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DEVELOPMENT DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AGES 3 6

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By the age of 6, boys are taller and heavier, on average, than girls. ... Children tend to be quite adept at maintaining an appropriate intake of food. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DEVELOPMENT DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS AGES 3 6


1
DEVELOPMENT DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS (AGES 3 -
6)
  • Preschool
  • The start of intellectual and social interaction
  • Practice/preparation for childs formal education
  • Great growth and change during this period.
  • Physical
  • weight, height, brain, motor skills
  • Cognitive
  • intellectual development, language

2
Physical Growth
  • Preschool age childrens physical abilities
    advance significantly (compared to infancy
    stage).
  • Children grow steadily during the preschool
    period.

3
(No Transcript)
4
These averages mask individual differences in
height weight
  • By the age of 6, boys are taller and heavier, on
    average, than girls.
  • There are profound differences in height and
    weight between children in economically developed
    countries and those in developing countries.
    WHY?
  • Nutrition, healthcare
  • Differences in height and weight also reflect
    economic factors within the U.S.
  • Children whose families are below the poverty
    level are among the shortest of all preschool age
    children.

5
Changes in body shape and structure during
the preschool years.
  • Boys and girls become less chubby and roundish
    and more slender (no more potbelly!).
  • Arms and legs lengthen.
  • Children grow stronger as muscle size increases
    and bones become sturdier.
  • The sense organs continue to develop.
  • Body proportions are more similar to those of
    adults (relationship between head and body more
    adultlike).

6
Nutrition Eating the Right Foods
  • The growth rate slows during this age, thus
    preschoolers need less food to maintain their
    growth.
  • Encouraging children to eat more than they want
    to, may lead to increased food intake.

7
It is important not to force children to eat too
much in the mistaken belief that they need more
food.
  • Children tend to be quite adept at maintaining an
    appropriate intake of food.
  • The best strategy is to ensure a variety of
    foods, low in fat and high in nutritional
    content.
  • Children should be given the opportunity to
    develop their own natural preferences for foods
    (no one food is indispensable!)

8
  • Increased food intake may lead to OBESITY,
    defined as a body weight more than 20 higher
    than the average weight for a person of a given
    age and height.
  • Obesity is more common among older preschoolers
    than it was 20 years ago.
  • Obesity is brought about by both biological
    (genetics, responsiveness to sweets) and social
    factors (parental encouragement).

9
BRAIN MATURATION
  • First Two Years
  • Triple in size
  • Reach 75 to 80 adult weight dimensions
  • By Age 5
  • Attained 90 of adult weight
  • Body weight only 1/3 the average adults

10
HEMISPHERES
  • Left
  • Dominant
  • Logical
  • Speech
  • Right
  • Visual/spatial
  • Face recognition
  • Response to music

11
LATERALIZATION
  • Functions located more in one hemisphere
  • Two hemispheres act in tandem
  • Left-handed ambidextrous have language centered
    in rt. Hemisphere no specific language center
    10
  • Males greater lateralization of language in
    left females more evenly divided between the two
  • Related to genetic environmental factors

12
SPECIALIZATION
  • As brain matures becomes more specialized
  • Increases capacity of the person to perform a
    variety of intellectual and motor tasks
  • Indication is the emergence of hand preference

13
CORPUS CALLOSUM
  • Connect right left hemispheres
  • Increasingly myelinated ages 2 to 6
  • Function of the two halves more closely
    integrated
  • As many as 800 million individual fibers
  • Larger in left-handed people
  • Larger in women

14
HAND PREFERENCE
  • 60 of infants turn their heads to the right when
    lying on their stomachs 15 face left
  • Preferences correlate with handedness
  • 7 months prefer grabbing with one hand prefer
    one hand when finger/thumb sucking
  • Age 2 1 child n 10 favors the left hand
  • 90 of people are right-handed

15
INTRIGUING DIFFERENCES
  • Males more likely than females
  • Higher proportion among architects, engineers,
    mathematics teachers, artists, chess masters,
    performing musicians
  • Reading disabilities, stuttering, autism, immune
    diseases, migraine headaches, allergies, eczema
    more prevalent
  • More likely to be precocious, mathematical,
    less skilled at verbal tasks
  • Young more likely than elderly elimination
    hypothesis
  • more accident prone more prone to immune
    diseases
  • Social patterns forcing lefties to become right-
    handed

16
ENVIRONMENTAL
  • Sword shield shields held in left hand to
    protect the heart
  • Mother baby mothers evolved to become
    rightt-handed because when they held baby close
    to their hearts it freed up their right hands to
    perform tasks
  • Parental pressure because our parents were
    mostly right-handed they taught us to be
    right-handed

17
GENETIC
  • Right-handed parents - 9.5
  • If one parent left-handed 19.5
  • If both parents left-handed 26.1
  • Adopted children more likely to follow handedness
    of their birth parents
  • Identical twins 76 to both be left-handed

18
DEVELOPMENTAL
  • Testosterone theory elevated levels responsible
    for deviations from normal hemispheric dominance
    excess delays lefts growth, right compensates
    for growth delay by developing more quickly
  • Birth stress caused by prenatal stress
  • More birth complications
  • Lower APGAR scores
  • Stress raised testosterone levels in rats

19
CULTURAL CONNOTATION
  • Words for left in almost every language connote
    something negative
  • Sinister meaning evil Latin (sinister) meaning
    evil
  • Latin (dexter) meaning right
  • Many children forced to become right-handed
  • As intelligent/capable as right-handed
  • Greater tendency toward ambidexterity
  • Handicapped in learning handwriting

20
Health Illness During the Preschool Years
  • The majority of children in the United States are
    reasonably healthy.
  • For the average American child, the common cold
    is the most frequent, and most severe, illness.
  • The proportion of children immunized in the U.S.
    has fallen during some portions of the last two
    decades.

21
Motor Development
  • Both gross and fine motor skills become
    Increasingly fine-tuned during this age.

22
  • Girls and boys differ in certain aspects of motor
    development.
  • Boys, because of increased muscle strength, tend
    to be somewhat stronger.
  • Girls tend to surpass boys in tasks of dexterity
    or those involving the coordination of limbs.

23
Some major gross motor skills in early childhood
  • Hopping
  • Skipping
  • Running
  • Throwing

24
Fine motor skills are also developing during
this period.
  • Using utensils to eat
  • Cutting things with scissors
  • Tying shoelaces
  • Drawing shapes
  • Puzzles
  • Require much more practice than gross motor
    skills.

25
  • Preschoolers are in the PREOPERATIONAL STAGE,
    from age 2 to 7
  • Characterized by symbolic thinking.
  • Mental reasoning emerges, use of concepts.
  • Less dependence on sensorimotor activity for
    understanding the world.

26
The Relationship between Language and Thought
  • For Piaget, language and thinking are
    interdependent (advances in language during the
    preschool period advances in thinking)
  • Language allows preschoolers to represent actions
    symbolically.
  • Language allows children to think beyond the
    present to the future.
  • Language can be used to consider several
    possibilities at the same time

27
Piagets Preoperational Stage
  • CENTRATION - the process of concentrating on one
    limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other
    aspects (buttons).
  • A major characteristic of preoperational thought
  • The major limitation of this period because it
    leads to inaccuracy of thought.
  • The cause of the childrens mistake is allowing
    the visual image to dominate their thinking
    (appearance is everything.)

28
Centration What You See is What You Think
Which row contains more buttons? Preschoolers
usually say that the bottom row has more because
it looks longer.
29
Conservation Learning that Appearances are
Deceiving
  • Preschoolers do not understand CONSERVATION - the
    knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the
    arrangement and physical appearance of objects.

30
  • Egocentrism, the inability to take the
    perspective of others.
  • EGOCENTRIC THOUGHT, thinking that does not take
    into account the viewpoint of others, takes two
    forms
  • Lack of awareness that others see things from
    different physical perspectives.
  • Failure to realize that others may hold thoughts,
    feelings, and points-of-view different from one's
    own.

31
ANIMISM
  • All objects have life and intention

32
OTHER LIMITATIONS
  • Fantasy and fear
  • Cognitive Difficulties
  • Origin of babies
  • Death
  • Illness
  • Divorce

33
  • Children begin to understand functionality -
    the concept that actions, events and outcomes are
    related to one another in fixed patterns.
  • Pushing pedals moves bike faster, remote button
    changes channels on TV.

34
The Growth of Language and Learning During
the Preschool Years
  • During the preschool years, language skills
    become more sophisticated.
  • Young children begin this period with reasonably
    good linguistic (language) capabilities, but gaps
    in both language production (speech) and
    comprehension (understanding).
  • By the end of the preschool years, they can hold
    their own with adultslanguage skills develop.

35
  • Between late twos and mid-threes, sentence length
    increases.
  • SYNTAX (the ways words and phrases are combined
    to make sentences) doubles each month.
  • Preschoolers acquire new vocabulary at rate of
    nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24/7, through
    process known as FAST MAPPING - new words
    associated with their meaning after only a brief
    encounter.

36
  • By age three, children use plurals and possessive
    forms of nouns (boys/boy's), employ the past
    tense (adding -ed), use articles (the/a), and can
    ask and answer complex questions ("Where did you
    say my book is?").

37
  • By six,
  • the average child has a vocabulary of 14,000
    words.

Preschoolers begin to acquire the principles of
GRAMMAR, the system of rules that determine how
our thoughts can be expressed .
38
  • Preschoolers engage mostly in PRIVATE SPEECH,
    speech by children that is spoken and directed to
    themselves.
  • Vygotsky argues that private speech facilitates
    children's thinking, helps them control their
    behavior, solve problems and reflect (private
    speech cognitive development).
  • 20 to 60 of what children say is private
    speech.

39
  • SOCIAL SPEECH (speech directed toward another
    person and meant to be understood by that person)
    increases.
  • Children speak to others rather than
    babbling/speaking to self.
  • Want others to listen.
  • Become frustrated when unable to make themselves
    understood.
  • Adapt their speech to others.

40
The language children hear at home significantly
influences their language development.
41
Television Learning from the Media
  • Average preschooler watches more than 21 hours of
    TV a week!
  • Consequences of TV viewing are unclear.
  • Children do not fully understand the plots.
  • They may have difficulty separating fantasy from
    reality.
  • Some information is well understood by young
    viewers, i.e. facial expressions.
  • Yet, much of what is viewed is not representative
    of events in the real world.

42
Television Time
43
  • Television may be harnessed to facilitate
    cognitive growth.
  • Sesame Street is the most popular educational
    program in U.S.
  • Viewers had significantly larger vocabularies.
  • Lower income viewers were better prepared for
    school, scored higher on tests of cognitive
    ability, and spent more time reading.

44
Television learning from the media?
  • Critics of Sesame Street suggest that viewers may
    be less receptive to traditional modes of
    teaching.
  • There are difficulties in assessing the effects
    of educational viewing, (e.g. the effects may be
    related to parenting).
  • BUT overall the results of watching Sesame Street
    seem to be positive.


45
Early Childhood Education
  • Three-quarters of children in U.S. are enrolled
    in some kind of care outside the home.
  • Major factor is working parents.
  • Evidence suggests that children can benefit from
    early educational activities.
  • Good preschools have clear cognitive and social
    benefits according to developmental psychologists.

46
There are a variety of early education programs.
  • Child-CARE CENTERS are places that typically
    provide care for children all day, while their
    parents work.
  • Some are home-care.
  • Others are provided by organized institutions.
  • Community centers, churches, synagogues,etc.
  • Often more stable/regulated.

47
  • PRESCHOOLS (nursery schools provide care for
    several hours a day, and are designed primarily
    to enrich the child's development.
  • More limited time (only 3-5 hours per day).
  • Mainly serve those in middle and higher
    socioeconomic levels.
  • Montessori preschools

48
  • SCHOOL CHILD CARE is a child-care facility
    provided by some local school systems in the
    United States
  • Almost half the states in U.S. fund
    prekindergarten programs.
  • Often targeted at disadvantaged children.
  • Often high quality care.

49
There are pros and cons of attending early
education programs.
  • Advantages include increases in
  • Verbal fluency
  • Memory and comprehension tasks
  • Self-confidence
  • Independence
  • Knowledge about the social world
  • Disadvantages
  • Children
  • Less polite
  • Less compliant
  • less respectful of adults
  • Sometimes more competitive and aggressive.

50
  • The key factor in determining the effects of
    early education programs is quality.
  • Well-trained care providers.
  • Overall size of the group and the child-care
    provider ratio.
  • Curriculum.
  • No one knows how many programs in the U.S. can be
    considered high quality, but there are far fewer
    than desired.
  • The U.S. lags behind other industrialized nations
    in the quality, affordability, and availability
    of childcare.

51
Preschools Around the World
  • In France Belgium, access to preschool is a
    legal right.
  • In Sweden Finland, preschool care is provided
    automatically if needed.
  • Russia has an extensive childcare system
  • The U.S. has no national policy on preschool
    education or the general care of children.

52
The Purpose of Preschool
The main purpose of preschool is very different
in different cultures.
53
Should we seek to improve cognitive skills during
the preschool years?
  • Developmental psychologist David Elkind argues
    that U.S. society tends to push children so
    rapidly that they begin to feel stress and
    pressure at a young age.
  • Better to provide an environment where learning
    is encouraged, not pushed.
  • Children require developmentally appropriate
    educational practice, based on both typical
    development and the unique characteristics of a
    given child.

54
BUT…
  • Pushing children to succeed may only be overdone
    in middle and higher socioeconomic groups, where
    more resources are available.
  • For poorer children, the benefits of formalized
    early learning programs probably outweigh the
    drawbacks
  • (can compensate for lack of economic resources
    and less stimulating home environments).
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