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Schistosoma and Global Warming

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Global Warming and Schistosoma. A brief Introduction to Schistosoma: distribution, global disease burden, habitat and host range. Global warming: its causes, and effects. Global Warming and Schistosoma. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Schistosoma and Global Warming


1
Schistosoma
  • Prof Dr Kamran Ashraf
  • Shifa-ul-haq

2
Biology
  • Schistosomes are blood flukes and belong to the
  • Class Trematode
  • Order Digenea
  • Family Schistosomatidae

3
Family Schistosomatidae
  • Bilharziella
  • Ornithobilharzia
  • Schistosoma
  • Trichobilharzia
  • Minor Genra
  • Austrobilharzia
  • Dendrobilharzia
  • Gigantobilharzia
  • Heterobilharzia
  • Microbilharzia
  • Schistosomatium

4
Genus Schistosoma
  • S mansoni
  • S hematobium
  • S japonicum
  • S intercalatum
  • S mekongi
  • Currently, 21 species of this genus have been
    recognized

5
Host Range
  • Digenetic
  • Wide host range in case of S. japonicum
  • S. bovis
  • S. mattheei
  • S. rodhaini

6
Dogs, cats, rodents, pigs, horse and goats,
serve as reservoirs
7
Intermediate Hosts
  • S. hematobium and S. intercalatum by Bulinus
  • S. mansoni by Biomphalaria
  • S. japonicum by Oncomelania
  • S. mekongi by Neotricula

8
Right-Bulinus Left-Oncomelania
9
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10
Flash Video of Life Cycle about 2.30 Seconds ??
11
Period of communicability
  • Life span 5-10 years( up to 30), so infected
    human can excrete eggs up to 10 years.
  • An infected snail can release cercariae from
    several weeks to 3 months of its life.
  • An infected snail can lay eggs 300-3000/day

12
Schistosomiasis
  • Bilhaziasis
  • Snail Fever
  • Urinary Schistosomiasis
  • Katayama Fever (Acute Type)
  • Swimmers Itch or Orientobilharziasis
    (Orientobilharzia, Trichobilharzia , Schistosoma
    spindale )

13
  • Theodor Bilharz 1st describe the cause of urinary
    Schistosoma.

14
  • In ancient Egyptian Papyri symptoms of chronic
    haematobium was described as a Dripping Penis
    Disease
  • Schistosoma eggs have been recovered from
    Egyptian and Chinese mummies

15
Distribution
  • 2nd most prevalent parasitic disease in the
    world, only behind the Malaria

16
  • More than 250 million people are infected (WHO,
    2013)
  • 120 million people are symptomatic.
  • Another 700 million people are at risk of
    infection.

17
Geographic Distribution
  • 78 countries
  • The endemic areas Africa, the CaribbeanSouth
    America, East Asia, and the Middle East

18
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19
  • 200 000 mortality
  • 1.7-4.5 million DALYs
  • DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years)?
  • One lost year of "healthy" life.

20
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21
What, if its a huge problem
22
Vaccination
  • The administration of radiation-attenuated
    cercariae
  • Antigens from Schistosomules by P-I Lille, France
  • Schistosoma paramyosin
  • Target the fecundity of the female Schistosomes

23
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24
Treatment
  • Praziquantel
  • Somehow Artemether

25
  • At least 243 million people required treatment
    for Schistosomiasis in 2011 (WHO)

26
  • The number of people reported to have been
    treated for Schistosomiasis in 2011 was 28.1
    million
  • Reasons
  • Shortage of medicine
  • High cost of Praziquantel
  • No other proven alternative
  • Patent competition

27
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28
Concluding
  • More than 250 million affected
  • 700 million at risk
  • No vaccine possibility in near future
  • 243 million required treatment, but only 28
    million got it
  • But the problem not halted here

29
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30
Global Warming
  • An Average increase in the temperature of the
    atmosphere which can contribute to changes in
    global climate patterns.

31
How Global Warming Works?
32
Causes of Global Warming
  • Burning of Fossil Fuels (coal/crude oil)

33
Causes of Global Warming
  • Population Increase

34
Causes of Global Warming
  • Deforestation

35
Causes of Global Warming
  • Transportation- Fuels (LPG, Kerosine, Fuel, Jet
    Oil)

36
Causes of Global Warming
  • Industrial Process, manufacturing of steel, cement

37
Causes of Global Warming
  • Agriculture and Farming
  • Methane is 20 responsible for global warming and
    2/3 of methane is produced by animals
  • Ruminants produce 80 million metric tons of
    methane annually
  • Methane is more potent green house gas than co2

38
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  • Interestingly Ciliate Protozoa are more
    responsible for methane production (Isotricha,
    Eudiplodinium, Epidinium  Entodinium)

40
Causes of Global Warming
  • Waste Management
  • Landfills are also major source of methane

41
Causes of Global Warming
  • Use of Natural Gas for Cooking

42
Environmental and Human Effects of Global Warming
  • Increase in average temperature More extreme
    heat waves, less cold spell of winter
  • Increase in frequency of extreme events
    tornados, floods, heat waves, snow fall
  • Rising in temperature and variable precipitation
    decrease production of staple food Increase in
    Malnutrition

43
Environmental and Human Effects of Global Warming
  • Population Displacement
  • Flooding
  • Sea level rising
  • More than half of the world's population is now
    living within 60km of the sea

44
Environmental and Human Effects of Global Warming
  • UV Exposure
  • Skin Cancer
  • Premature Aging
  • Cataracts
  • Suppression of Immunity

45
Environmental and Human Effects of Global Warming
  • Climate-Sensitive Diseases

46
  • Development of cold-blooded animals is positively
    related to temperature.
  • Development will arrest when temp. drops below
    acritical threshold
  • Lowest developing temp. or biological zero
  • The higher the temperature, the higher
  • the possibility that the host snail will shed
    cercariae of S. japonicum

47
  • According to available temperature data for 1960
    and 2000, the median January temperature,
    averaged across the 193 observing stations in
    China, increased by 0.9C.
  • The mean temperature will continue to rise
    indeed at an accelerated pace with predicted
    increases by 2030 and 2050 of 1.7 and 2.2C,
    respectively

48
  • Biologic model and experiments identified a
    temperature threshold of 15.4C for development
    of Schistosoma japonicum within Oncomelania
    hupensis, and a temperature of 5.8C at which
    half the snail sample investigated was In
    hibernation
  • Historical data suggest that the geographic range
    of O. hupensis is cold tolerant and restricted by
    the mean January temperature of 0C
  • So, the increasing average temperatures
    associated with global warming are hypothesized
    to increase the ranges of O. hupensis habitat

49
  • At the same time, longer seasonal periods of mean
    temperatures gt 15.4C (the minimum temperature
    needed for parasite development) mean that the
    accumulated degree-days necessary for parasite
    development and transmission will occur in
    progressively more regions than before

50
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51
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52
  • Ultimately, as global warming progresses, more
    areas currently deemed as marginal for snail and
    schistosome habitat are expected to become
    recognized transmission zones
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