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GEOSYNTHETICS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

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Geotextiles, geomembranes, geogrids, PDB(plastic drain board) ... High drawn split yarns(; ~3,000 denier) of high tenacity polypropylene, polyester ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GEOSYNTHETICS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER


1
GEOSYNTHETICS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM A KOREAN
PERSPECTIVE   Han-Yong, Jeon,
Ph.D. GSRL(GeoSynthetics Research
Laboratory) Department of Textile Engineering
Faculty of Applied Chemistry Chonnam National
University, Kwangju, Korea
2
INTRODUCTION   Geosynthetics industry in
Korea - Promising field for
investment and development Many types of
domestic geosynthetic products
- To be produced and their applications widely
enlarged every year Types of
geosynthetics - Geotextiles,
geomembranes, geogrids, PDB(plastic drain
board), geocomposites,
GCLs(geosynthetic clay liners) etc.
Application fields of geosynthetics
- Soft soil reinforcement, soil retaining
walls, waste landfills, road and subway
construction, tunnel and earth dam
construction etc. Technologies relating
to Korean geosynthetics - To
be come mainly from U.S.A., Europe and Japan
etc. In this paper - The recent
technology circumstances of Korean geosynthetics
3
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POTENTIAL GROWTH OF
GEOSYNTHETICS   ? Cultural
Traditional geotechnical and civil engineering
structures - Long
histories in Korea/no evidence about
geosynthetics Woven geotextiles
as protection materials in the breakwater
construction -
A-San and Nam-Yang areas for the first time in
1971 Geotextiles used as asphalt
overlay materials -
Highway construction between Seoul?Pusan/Sunchun?P
usan Many types
of geosynthetics -
To be increased every year and new materials have
been developed since 1996  
Geosynthetic related construction
- Less familiar with that of
traditional civil engineering fields
4
? Economic Korea economy -
Economic crisis under IMF control, 1998
- Gradually
recovering since the second half of 1999  
During the economic crisis - Many
large, middle and small construction companies

to be bankrupt
- Many
agencies to import foreign geosynthetics to be

limited because of the rising trend
of U.S. dollar rate Currently,
Korean economy - To be recovering since the
second half of 1999
- Demands for
geosynthetics to be increasing gradually

- Imported geosynthetics from the USA and
Europe to be
slightly increasing
at a uniform rate
5
? Developmental
Table. Present State of Geosynthetics in Korea
6
    ? Current Resins or Materials     
  Geotextiles Polypropylene or
polyester      Geomembranes
HDPE (high density polyethylene), EVA (ethylene
vinyl acetate)      Geogrids
High tenacity polyester or glass fiber   
GCLs Nonwoven/bentonite/woven or
nonwoven geotextile,
bentonite/HDPE geomembrane composite
     PDB Spunbonded nonwoven
geotextile filter covering a polypropylene
drainage core     Geonet
composite Nonwoven geotextile/geonet/nonwoven
geotextile      Geopipe HDPE
pipe (smooth and corrugated)    
Geofoam Expanded polystyrene    
Sheet drain Nonwoven geotextile/various
drainage cores
7
Geosynthetic Products    
Geotextiles   - Nonwovens of
staple fibers Width 8.6m, weight 3500g/m2
- Spunbonded nonwovens of
filament fibers 600g/m2 -
Woven geotextiles of split polyester and
polypropylene yarns
Design strength is 450 ton/m.  
Geomembranes   - HDPE smooth
type geomembranes Thickness 1.02.0 mm
- Textured geomembranes In
progress    Geogrids   -
Fabric type geogrids high tenacity polyester
yarns
PVC or acrylic resin - coating agent
In 1999 - glass fiber geogrids In
progress.
Reinforcement
materials in road construction
8
    GCLs   - Nonwoven/
bentonite/woven or nonwoven type -
Bentonite adhesive/ HDPE geomembrane type
- Specially designed GCLs to prevent the
bentonite loss - Powder and granular
type bentonites
To be imported from USA, Russia, China and
Australia etc.   - As a composite
liner for waste landfills - As
waterproofing materials in tunnels and subway
construction     Miscellaneous -
 Geofoam, geopipe and geosynthetic sheet drains
etc.
for special end uses in construction
9
? Regulatory Regulations of
geosynthetics - To be supervised by different
ministries of the government
      Ministry of Environment -
Geosynthetics for waste landfills
     Ministry of Construction Transportation
- Geosynthetics for general construction
     Korea Highway
Corporation - Geosynthetics for
transportation   Korean standards of
industry - JIS, ISO and ASTM standards etc.
Geosynthetics - GRI Standard Test
Methods, ASTM, ISO etc. from 1998
 Test methods and regulations of geosynthetics in
Korea - To be
influenced by special task forces in different
installation fields -
Many regulatory standards to be adopted for
different installation fields on the
project-specific basis
10
TRAINING, EDUCATION, SEMINARS, CONFERENCES  
Training and education programs
in geosynthetics
- To be supervised by the Korean
Geotechnical Society from 1987 to 2000
- The Korean Geosynthetic
Society(KGSS) from 2001
- To be focused to design and
installation rather than manufacturing and
testing - Three
to four seminars and conferences on geosynthetics
per year
For seminars - Special title to be
related in geosynthetic installation
For
conferences - Special divisions

- Geosynthetics
manufacturing, testing and evaluation,

installations, case
histories, etc. The
supervising organizations for geosynthetic
related seminars and conferences in Korea
        Korean Geotechnical Society
Division of Geosynthetics   
Korean Geosynthetic Society(KGSS)
        FITI GSI-Korea        
GS-ATRA (GeoSynthetic Application Technology
Association)      Geosynthetics
Research Committee of KOSEF (Korea Science and
Engineering Foundation)
11
LESSONS LEARNED FROM FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF
CASE HISTORIES APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC
AREAS   ? Environmental
Most waste landfills - Steep slopes and many
rough stones in the canyon landfills
-
The problems for applications as following  
          Failure
of geomembranes due to the imperfect seaming
Destruction of waste
landfill system and pollution of surrounded soils
        Degradation of
polypropylene nonwoven geotextiles due to UV
attack
Decrease of tensile strength and
elongation
        Bentonite loss from GCLs
etc.
12
? Geotechnical Applications of
geogrids - Soil
retaining wall - Many
reduction factors to be influenced the long-term
strength - Specifically
high reduction factors to be adopted
- No considerations of reduction
factors for high rainfalls and drainage systems
? Transportation Application
of geosynthetics as reinforcement materials
- Soft soil reinforcement
and road construction field
- Woven geotextiles of high tensile
stresses - Glass fiber
geogrids protection the failure by differential
settlement
13
KOREAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT VERSUS
INTERNATIONAL NEEDS   Research
topics and interests to geosynthetics
- Worldwide information,
data, technical papers, etc. on geosynthetics
Main research fields involving
geosynthetics -
Soil retaining walls, waste landfills, roads,
railroads and runway,
soft soil reinforcement etc.  
Research on geosynthetic regulations and
standardization -
GSRL (Geosynthetic Research Laboratory), Chonnam
National University Testing
methods - FITI GSI-Korea
Research on design, installation and assessment
- Korea
Institute of Construction Technology
- Highway Research
Center of Korea Highway Department etc.
14
ISO VERSUS ASTM VERSUS KOREAN STANDARDS FOR GS
TESTING   Most standardized
geosynthetic test methods
- From JIS (Japan Industry Standard)
New standardization project by the Korea
Industry Standards -
From 1998 in accordance with ASTM, GRI and ISO
standards   ? Korea Industry Standard
of geosynthetics  
General - 2 standard test methods
- Glossary of
geotextiles etc.
Physical - 2 standard test methods
-
Measuring metods for thickness of geotextiles
Mechanical - 8 standard
test methods
- Testing method for tensile
strength of geotextiles etc.
Hydraulic - 4 standard test methods
-
Measuring method for filtration aperture of
geotextiles etc.
15
Endurance - 2 standard test methods
- Test method of
weatherability of geotextiles using the Xenon-arc
method etc. Miscellaneous - 4 standard
test methods -
Test method for friction properties of
geotextiles direct shear method etc.

SURVEYS (MARKET ANALYSIS)
Production of geosynthetics in 1999
Geotextiles gt
Geomembranes gt PDB gt Geogrids End
Uses of geosynthetics in 1999
Reinforcement gt
Drainage/Filtration gt Water barrier gt Separation
DESIGN AIDS   Highly oriented
to the geosynthetic properties of task forces for
installation rather than the
suitability of geosynthetic application
16
MANUFACTURING DETAILS   No
significant differences between Korea and other
advanced countries of North America
and European nations in this regard.  
(1) Geotextiles Woven
geotextiles - High
drawn split yarns( 3,000 denier) of high
tenacity polypropylene, polyester
- Recently, the requirement of low
elongation (10) woven geotextiles
To improve the
resistance against the fracture in installation
fields
Smart polymer resin for this purpose
Nonwoven geotextiles
- Staple fibers and filaments of
polypropylene, polyester or recycled polyester
with/without carbon
black - Needle
punching and spunbonding methods
- Specially designed manufacturing
line to
produce 8.5 m width, 3,500g/m2 needle punched
nonwovens.
17
(2)  Geomembranes   Smooth type
- HDPE geomembranes with UV
stabilizers and antioxidants
- Extrusion type with T-die and blown type
with circular die manufacturing processes
- At least 2 mm thickness for
waste landfills with the revised regulations by
Ministry of Environment
in 1999.   Textured type
- Spray-on(impingement) type textured
geomembranes (3) Geogrids -
Fabric type geogrids High tenacity polyester
yarns and glass fibers
PVC and acrylic resin
as coating resins (4) GCLs -
Needle punched type and bentonite with
adhesive/HDPE geomembrane type -
Special composition of GCL layers and binder to
prevent the fluid loss of bentonite   (5) PDBs
- Nonwoven geotextiles used as filters
of polypropylene cores(heat bonding methods)
- Research on biodegradable filters and
plastic cores to prevent environment pollution
- Smart PDBs having excellent drainage
performance
18
DISTRIBUTION   For domestic
geosynthetics - Large
companies their own trade routes from
manufacturing to marketing
- Most middle and small companies an alliance
- a kind of consortium Imported
geosynthetics - Through
distributors and representatives located in Korea.
CONTRACTING   Two types of
purchasing and contracting agreements in
geosynthetics - By
government supply and the other is individual
supply
Supply Administration the Republic of Korea
Turnkey type
organizations - By
individual companies
19
CONSTRUCTION         Soft soil reinforcement
- Nonwoven and woven geotextiles, PDBs, etc.
         Soil retaining walls - Nonwoven
geotextiles, geogrids, etc.          Waste
landfills - Nonwoven geotextiles, HDPE
geomembranes, GCLs, geonet composites etc.       
Tunnel construction - Bentonite mixed
with adhesive/HDPE geomembrane type        
Subway construction - Bentonite mixed with
adhesive/HDPE geomembrane type        Road
railroad construction - Nonwoven and woven
geotextiles, geogrids etc.        
Miscellaneous - Many types of geosynthetics
associated with various end uses SPECIFICATIONS,
ACCREDITATION AND CERTIFICATION ?
Specifications
Agency for Technology and Standards
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Construction
Transportation
Korean Standards Association etc.
20
? Accreditation  
FITI/GSI-Korea - GAI Accreditation
Laboratory
- 56 items

- ASTM D374 - Micrometer Thickness
etc. ? Certification  
- No organization or institute giving
geosynthetic certification
- Private certification reports by
Korean experts(?) -
Test reports from foreign geosynthetic
laboratories -
FITI/GSI-Korea certification of geosynthetics
in Korea
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