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Gregorian Calendar

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Difference between calendar and solar years now only in seconds. Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted Gregorian calendar immediately ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gregorian Calendar


1
Gregorian Calendar
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

2
Gregorian Calendar
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII
  • Ten days dropped from October
  • (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

Modification 1
3
Gregorian Calendar
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII
  • Ten days dropped from October
  • (October 5, 1582 became October 15)
  • February gets an extra day in century years
    that can be divided by 400

Modification 2
4
Gregorian Calendar
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII
  • Ten days dropped from October
  • (October 5, 1582 became October 15)
  • February gets an extra day in century years
    that can be divided by 400
  • Difference between calendar and solar years now
    only in seconds

5
Gregorian Calendar
  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted
    Gregorian calendar immediately

6
Even France.But there was a problem
  • In the early 16th Century France observed New
    Years Day on March 25 and celebrations lasted
    until April 1

7
Even France.But there was a problem
  • In the early 16th Century France observed New
    Years Day on March 25 and celebrations lasted
    until April 1
  • The April 1 gift exchange

8
Even France.But there was a problem
  • In the early 16th Century France observed New
    Years Day on March 25 and celebrations lasted
    until April 1.
  • The April 1 gift exchange
  • When the Gregorian Calendar was acceptedmany
    refused to honor it

9
and
  • Jokers made fun of these people by sending
    frivolous gifts and invitations to non-existent
    parties

10
and
  • Jokers made fun of these people by sending
    frivolous gifts and invitations to non-existent
    parties

April Fool!
11
Gregorian Calendar
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII
  • Ten days dropped from October
  • (October 5, 1582 became October 15)
  • February gets an extra day in century years
    that can be divided by 400
  • Difference between calendar and solar years now
    only in seconds
  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted
    Gregorian calendar immediately
  • German states adopt by 1700

12
Gregorian Calendar
Quesion - Which Major European Country Would
Not Take Orders from the Vatican?
  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII
  • Ten days dropped from October
  • (October 5, 1582 became October 15)
  • February gets an extra day in century years
    that can be divided by 400
  • Difference between calendar and solar years now
    only in seconds
  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted
    Gregorian calendar immediately
  • German states adopt by 1700

13
In 1640, when the first calendar was published
for the public..... Everyone knew that its
days were numbered.
14
So why does George Washington have three
birthdays?
15
George Washingtons Multiple Birthdays
And a Third One
16
George Washingtons Multiple Birthdays
Ten Days Dropped Gregorian Modification 1
And a Third One
21
17
George Washingtons Multiple Birthdays
Ten Days Dropped Gregorian Modification 1
And a Third One
One more day Gregorian Modification 2
18
  • Calendars are affected not only by agricultural
    needs but also by religious and political concerns

19
And how about the North Korean Calendar?
  • Use a variant of the Gregorian Calendar with a
    Juche (self-reliance) year based on 1912
  • the birth date of Kim Il-sung as year 1
  • Calendar introduced in 1997 by Kim Jong-il

20
  • In Islam, portions of 2008 are 1429 A.H.

21
French Revolution
  • French invented a new Revolutionary calendar
  • October 1793 but was made effective on September
    22, 1793 (both the autumnal equinox and the
    anniversary of the Revolution)
  • Political of Religious Concerns?

22
And12 months and 30 days each
  • it was divided into 12 months of 30 days
  • Vendémiaire (vintage month)
  • Brumaire (fog)
  • Frimaire (sleet)
  • Nivôse (snow)
  • Pluviôse (rain)
  • Ventôse (wind)
  • Germinal (seed)
  • Floréal (blossom)
  • Prairial (pasture)
  • Messidor (harvest)
  • Thermidor (heat)
  • Fructidor (fruit)
  • The remaining five days, called sans-culottides,
    were feast days
  • There was no week each month was divided into
    three decades of ten days each, with every 10th
    day (décadi) a day of rest.

23
Now the Brits
  • Mocked the French calendar calling the months
    Wheezy, Sneezy, and Freezy Slippy, Drippy and
    Nippy Showery, Flowery and Bowery Wheaty, Heaty
    and Sweety

24
Oh yeah
  • Each day was divided into ten hours each hour
    into 100 decimal minutes and each decimal minute
    into 100 decimal seconds
  • Clocks were manufactured to display decimal time
  • Didnt catch on abandoned in 1795 although some
    were in use as late as 1801

25
But
  • instead of getting one day off every seven to
    pray in church, the peasants were miffed that
    they got only one day off in ten to attend a
    temple of reason

26
As a result
  • Sunday (the Sabbath) was reintroduced effective
    Easter, April 18, 1802
  • Napoleon finally abolished the calendar in 1806
  • The good news is that the decimal system remained!

27
Jigsaw II and Calendars Generalization
Calendars are affected not only by agricultural
needs but also by religious and political
concerns.
  • Expert Teams focus on how the generalization
    holds or does not hold in the... Hebrew
    Calendar
  • Lunar calendar
  • Islamic Calendar Months (Tishri, Nisan ...)
  • Portions of 2001/2002 are
    Day of Atonement ...
  • 1422 A.H. (Anno Hegirae) Dating of
    Year 1
  • RamadanEid, Haj
  • Lunar calendar...
  • Mayan Calendar
  • Two kinds of calendars Chinese Calendar
  • a sacred one of 260 days Emperor
    Huang-Ti invents
  • and another -
    Naming of year - year of the ox, ...
  • a solar calendar
    Chinese new year ...
  • Lucky and unlucky days ...

Home Teams
28
Lecturing is not always appropriate
29
The case forand against
  • Against Discovery
  • 1. Takes too much time
  • 2. Kids cant learn as much
  • 3. They cant discover everything
  • 4. What if they discover a wrong answer?
  • For Discovery
  • 1. Kids better remember and transfer
  • 2. More and better interest
  • 3. Kids learn to discover
  • Heuristics

30
When to Use.
  • Direct (Expository) Teaching
  • When time is limited
  • When there are no readily available or easily
    understood materials
  • Indirect Teaching
  • When time is available for discovery and
    higher-order thinking
  • When there is an abundance of understandable
    materials

31
The Lecture Method is Appropriate When
  • The objective is to present information
  • Information is not available in accessible
    sources
  • A particular organization is required
  • You want to arouse interest
  • An introduction must be made
  • The information is original or must be integrated
    from different sources
  • A summary or synthesis is required
  • Alternative points or clarification are required
  • Supplementary explanations are needed
  • (after Good and Brophy, 1999 Gage and Berliner,
    1992 Henson, 1988)

32
Ausubel Model Characteristics Interactive Deduct
ive Sequential Uses Examples Present
Present Advance Subordinate Organizer
Content Differentiate Ask for
Reconcile Subordinate or provide
Differentiated Material examples of
Material subordinate concepts
or generalizations
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