is used to move the
objects, you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write M at command prompt   10.
Mirror-this command is used to mirror the objects
you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write Mi at command prompt 11. Rotate- this
command is used to rotate the objects you can
choose the command from your toolbar or write Ro
at command prompt   12. Offset- this command is
used to offset the objects you can choose the
command from your toolbar or write O at command
prompt   13. Array- this command is used to array
the objects you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write Ar at command prompt   14.
Scale- this command is use to scale the drawing
you can choose the command from your toolbar or
write Sc at command prompt. 15. Stretch- this
command is use to stretch the drawing you can
choose the command from your toolbar or write
Stretch at command prompt 16. Trim- this command
is use to trim the two corners you can choose the
command from your toolbar or write Tr at command
prompt.
25
Important commands which used for making
drawings
17. Extend- this command is use to extend the
line you can choose the command from your toolbar
or write Ex at command prompt. 18. Fillet- this
command is use join the two corners with the help
of an arc you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write F at command prompt. 19.
Chamfer- this command is use to chamfer the two
corners you can choose the command from your
toolbar or write Cha at command prompt. 20.
Explode - this command is use to explode the
single identity pf an object. You can explode
hatch, dimensions and blocks any thing which is
in group form choose the command from your
toolbar or write Explode at command prompt. 21.
Break - this command is use to break the line or
circle between the two points choose the command
from your toolbar or write Br at command
prompt. 22. Polyline - this command is use to
draw the line composed of one or more connected
line segments or circular arcs treated as a
single object. Choose the command from your
toolbar or write Pl at command prompt.
26
Important commands which used for making
drawings
23. Hatch - this command is use to hatch the
close figure. Choose the command from your
toolbar or write H at command prompt. 24. Dtext
- this command is use to write the text. Write DT
at command prompt. 25. Mtext - this command is
use to write the multi line text. Choose the
command from your toolbar or write MT at command
prompt. 26. Edit text - this command is use to
edit the text you can edit or change both kind of
text DT and MT, write Ed at command prompt. 27.
Make Block - this command is use to make the
block of some single objects you can use these
block in your drawing any time choose the command
from your toolbar or write Block at command
prompt. 28. Insert Block - This command is use
to insert the block in your drawing choose the
command from your toolbar or write Insert at
command prompt.
27
Important commands which used for making
drawings
29. Dimension - Now we will study about
dimension of the drawing, it is very important
that every drawing should have dimensions so that
you can get information about the sizes of
drawing. You can choose dimension from Dimension
Toolbar let us study one by one   Linear
dimension-This command is used for the dimensions
of straight lines. Angular dimension- This
command is used for the dimensions of angles
between two lines or the angle of arcs and
circles. Radius Dimension - This command is used
to give the radius of the circles and
arc. Diameter Dimension - this option is used to
give the diameter of the circles and
arc.   Centre mark - This command is used to mark
the centre of the circles and arc. Quick leader
- This command is used to specify the notes for
anything, click on this sign Dimension style
you can change dimension style of dimensions, you
can give more than one style to your dimensions
for this you have to click on Format than choose
dimension style or you can just write Dimstyle at
command prompt a box will appear, you can create
new styles, sets the current style, modifies
styles, sets overrides on the current style
  Current Dim style it Display the current
dimension style. AutoCAD assigns this style to
all dimensions. If you do not change the current
style, AutoCAD assigns the default STANDARD style
to dimensions.  
28
Important commands which used for making
drawings
30. Layer This command is very useful. We have
do lot of work in one drawing for e.g. if make a
plan for the house than we have to give
dimensions, furniture position, electrical
lining, plumbing and many more we cannot each
every time erase this work for the printout so we
do all the work in layers. For each and every
work make different layer. Choose from format
LAYER or you can write Layer on command prompt a
box will appear with all the layer it have if you
want to make the new layer than click the right
button of your mouse many options will appear
choose New Layer - a box with cursor will appear
change the name according to you requirement. You
can also change the color, line type and line
weight of your layer from this box. On- bulb
sign is used to make on off the layer layer will
disappear from the screen.Freeze- sign is used
to freeze the layer layer will disappear from
the screen.Lock- lock sign is used to lock the
layer, if the layer is lock than you cannot do
any work in it. By default 0 layer is current
that means all the work you done is saved in this
layer but if you want to do dimensions than make
dimension layer and set it current. if you want
to make the new layer current click the right
button of your mouse many options will appear
choose set current. Now if you do not want this
layer to be shown in printing make it
freeze.(P.S. You can operate you layer from
layers toolbar also)
29
Important commands which used for making
drawings
31. There are some more commands which are not so
important but you must know about them a)
Distance this command is used to measure the
distance between the two points. Just write Di at
command prompt Specify first point- click on the
first point of line Specify second point- click
on the second point of line It will display all
the information at command prompt.   b) Revision
cloud This command is used to make the cloud
like structure in which you can write your
remarks or can highlight the particular area
select the command from toolbar or write revcloud
at command prompt. RevcloudMinimum arc length
0.5000 Maximum arc lengths 0.5000 Specify start
point or Arc length/Object/Style click to draw
the revision cloud, when the start and end lines
meet, the following message is displayed on the
command line. (Revision cloud finished.)
30
Important commands which used for making
drawings
c) Spline this command is used to measure draw
the curve lines select the command from toolbar
or write spline at command prompt. SplineSpecify
first point- click on the first point of
line Specify second point- click on the second
point of line It will display all the information
at command prompt. Specify first point or
Object Specify a point Specify next point
Specify a point Enter points until you have
defined the spline curve. After you enter two
points, AutoCAD displays the following prompt
Specify next point or Close/Fit Tolerance
Specify a point, line will complete   d) Point
This command is used to make mark the point
select the command from toolbar or write Po at
command prompt. PoSpecify a point click where
you want to locate the point, from point style
menu you can select the type of point you
required, for this click on format than on point
style a box will appear with all the points just
click the required one.
31
Important commands which used for making
drawings
c) Spline this command is used to measure draw
the curve lines select the command from toolbar
or write spline at command prompt. SplineSpecify
first point- click on the first point of
line Specify second point- click on the second
point of line It will display all the information
at command prompt. Specify first point or
Object Specify a point Specify next point
Specify a point Enter points until you have
defined the spline curve. After you enter two
points, AutoCAD displays the following prompt
Specify next point or Close/Fit Tolerance
Specify a point, line will complete   d) Point
This command is used to make mark the point
select the command from toolbar or write Po at
command prompt. PoSpecify a point click where
you want to locate the point, from point style
menu you can select the type of point you
required, for this click on format than on point
style a box will appear with all the points just
click the required one. c for diameter
sign d for degree sign edit command is used to
edit our dimension
32
Important commands which used for making
drawings
e) Ellipse This command is used to draw the
ellipse choose command from toolbar or write El
at command prompt. ELSpecify axis endpoint of
ellipse or Arc/Center/Isocircle Specify a
point or enter the value (_at_distanceSpecify other
endpoint of axis Specify a point or enter the
value (_at_distanceSpecify distance to other axis
or Rotation Specify a distance by entering a
value or locating a point Specify rotation
around major axis Specify a point (3), or enter
an angle value between 0 and 89.4 (P.S. you can
also draw isocircle when click right button your
mouse at Snap button setting box will open now
select the isometric option and you will be able
to draw isocircle) f) Divide This command is
used to divide the line in equal parts write Div
at command prompt.DivSelect object to divide
select he object you want to divide Enter number
of segments Enter a value object will divide if
you not able to see than change the style of
point.
33
Primitive Solid
SHAPE COMMAND DESCRIPTION
BOX BOX Creates a solid box after you provide 2 opposite corners and a height.
SPHERE SPHERE Creates a solid sphere from a center point and radius.
CYLINDER CYLINDER Creates a straight cylinder from a center point, radius and height.
CONE CONE Creates a tapered cone from a center point, radius and height.
WEDGE WEDGE Creates a triangular wedge from 2 opposite points.
TORUS TORUS Creates a torus (donut shape) based on center point, radius and tube radius.
PYRAMID PYRAMID / PYR Draws a solid object with a polygon (3-32 sides) base that rises to a central point.
POLYSOLID PSOLID Draws a solid object with width and height as you would draw a polyline.
34
  Boolean Operations
COMMAND INPUT DESCRIPTION
UNION(Boolean) UNION / UNI Joins two or more solids into creating one based on the total geometry of all.
SUBTRACT(Boolean) SUBTRACT / SU Subtracts one or more solids from another creating a solid based on the remaining geometry.
INTERSECT(Boolean) INTERSECT / IN Creates a single solid from one more solids based on the intersected geometry.
EXTRUDE FACE SOLIDEDIT Allows you to increase the size of a solid by extruding out one of its faces.
SLICE SLICE Slices a solid along a cutting plane.
3D ALIGN 3DALIGN Aligns 2 3D Objects in 3D space.
35
  Shortcut
Draw Draw Modify Modify
Shortcut Command Shortcut Command
L LINE E ERASE
XL CONSTURCTION LINE CO COPY
PL POLYLINE MI MIRROR
POL POLYGON O OFFSET
REC RECTANG AR ARRAY
A ARC M MOVE
C CIRCLE RO ROTATE
REVCLOUD REVCLOUD SC SCALE
SPL SPLINE S STRETCH
EL ELLIPSE TR TRIM
I INSERT BLOCK EX EXTEND
B DEFINE BLOCK BR BREAK, BREAK AT POINT
W WRITE BLOCK J JOIN
H HATCHING CHA CHAMFER
DT TEXT (SINGLE LINE) F FILLET
T MTEXT (MULTILINE) X EXPLODE
36
  Shortcut
Other Useful Commands Other Useful Commands 3D Modeling 3D Modeling
Shortcut Command Shortcut Command
PE POLY EDIT BOX BOX
OP OPTION SPHERE SPHERE
DI DIST CYL CLYINDER
AREA AREA CONE CONE
MASSPROP MASSPROP WE WEDGE
LTSCALE LINETYPESCALE TOR TORUS
PSLTSCALE PAPER SPACE LT SCALE EXT EXTRUDE
LA LAYER REV REVOLVE
LI LIST 3D 3D SURFACE
Z ZOOM
P PAN
37
  Shortcut
3D Modify 3D Modify 3D Modify 3D Modify
Shortcut Command Shortcut Command
UNI UNION ROTATE3D ROTATE 3D
SU SUBTRACT MIRROR3D MIRROR3D
IN INTERSECT AL ALIGN
SEC SECTION 3DARRAY 3DARRAY
SL SLICE SOLIDEIDT SOLIDEDIT
INF INTERFERE
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