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CANCER Why

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The loss of control over the cell cycle is a first necessary step of cancer ... Breast cancer cells leave the breast tissue and travel through the lymph to the bone ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CANCER Why


1
CANCER - Why?
  • FIB Autumn 2008

2
Outline
  • What is cancer?
  • Who can get cancer?
  • How does one develop cancer?
  • How can cancer kill you?
  • Which treatments exist?

3
1) What is CANCER?
  • Cancer is a scary word
  • Indeed there was a certain unwritten stigma
    associated with death from the disease, until
    very recently
  • died after a long illness
  • Almost everyone knows someone who has gotten very
    sick or died from cancer
  • Most of the time, cancer affects older people

4
1) What is CANCER?..
  • A good way to understand cancer is to consider
    first, what happens to normal cells

5
1) What is CANCER?
  • We are made of about 100 trillion cells
  • 100,000,000,000 TRILLION
  • Many of these are organized into tissues
  • Which are aggregations of cells performing common
    functions
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Brain
  • Blood

6
1) What is CANCER?.
  • Our bodies are extremely good at managing all
    these cells
  • Such that the number of liver cells is more or
    less constant, even though many die each day.
  • Some tissue does not change much - nerves
  • Other tissue has a very high rate of turn over -
    i.e. immune system
  • Many millions of cells die each day
  • These are replaced by new ones made from existing
    cells

7
1) What is CANCER?..
  • Every cell is told when to divide, so as to
    produce more cells, and when to stop dividing
  • This is known as the cell cycle
  • Where one cell grows larger, copies its contents,
    and then divides into two new cells
  • Brain cells are given instructions never to
    divide
  • Cell lining your gut divide almost constantly and
    receive signals to perform the cell cycle daily

8
1) What is CANCER?
  • Any cell which no longer obeys the signals from
    your body not to divide will begin to divide
    uncontrollably
  • The loss of control over the cell cycle is a
    first necessary step of cancer
  • One cell growing uncontrollably divides to give
    rise to two cells growing uncontrollably
  • Each of these two cells divides to make two new
    cells
  • Each of these cells divides again, etc, etc.
  • ALL CANCER CELLS CAN GROW UNCONTROLLABLY
  • Scientists refer to these local growths as tumors
  • Tumors just grow at the site of the original
    disobedient cell

9
1) What is CANCER?.
  • Some cells then undergo another breakdown in
    communications
  • They acquire the ability to break away from the
    local tumor and leave
  • They travel to other regions of the body and
    start a new colony
  • THIS IS CALLED CANCER
  • Scientists call this a malignant tumor, or cancer

10
1) What is CANCER?..
  • There are cancers of the
  • Breast - many types
  • Brain - multiple types
  • Lung - many
  • Pancreas - hard to cure
  • Blood -
  • Bone -
  • In fact any cell can become cancerous
  • Cancer is a general term for many diseases - all
    involving lose of cell control

11
1) So what is cancer in a nutshell?
  • Cancer refers to any one of a large number of
    diseases,
  • all characterized by the development of abnormal
    cells,
  • which divide uncontrollably,
  • and have the ability to infiltrate,
  • and destroy normal body tissue

12
Fast Facts About Cancer
  • One in three people will develop cancer.
  • One in four people will die of cancer.
  • In 2007, about 1.4 million new cases of cancer
    were diagnosed.
  • More than 1500 Americans died each day of cancer
    this year.
  • Over 1,000,000 cases of skin cancer will be
    diagnosed this year.
  • Cancer is the leading cause of death among
    Americans under the age of 85.

13
2) Who can get cancer?
  • Any organism made of cells may loss control of
    the cell cycle

14
2) Who can get cancer?..
  • Generally the term cancer is reserved for
    multi-cellular organisms,
  • where cells can travel to other regions and
    disrupt the functionality of that tissue.
  • So any multi-cellular organism can get cancer

15
2) Who can get cancer?
  • In fact we have fossils (such as those of
    dinosaurs) which show cancerous growths which may
    have killed that animal
  • Plants are also made of cells and cancerous
    tumors can form there too.

16
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17
3) How does one develop cancer?
  • It is now generally accepted that the conversion
    of healthy obedient cells to cancerous ones
  • happens due to two or more instances of damage
  • to critical regions of the DNA of that cell

18
3) How does one develop cancer?..
  • Once can consider the first defect permits the
    cell to divide uncontrollably
  • It loses control over the cell cycle
  • The second defect allows the cell to travel to
    distant sites
  • It becomes metastatic
  • Your body has a natural ability in detecting many
    cancerous cells and killing them before you know
    it.

19
3) How does one develop cancer?
  • Example A
  • Breast cancer cells leave the breast tissue and
    travel through the lymph to the bone
  • There they start many many new colonies
  • Eventually they become so large that they
    interfere with the normal functioning of the bone
    tissue
  • The patients bones break
  • The patient cannot make new bone marrow products
  • The amount of calcium in the body changes

20
3) How does one develop cancer?..
  • Example B
  • Lung cancer develops in the lung and spreads to
    other regions of both lungs
  • There they start many many new colonies
  • Eventually they become so large that they
    interfere with the normal functioning of the
    lungs
  • The patient does not get enough oxygen
  • The patient develops a lung infection
  • The weakened patient cannot fight the infection
    and dies

21
3) How does one develop cancer?.
  • The causes of this form of DNA damage (mutation)
    are many and varied
  • Cosmic radiation
  • Thermal heat - spontaneous
  • Environment
  • Diet
  • Viruses
  • Stress?
  • This causes a failure in the chemical regulation
    of the cell

22
4) How can cancer kill you?
  • Firstly, it is important to understand that not
    all cancers are fatal.
  • Some patients live whole lifetimes
  • Secondly, cancer at an early stage does not kill
    you.
  • That is why so much effort is put into early
    diagnosis so that treatment is much more likely
    to be effective
  • Advanced cancers can and do kill!

23
4) How can cancer kill you?..
  • Patients die either directly from the cancer
  • Liver cells become cancerous and continue to
    secrete large amounts of liver chemicals
  • These upset the fine balances of the body
  • Patients die either in-directly from the cancer
  • Cancer cells disrupt the normal functioning of
    other regions
  • Weaken the body - blood vessels
  • Increase infection - immune system depletion

24
Which treatments exist?
  • Until recently, there were only three major
    treatments options
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Now, there are many more materializing
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Magic Bullet drugs
  • Kinases - enzymes
  • The Kanzius Machine - Heat/radiation (60 minutes)

25
Which treatments exist?
  • Surgery - to remove the tumors
  • If the tumor has not spread to other sites, one
    can simply remove it along with some surrounding
    tissue
  • The patient will be cancer free and cured
  • Must get it ALL before metastasis

26
Which treatments exist?
  • Radiation - to kill cancer cells by destroying
    their DNA
  • Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy
    penetrating rays or subatomic particles to
    destroy the tumor
  • The new equipment uses multiple beams at
    differing angles to focus precisely on the tumor
    and its immediate boundary
  • Each beam is weak, but where they all meet is
    deadly!

27
Which treatments exist?
  • Chemotherapy - use of very potent (cytotoxic)
    drugs to kill all dividing cells - including
    non-cancerous normal ones
  • The side effects can be daunting
  • Loss of hair
  • Lining of gut and mouth
  • Anemia - Blood cells

28
Latest
  • The Kanzius Machine

29
Which treatments exist?
  • There are some promising new treatments appearing
    at this time, but they are limited in scope and
    fragmented at best - some patients respond better
    then others.
  • Our video this week looks at a promising new and
    controversial angle on tackling cancer

30
Video Questions
  • How many days per week do the two patients have
    to attend hospital?
  • What is one of the problems of using
    chemotherapy?
  • How long ago did Dr. Judah Folkman first realize
    the importance of blood vessels in cancer
    biology?
  • What did the experiment on the eye show?
  • What does thalidomide have to do with this story?
  • What happened to each of the two patients
    followed by this story?

31
Group Questions
  • Do you know of someone who has had cancer? Was it
    scary for them or you?
  • Cancer rates worldwide continue to rise rapidly.
    Why?
  • Treatments of advanced cancers are not considered
    cures, just remissions. Why?
  • Do you think we will ever eliminate cancers in
    the future? Discuss.
  • Which kinds of lifestyle changes would reduce
    your chances of developing cancer?
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