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Title: Antenna Design, Propagation Models, and DSP for Advanced HF Radars: An Integrative Approach


1
Antenna Design, Propagation Models, and DSP for
Advanced HF Radars An Integrative Approach
Magdy F Iskander Hawaii Center for Advanced
Communications College of Engineering
2
  • Objective
  • Develop Next Generation Coastal Radar Systems
    (both OTHR and HFSWR) for Homeland security
    applications
  • Features of proposed integrated system design
    include
  • Superior antenna array performance for portable
    and cost effective system
  • Accurate propagation modeling
  • Integrated propagation modeling with radiation
    characteristics to optimize system performance
  • Implement adaptive DSP algorithm for beamforming,
    reconfigurable system with multipath mitigation
    and noise and clutter suppression capabilities
  • Improved target detection and localization

3
HF Radar System
  • Multipath
  • Diffraction
  • Polarization

Signal Generator
Transmit Antenna
Ionosphere
scattering

Receive Antenna(s)
Compare ?
Ocean wave effects
Interference sources
Radar Processor
4
Integrated HF Radar System
Propagation Modeling
HF Antenna Design
Digital Signal Processing
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive/ reconfigurable array ( FOT,
    polarization and space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Design of high performance electrically
  • small antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize to DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

5
New Developed Realistic Channel Models
Sponsored by Kyocera Wireless, Motorola, BAE
6
Transmit Diversity Applied at the handset
New Developed Realistic Channel
Models
Multiple Element Antennas at the BS
Sponsored by Kyocera Wireless, Motorola, BAE
7
Integrated HF Radar System
HF Antenna Design
Propagation Modeling
Digital Signal Processing
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive/ reconfigurable array ( FOT,
    polarization and space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Design of high performance electrically
  • small antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize to DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

8
  • HF Antenna Design
  • Objective
  • Develop an electrically small high performance
    antenna system
  • Effective radiation resistance
  • High efficiency
  • Good impedance matching
  • Controlled radiation pattern and
    reconfigurability

9
Overview of available designs (continued)
New industrial trends The Super-directive attempt
  • Advantages
  • Portable
  • Suitable for reconfiguration, beamforming, and
    beam steering
  • Cost effective

  • Limitations
  • Precise phasing
  • Low radiation resistance, inefficient
  • Serious impedance mismatch
  • Narrow band
  • Impractical antenna tolerances

7 element superdirective array. At 4.5 MHz two
posts 80m separation, directivity 20 dB,
exaggeration 10-12 dBi)
Donald Barrick, CODAR Ocean Sensors, Los Altos
CA, 2003
10
Examples of Practical Realization (continued)
0.5x0.85x0.5 m3
1.35x0.85x0.5 m3
Operating frequency 6 and 24 MHz Gain
4.62 dB
Emilie Bronner, PhD Dissertation, University of
Paris 6, Nov 2005
11
Examples of Practical Realization (continued) A
UH alternative, capacitive loading Optimization
of Small Antennas with GA
Antenna height 1/8 of a ?/4 monopole Gain
Similar to a ?/4 monopole
S. Lim, H. Choo, R. L. Rogers, and H. Ling,
Electrically small antenna for maximizing
transmission into HF ground waves, IEE
Electronics Letters, vol. 40, no.22, pp.
1388-1389, Oct. 2004.
12
Improving Bandwidth
  • Resistive loading
  • Implement designs that exhibit multiple antenna
    resonances (closely spaced duplicate arms)
  • Challenges of tapered resistive loading
  • Design
  • Optimal resistive profile
  • Trade off the efficiency
  • Manufacture
  • Resistive material
  • Proper Shaping

Profile of resistive loading
13
Integrated HF Radar System
HF Antenna Design
Propagation Modeling
Digital Signal Processing
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive/ reconfigurable array ( FOT,
    polarization and space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Design of high performance electrically
  • small antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize to DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

14
Propagation Modeling
  • Objective
  • Incorporate characteristics of propagation
    environment in the overall optimization of the
    antenna system performance
  • Importance
  • Terrain data affects path loss, coverage, etc
  • Dynamic Ionoshphere data and associated affects
    on operating conditions
  • FOT, polarization, delay spread, AOA
  • Important input parameters to DSP, beamforning,
    steering, noise and interference mitigation
  • Status
  • Examined available propagation modeling software
    (e.g AREPS)
  • Limitations
  • limited capabilities in certain important areas
    for DHS applications
  • Ray tracing incomplete
  • Integration with antenna radiation pattern is
    incomplete

15
Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center,
San Diego- Atmospheric Propagation Branch, Dr.
Amalia Barrios code 5548
16
Example Results from ARPES
SURFACE WAVE 10 MHz, Vpol, omni antenna 10 m
Tx ht
smooth ocean
very dry ground
17
  • Incorporate floor or city plans using AutoCAD
    .dxf file
  • Incorporate floor or city plans using AutoCAD
    .dxf file
  • Indoor
  • Outdoor
  • Indoor/Outdoor
  • Indoor
  • Outdoor
  • Indoor/Outdoor
  • Locate TX and RX
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Locate TX and RX
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Wall Parameters
  • Thickness
  • Conductivity
  • Relative Permittivity
  • Wall Parameters
  • Thickness
  • Conductivity
  • Relative Permittivity
  • Upload Realistic Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Transmitter and Receiver
  • User-friendly, graphical, rotation of
    patterns
  • Upload Realistic Antenna Radiation Patterns
  • Transmitter and Receiver
  • User-friendly, graphical, rotation of
    patterns

IEEE Trans, 2000, 02, 04, ,08
18
HCAC Capabilities (continued)
  • Simulate
  • Total Field Distribution
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Line Calculation
  • Received power along a designated line
  • Simulate
  • Total Field Distribution
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Line Calculation
  • Received power along a designated line
  • Plot
  • Total Field Distribution
  • Linear or dB
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Cartesian or Polar
  • Plot
  • Total Field Distribution
  • Linear or dB
  • Plot
  • Total Field Distribution
  • Linear or dB
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Cartesian or Polar
  • Real-time plot updates
  • Radiation pattern effects for
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Real-time plot updates
  • Radiation pattern effects for
  • Delay Spread
  • Angle of Arrival/Departure
  • Other Options
  • Polarization (vertical or horizontal)
  • Frequency
  • Reflection and Resolution
  • Other Options
  • Polarization (vertical or horizontal)
  • Frequency
  • Reflection and Resolution

19
UH Capabilities (continued) Rosslyn City, VA
Wireless Coverage Results, extraction of 3D from
2D Internet (Google) images
2D image of a building
Accuracy
60 buildings 480 vertices
The 3D reconstruction of the building
Power distribution at receivers
20
Integrated HF Radar System
HF Antenna Design
Propagation Modeling
Digital Signal Processing
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive/ reconfigurable array ( FOT,
    polarization and space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Design of high performance electrically
  • small antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize to DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

21
Hybrid Smart Antenna Algorithm
Objective Use DSP to develop integrated HF radar
system capabilities and optimized performance
Switch
Beamforming
Beamforming
1
1
Adaptive
RF
-
IF
RF
-
IF
A/D
A/D
Adaptive
Weight
Weight
Calculation
RF
-
IF
RF
-
IF
A/D
A/D
Calculation
2
2
A/D
A/D
RF
-
IF
RF
-
IF
3
3
RF
-
IF
RF
-
IF
A/D
A/D
Signal
Signal
x
å
å
x
4
4
Smart Switch Control
N
N
RF
-
IF
RF
-
IF
A/D
A/D
IEEE Trans., 2003, 04, 06, and 08
22
Hybrid Antenna Array Prototype
ADC 8 channels 25 MHz
IF signals (connected to ADC card inputs)
RF inputs (connected to receiver antennas)
23
Experimental Verification of Hybrid Smart
Antenna Technique
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation, 2006
24
Integrated HF Radar System
HF Antenna Design
Propagation Modeling
Digital Signal Processing
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive/ reconfigurable array ( FOT,
    polarization and space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Design of high performance electrically
  • small antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

25
Concluding remarks
Develop Next Generation Coastal Radar Systems
(both OTHR and HFSWR) for Homeland Security
Applications
Integrated HF Radar System
HF Antenna Design
Propagation Modeling
Digital Signal Processing
  • Integrate antenna propagation capabilities
  • Develop adaptive array ( FOT, polarization and
    space diversity) information
  • Implement hybrid smart antenna, beamforming,
    noise/ interference mitigation
  • Expand capabilities and integrate propagation
    models (AREPS) in overall antenna system design (
    terrain/ionospheric parameters
  • Include new capabilities complete ray tracing,
    delay spread, AOA, and full antenna
    characterization
  • Design of high performance electrically small
    antennas
  • Portable
  • Cost effective
  • Optimize to meet DHS needs
  • Implement diversity and beamforming schemes in
    arrays
  • Construct and Test

26
Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Hawaii
  • RET-Hawaii is a National Science Foundation (NSF)
    program with unique features, vision and mission.
    This includes
  • Wireless Technology focus related courses,
    labs, and field trip activities
  • Classroom activities, not after school
    competition type programs
  • Teacher driven program shared responsibilities
    include

University
Teachers
  • Provide infrastructure, laptops, wireless
    networks, probes, PDAs, etc.
  • Produce high quality multimedia products
  • Provide training
  • Virtual Organization for sharing resources and
    exchanging ideas
  • In drivers seat
  • Communicate, provide ideas, share experiences
  • Implement
  • Provide data for assessment

27
Develp
  • Status
  • 25 schools
  • 66 teachers
  • Over 14,000 students
  • Proposed activities
  • Expand to maritime
  • Include DHS schools

28
Summary of tasks
  • HF Antenna Design
  • Design, simulate, and test variety of
    electrically small antennas
  • Evaluate trade offs considering DHS needs
  • Develop and test elements prototypes for
    validation
  • Construct, test, and optimize array performance
  • Propagation Modeling
  • Integrate available propagation codes with
    antenna array designs of specific interest to DHS
  • Develop new capabilities in propagation models to
    help with effective integration
  • Examples include
  • Complete ray tracing, complete radiation
    characteristics
  • Develop new parameters, AOA, delay spread, etc.
  • Signal Processing
  • Integrate propagation modeling with array
    radiation characteristics
  • Develop adaptive reconfigurable HF system
  • Implement beamforming, multipath/interference
    mitigation and noise/clutter suppression
  • Implement polarization and space diversities

29
HCAC Participating Faculty Drs. Z.Q. Yun
(propagation), S. Lim (antenna) ,
H. Youn (system)
Potential Partnerships
Dr. Amilia Barrios, SPAWAR, San
Diego (AREPS-propagation)
Dr.Steven Best, Mitre Corporation Small antennas
(NORAD)
30
Schedule
31
Outreach Activities The RET Hawaii Program
32
  • Electrically Small Antennas Emerging
    Technologies and Challenges
  • Spiral, meander-line, and fractal based design

10 cm
Feed Point
Zin N2 Zr
F 750 MHz
  • Observations
  • Resonance depends on wire length not height
  • Shorter lengths results in
  • low radiation resistance
  • Lower efficiencies
  • Poor impedance matching
  • Narrow bandwidth

33
Emerging electrically small antenna
Designs Multi-arm design, folding
  • Observations
  • Increase input impedance
  • Increase radiation resistance
  • Improves efficiency

34
Unique Beam Steering Capabilities at HCAC
35
Broadband electrically small antenna designs
36
Avenues to optimize bandwidth
  • Resistive loading
  • Reduce the reactive fields within the Ka volume
  • Use designs that increase the amount of current
    on the outside surface of the ka sphere, multiple
    arm spherical helical design
  • Implement designs that exhibit multiple antenna
    resonances
  • Use multiarm coupled resonators, one driven arm
    and multiple (several0 closely spaced duplicate
    arms
  • Goubau antenna
  • Disk loaded folded monopole with impedance
    matching components of capacitance and inductance
    build into the feed point area of the antenna

37
Improving Bandwidth
Profile of resistive loading
  • Challenges of tapered resistive loading
  • Design
  • Optimal resistive profile
  • Ground effect
  • Trade off the efficiency
  • Manufacture
  • Resistive material
  • Proper Shaping

38
Here's the formula. Resistive loading formula
R(l/L2) R(0) (1a(l/L2)) / (1- l/L2) where
is the coefficient for tapering slope. L1 and L2
indicate length of PEC and the resistive loading
section, respectively. R(0) indicates the initial
resistance at the beginning of the resistive
loading section, i.e. l/L2 0. Optimal
profile is determined, and it is given in figure
12, where a 3, R(0) 5O and L 27 inch ( 4.5
ft). The resistance increases proportionally to
the distance from the beginning of the resistive
loading section and it becomes 385 O at the end
of the antenna.
39
HF Capabilities in AREPS
  • HF prediction capabilities of AREPS now include
    combined
  • sky-wave and surface wave predictions.

- Capabilities added to date include (current
OAML status)
gt MUF/LUF/FOT predictions (OAML approved).
gt HF noise prediction capability (documentation
complete ready for submission to OAML).
gt Regional coverage (field strength,
signal-to-noise, received power, antenna
suite) plots (documentation largely complete
plan to submit to OAML).
gt 3-d raytrace capability, includes Parameterized
Ionospheric Model (PIM) and International
Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
40
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41
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42
Hybrid Smart antenna-Experimental results
  • Accuracy of beamforming
  • The testbed has the accuracy of distinguishing a
    few degrees of change in AOA

43
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