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Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


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Title: Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention-Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Kristian, Krista, Tiffany Kristina
Definition of ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder describes children who display
persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of
inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that
are sufficient to cause impairment in major life
activities. (American Psychiatric
Association APA, 2000)
DSM-IV Criteria for Diagnosis
  • Six or more inattention symptoms or six or more
    hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms
  • Symptoms must be inconsistent with the childs
    current developmental level
  • Must persist to a degree that is considered
    maladaptive for at least six months
  • Additional DSM Criteria
  • Some symptoms present before age 7
  • Impairment from symptoms must be present in at
    least two types of settings
  • Clinically significant impairment in school,
    social or occupational functioning
  • Symptoms do not occur solely during a pervasive
    developmental disorder or psychotic disorder
  • Symptoms are not accounted for better by
    another mental disorder

  • Inattention
  • Often does not give close attention to details or
    makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or
    other activities.
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or
    play activities.
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to
  • Often does not follow instructions and fails to
    finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the
  • Often has trouble organizing activities.
  • Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do
    things that take a lot of mental effort for a
    long period of time
  • Often loses things needed for tasks and
  • Is often easily distracted.
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities.

  • Hyperactivity
  • Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in
  • Often gets up from seat when remaining in seat is
  • Often runs about or climbs when and where it is
    not appropriate
  • Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure
    activities quietly.
  • Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven
    by a motor".
  • Often talks excessively.
  • Impulsivity
  • Often blurts out answers before questions have
    been finished.
  • Often has trouble waiting one's turn.
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g.,
    butts into conversations or games).

  • Subtypes
  • Predominantly Inattentive Type
  • children who only meet the criteria for
  • Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
  • children who only meet the criteria for
  • Combined Type
  • children who meet the criteria for both
    inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity

  • Causes of ADHD
  • ADHD is a medical disorder despite many myths
  • early theories thought minor head injuries or
    brain damage were the cause
  • the exact cause is currently unknown, but it is
    now thought to be caused by biological factors
    that influence neurological activity
  • genetic influence
  • toxins in the environment
  • the use of drugs/alcohol during pregnancy
  • environmental/family influence

  • A complete medical evaluation should be conducted
  • The condition can be diagnosed when appropriate
    guidelines are used.
  • The treatment of ADHD must involve a multimodal

  • Stimulant (most commonly used)
  • Non-stimulant
  • Antidepressants
  • Antihypertensives
  • Mood Stabilizers
  • Neuroleptic drugs

Stimulant Medication
  • Variety of forms
  • Methylphenidate
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Amphetamine
  • Lisdexamfetaime
  • For 80 of children with ADHD, Stimulants produce
    dramatic increases in
  • Sustained attention
  • Impulsive control
  • Persistence of work effort
  • Decrease in task-irrelevant behavior
  • Cooperation
  • Physical Coordination

Behavior Therapies
  • Parent Management Training (PMT)
  • Parents are taught about ADHD
  • Given guidelines for raising a child with ADHD
  • For disruptive behavior parents are taught to use
  • Studies support PMT

Educational Interventions
  • Focus on managing inattentive and
    hyperactive-impulsive behaviors
  • Techniques are similar to those recommended to
  • Reward system
  • -Considerable support for school based

Intensive Interventions
  • Summer Treatment Programs
  • Provided to children between 5-15
  • Classroom and recreational activates
  • Advantages peer relationships, and progress made
    during school year is not lost
  • Used with medication, PMT, and Educational

Additional Interventions
  • Family Counseling and Support Groups
  • Helps everyone develop new skills, and attitudes,
    and teaches them how to relate more effectively
  • Local and National support groups
  • On-line bulletin boards
  • Individual Counseling
  • Teach children with ADHD how to feel better about
    ones self
  • Build strengths, cope with daily problems, and
    control attention and aggression

Common Myths About ADHD
  • ADHD is equally common among boys and girls,
    and at all ages.
  • ADHD is usually outgrown
  • Children with ADHD are less intelligent
  • Faulty parenting is the primary cause of ADHD
  • Sugar ingestion is a primary cause of ADHD

Common Myths About ADHD
  • ADHD rating scales follow the same standards
    for boys and girls.
  • Due to the increase in prevalence rates and
    rise in prescriptions, ADHD is highly
  • ADHD symptoms often do not show up in the
    preschool years
  • Private school is a better option for ADHD

Prevalence Rates
  • Prevalence range from 1-10 of children under
    the age of 18
  • North American prevalence rate range from 3-5
  • Worldwide prevalence study 5.29
  • Higher rates in North America
  • Culture does have an impact on the prevalence
    of ADHD
  • Higher prevalence rates when using teacher
    reports, lower prevalence rates when using parent

  • In every classroom of 30 students, up to 3
    children may have ADHD
  • ADHD children tend to show emotional
    development that is 30 slower than children
    without the disorder
  • Up to 65 of children with ADHD show problems
    with defiance, non-compliance, problems with
    authority figures, show verbal hostility, and
    have temper tantrums
  • 40 of children with ADHD have at least one
    parent with the disorder

  • 50 of children with ADHD display sleeping
    problems as well
  • Parents of ADHD children are 3 times more
    likely to divorce than parents of non-ADHD
  • Teenagers with ADHD on average have 4 times as
    many traffic tickets as non-ADHD teenagers
  • 75 of boys display the hyperactive-impulsive
    type of ADHD, while only 60 of girls are

Positive Effects of ADHD
  • Often positive qualities are overlooked
  • A high level of energy
  • Oriented towards an active lifestyle
  • Outgoing and personable
  • Creative thinkers, tend to think outside the
  • Many of these qualities prepare ADHD students for
    successful professional lives

A Parents Perspective Trevors Story
Teaching Students with ADHD
The Process of Ongoing Learning and Developing
  • It is crucial for teachers, parents, and
    students to be fully aware of the childs
    disorders and the effective management strategies
  • Enhance home-school communications
  • Implementation of I.E.P.s and Behaviour Plans

Developing Positive Attitudes in Students with
  • Dont Let Your Students Get Burnt Out!
  • Students with ADHD will often face self-esteem
    issues as they cannot control their behaviour and
    have trouble completing tasks. So it is
    important to help these children gain confidence
    in themselves by providing ways to show their
    accomplishments and abilities
  • Sport Teams/Activity Groups
  • Reading Buddies
  • Volunteering in the school/community
  • Display completed work and artwork

Common Problems Associated with ADHD
Students with ADHD will typically have
underdeveloped self-management skills which would
usually hinder the following skills
  • Time management
  • Finding materials
  • Beginning independent work
  • Maintaining on-task behaviour long enough to
    finish work
  • Remembering the requirements and time frame for
    handing in assignments
  • Attending school regularly

How We Can Help
  • Behaviour Plans
  • One is more likely to succeed in changing
    behaviour by rewarding what is seen as desired
    behaviour than by punishing what is seen as
    undesirable behaviour
  • For a plan to work, the responses to acceptable
    and to unacceptable behaviours must be consistent
    and must occur each time. Inconsistent response
    patterns may reinforce the negative behaviour
  • Providing management structure and routines for
    students can help combat some of the problems
    through the use of
  • Checklists of required materials
  • Agenda to keep track of requirements
  • Classroom routines to provide consistency for
  • "Learning how to learn" and study skills
    strategies that provide structures for completion
    of assignments
  • Breaking assignments down into manageable parts
    that can be checked and reinforced

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