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Presentation Plus

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Terms to Define city-state, cuneiform. Setting the Scene ... professionals who actually recorded cuneiform, studied for many years and often ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presentation Plus


1
Section 1-1
Section 1
The Nile Valley
1 of 23
Setting the Scene
  • Terms to Define monarchy, dynasty, theocracy,
    bureaucracy, pharaoh, empire, polytheism,
    hieroglyphics ?
  • People to Meet Narmer, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III,
    Akhenaton, Ramses II ?
  • Places to Locate Nile River valley, Memphis,
    Thebes ?

Why was Egypt called the gift of the Nile?
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2
Section 1-2
Section 1 Lecture Notes
2 of 23
Introduction
  • One of the worlds first civilizations developed
    along the in
    northeastern Africa. ?
  • The Nile River valleys early inhabitants called
    the land , meaning black land, after the
    dark soil. ?
  • Later, the ancient Greeks would name the Nile
    area .

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3
Section 1-3
Section 1 Lecture Notes
3 of 23
A River Valley and Its People
  • Egypt receives very little rain, so the Nile is
    the lifeline for the region. ?
  • At miles in length, the Nile River is the
    worlds longest river. ?
  • The Nile splits into many branches, forming a
    marshy, fan-shaped before emptying into the
    Mediterranean Sea.

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4
Section 1-4
Section 1 Lecture Notes
4 of 23
The Gifts of the River
  • Annual flooding of the Nile deposited thick
    layers of silt to nearby land, which made this
    area extremely productive agriculturally. ?
  • Nomadic hunter-gatherers of northeastern Africa
    began to settle near the Nile as early as
    B.C. ?
  • The early Egyptians harvested that grew
    wild along the banks of the Nile. The long, thin
    reeds of papyrus were used to make rope, matting,
    sandals, baskets, and later on, sheets of
    paperlike writing material.

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5
Section 1-5
Section 1 Lecture Notes
5 of 23
Uniting Egypt
  • In time, farming villages by the Nile became
    organized into small kingdoms, or , under the
    unrestricted rule of a king. ?
  • By 4000 B.C., ancient Egypt consisted of two
    kingdoms, Egypt and Egypt. ?
  • Around 3000 B.C. , a king of Upper Egypt,
    gathered forces and led them north to conquer
    Lower Egypt. ?
  • He built a capital city at , near the former
    border of the two kingdoms.

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6
Section 1-6
Section 1 Lecture Notes
6 of 23
Uniting Egypt (cont.)
  • Narmers reign became the first Egyptian , or
    line of rulers from one family. ?
  • From 3000 B.C. until 332 B.C., a series of 30
    dynasties ruled Egypt. These are organized into
    three periods ?
  • The Old Kingdom
  • The Middle Kingdom ?
  • The New Kingdom

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7
Section 1-7
Section 1 Lecture Notes
7 of 23
The Old Kingdom
  • During the first centuries of the unified
    kingdom, Egypt and Egypt kept their
    separate identities as kingdoms. ?
  • In time, Egypt built a strong national government
    under its kings and developed the basic features
    of its civilization.

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8
Section 1-8
Section 1 Lecture Notes
8 of 23
The Egyptian Monarchy
  • Controlled from Memphis, Egypt had a , or a
    government in which the same person is both the
    religious and political leader. ?
  • The god-king delegated many responsibilities to a
    , a group of government officials headed by
    the kings , or prime minister.

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9
Section 1-9
Section 1 Lecture Notes
9 of 23
The Pyramids A Lasting Legacy
  • To honor their god-kings and to provide them with
    an eternal place of rest, the Egyptians of the
    Old Kingdom built lasting monumentsthe . ?
  • Believing that a kings soul continued to guide
    the kingdom after death, the Egyptians included
    personal possesions next to the embalmed,
    mummified body in the kings burial chamber.

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10
Section 1-10
Section 1 Lecture Notes
10 of 23
The Middle Kingdom
  • Kings in Memphis began to lose their power around
    B.C. as ambitious nobles fought each other for
    control of Egypt. ?
  • Around B.C. a new dynasty reunited Egypt and
    moved the capital south to . ?
  • During this Middle Kingdom period, Egypt enjoyed
    greatly increased trade, worked on irrigation
    projects, and seized new territory.

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11
Section 1-11
Section 1 Lecture Notes
11 of 23
The Middle Kingdom (cont.)
  • In the B.C. local leaders began to challenge
    the Theban kings power. ?
  • At the same time, Egypt was facing an invasion by
    the , a people from western Asia. ?
  • With bronze weapons and horse-drawn chariots, the
    Hyksos defeated the Egyptians and established a
    new dynasty that would last for about years.

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12
Section 1-12
Section 1 Lecture Notes
12 of 23
The New Kingdom
  • The Egyptians despised their Hyksos masters. ?
  • Around B.C. , an Egyptian prince, raised an
    army and drove the Hyksos out.

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13
Section 1-13
Section 1 Lecture Notes
13 of 23
Pharaohs Rule and Empire
  • Ahmose founded a new dynasty, the first of the
    New Kingdom, and assumed the title , an
    Egyptian word meaning great house of the king. ?
  • Queen came to power around 1480 B.C.,
    followed by her stepson Thutmose . By the
    end of his reign, he had created an Egyptian
    empire.

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14
Section 1-14
Section 1 Lecture Notes
14 of 23
Akhenaton Founds a Religion
  • assumed leadership about 1370 B.C. and
    declared that Egyptians should only worship ,
    the sun god. This caused turmoil among the
    people, who believed in many deities. ?
  • Claiming to be Atons equal, Amenhotep changed
    his name to . ?
  • Akhenaton moved the capital from Thebes to a new
    city in central Egypt.

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15
Section 1-15
Section 1 Lecture Notes
15 of 23
Akhenaton Founds a Religion (cont.)
  • After Akhenatons death, the priests restored the
    old religion. ?
  • They made Akhenatons successor, , move the
    capital back to Thebes.

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16
Section 1-16
Section 1 Lecture Notes
16 of 23
Recovery and Decline
  • During the 1200s B.C. pharaohs, including
    II, or Ramses the Great, successfully worked
    to restore Egyptian prestige. ?
  • After the death of Ramses II in 1237 B.C., Egypt
    weakened due to increasing invasions, and in 945
    B.C. it fell under foreign rule.

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17
Section 1-17
Section 1 Lecture Notes
17 of 23
Life in Ancient Egypt
  • At its height Egypt had million people. ?
  • Egyptian society was divided into classes,
    although ambitious lower-class people could
    improve their status somewhat.

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18
Section 1-18
Section 1 Lecture Notes
18 of 23
Levels of Egyptian Society
Class Professions ?
upper class middle class ? lower
class
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19
Section 1-19
Section 1 Lecture Notes
19 of 23
Egyptian Families
  • Upper-class families were nuclear, whereas
    lower-class families also included gradparents
    and other relatives. ?
  • The status of women improved over time.
    Eventually women could own property, testify in
    court, and start legal proceedings.

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20
Section 1-20
Section 1 Lecture Notes
20 of 23
Worshiping Many Deities
  • Religion was based on , or the worship of
    many deities, and guided every aspect of life. ?
  • Religion also stressed an afterlife, so Egyptians
    devoted much time and wealth to preparing for
    survival in the next world.

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21
Section 1-21
Section 1 Lecture Notes
21 of 23
Writing With Pictures
  • In their earliest writing system, called ,
    the Egyptians carved picture symbols onto pieces
    of slate. ?
  • For everyday business, the Egyptians used a
    cursive script known as , which simplified
    and connected the picture symbols.

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22
Section 1-22
Section 1 Lecture Notes
22 of 23
Achievements in Science
  • Pyramids, temples, and other monuments bear
    witness to architectural achievements of
    artisans. ?
  • These feats would not have been possible without
    advances in disciplines such as

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23
Section 1-23
Section 1 Lecture Notes
23 of 23
Achievements in Science (cont.)
  • The Egyptians developed a number system that
    enabled them to calculate area and volume, and
    they worked out an accurate calendar. ?
  • Other ancient civilizations would acquire much of
    the Egyptians knowledge, especially in medicine.

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24
Section 1-Assessment
Section 1 Assessment
Compare the reigns of Ahmose, Hatshepsut, and
Thutmose III. Which reign do you think
contributed most to Egypt? Why?
25
Section 2-1
Section 2
The Fertile Crescent
1 of 22
Setting the Scene
  • Terms to Define city-state, cuneiform ?
  • People to Meet the Sumerians, Sargon I, the
    Akkadians, Hammurabi ?
  • Places to Locate Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia,
    Tigris and Euphrates Rivers ?

How did Sumers achievements enrich the early
culture of the Middle East?
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26
Section 2-2
Section 2 Lecture Notes
Introduction
2 of 22
  • Around 5000 B.C. migrants from the Arabian
    Peninsula and the highlands near present-day
    Turkey began moving into an area called the
    , a fertile strip
    of land stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to
    the Persian Gulf. ?
  • Many of these migrants settled in , the
    eastern part of the Fertile Crescent. ?
  • Mesopotamia, meaning land between the rivers,
    was located on the low plain between the

    in present-day Iraq.

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27
Section 2-3
Section 2 Lecture Notes
3 of 22
The Twin Rivers
  • The Tigris and Rivers did not provide a
    regular supply of water flooding and drought
    were unpredictable. ?
  • To control flooding and provide irrigation,
    Mesopotamian villages were forced to work
    together. ?
  • By B.C., Mesopotamian farmers were producing
    food, especially grain crops, in abundance.

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28
Section 2-4
Section 2 Lecture Notes
4 of 22
The Sumerian Civilization
  • Around 3500 B.C. a people from either central
    Asia or Asia Minorthe settled in the lower
    part of the Tigris-Euphrates river valley, known
    as . ?
  • Sumer became the birthplace of what historians
    have considered the worlds first cities.

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29
Section 2-5
Section 2 Lecture Notes
5 of 22
The Sumerian City-States
  • By 3000 B.C., the Sumerians had formed 12
    city-states in the Tigris-Euphrates valley,
    including , , and . ?
  • A typical
    consisted of the city and the land around it. ?
  • The population of each city-state ranged from
    .

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30
Section 2-6
Section 2 Lecture Notes
6 of 22
The Sumerian City-States (cont.)
  • The people of Sumer shared a common culture,
    language, and religion. ?
  • City-states also shared some physical features,
    such as a , or temple, that rose above each
    city in a pyramid fashion.

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31
Section 2-7
Section 2 Lecture Notes
7 of 22
Sumerian Government
  • Each city-state, under normal circumstances,
    governed itself. ?
  • When facing threats such as invaders or scarce
    resources, the people typically chose a military
    leader from among themselves. ?
  • By B.C., several city-states had kings and
    soon the kingships would be hereditary.

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32
Section 2-8
Section 2 Lecture Notes
8 of 22
Sumerian Government (cont.)
  • A king was not only the military commander
    but also the high priest. ?
  • Therefore, most governments in Sumer were not
    only monarchies but theocracies as well.

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33
Section 2-9
Section 2 Lecture Notes
9 of 22
The Roles of Men and Women
  • Family life was extensively controlled under
    law. ?
  • Men exercised great authority over their wives
    and children, including the right to sell them
    into slavery in order to pay a debt. ?
  • Women were permitted to own property, run
    businesses, and own and sell slaves.

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34
Section 2-10
Section 2 Lecture Notes
10 of 22
Writing on Clay Tablets
  • , the Sumerian
    system of writing, consisted of hundreds of
    wedge-shaped markings that were pressed into wet
    clay tablets. ?
  • , professionals who
    actually recorded cuneiform, studied for many
    years and often rose to high positions in
    society. ?
  • Business records, lists of important dates, and
    literary works such as
    perhaps the oldest story in the worldhave
    survived in cuneiform.

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35
Section 2-11
Section 2 Lecture Notes
11 of 22
Sumers Many Deities
  • Like the Egyptians, Sumerians practiced a
    polytheistic religion, with each deity presiding
    over a specific natural force. ?
  • , the highest Sumerian
    deity, had responsibility for the seasons. ?
  • Each city-state adopted a main deity whom its
    citizens worshiped. ?
  • To appease their temperamental gods and
    goddesses, priests and priestesses performed
    religious ceremonies and rituals.

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36
Section 2-12
Section 2 Lecture Notes
12 of 22
Sumerian Inventions
  • Sumerians developed. . . ?
  • the to better transport goods
    and people. ?
  • the to make buildings stronger.
    ?
  • the wheel to
    shape containers. ?
  • a number system based on . ?
  • a calendar based
    on the cycles of the moon. ?
  • , which is made from
    copper and tin. ?
  • a metal .

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37
Section 2-13
Section 2 Lecture Notes
13 of 22
First Mesopotamian Empires
  • After a long period of conquest, the Sumerian
    city-states eventually fell to foreign invaders
    in the B.C.
    ?
  • These invaders were inspired by dreams of empire.

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38
Section 2-14
Section 2 Lecture Notes
14 of 22
Sargon Leads the Akkadians
  • The first empire builder in Mesopotamia was
    ?
  • His people, the , were
    nomadic Semites who had migrated from the Arabian
    Peninsula to the Fertile Crescent around 5000
    B.C. and established a kingdom called
    in northern
    Mesopotamia. ?
  • Sargon I assumed power in Akkad around
    B.C. and immediately launched a huge
    military campaign of expansion.

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39
Section 2-15
Section 2 Lecture Notes
15 of 22
Sargon Leads the Akkadians (cont.)

  • conquests united all of the city-states of
    Mesopotamia into one empire. ?
  • Under Sargons rule, the people of Mesopotamia
    began to use the
    language instead of Sumerian. However, the
    Akkadians adopted various Sumerian religious and
    practices.

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40
Section 2-16
Section 2 Lecture Notes
16 of 22
The Kingdom of Ebla
  • , on the trade route between
    Egypt and Mesopotamia, was a very wealthy and
    powerful city-state. ?
  • Ebla controlled and demanded a tribute from a
    number of neighboring towns. ?
  • Kings of were elected for
    seven-year terms, and a council could remove them
    if they failed in their jobs. ?
  • The , a Semitic people
    from western Syria, destroyed Ebla sometime
    around 2000 B.C.

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41
Section 2-17
Section 2 Lecture Notes
17 of 22
Hammurabis Babylonian Empire
  • The expanded into
    Mesopotamia and set up dynasties in many of the
    Sumer city-states. ?
  • , a ruler who
    would dominate Mesopotamia, rose out of the
    dynasty in Babylon.

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42
Section 2-18
Section 2 Lecture Notes
18 of 22
Hammurabis Babylonian Empire (cont.)

  • organized a strong government and eventually
    brought the entire region under his control. ?
  • Under his rule, traders from as far away as India
    and China paid gold and silver for
    grain and cloth.

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43
Section 2-19
Section 2 Lecture Notes
19 of 22
Hammurabis Law Code
  • Historians consider Hammurabis greatest
    achievement his effort to make justice appear in
    the land. ?
  • He created codea code of law that
    consisted of sections dealing with most aspects
    of daily life.

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44
Section 2-20
Section 2 Lecture Notes
20 of 22
Hammurabis Law Code (cont.)
  • These laws clearly stated violations and
    punishments. ?
  • Instead of fining violators, the code exacted
    , and a tooth for a tooth. ?
  • Government assumed the responsibility of
    protecting its citizens in exchange for loyalty
    and service.

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45
Section 2-21
Section 2 Lecture Notes
21 of 22
Babylonian Society
  • Babylonian society was broken into three classes.
    ?
  • top
  • middle ?
  • bottom ?
  • Laws were applied differently according to the
    class of the person offended against.

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46
Section 2-22
Section 2 Lecture Notes
22 of 22
Decline and Fall
  • After Hammurabis death, the Babylonian Empire
    declined. It was eventually taken over by the
    , a people from Asia Minor, around 1600
    B.C.

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47
Section 2-Assessment
Section 2 Assessment
Contrast Hammurabis code with earlier Sumerian
law. Which do you think served justice better?
Explain.
48
Section 3-1
Section 3
Early South Asia
1 of 11
Setting the Scene
  • Terms to Define subcontinent, monsoon ?
  • People to Meet the Harappans ?
  • Places to Locate Indus River valley, Harappa,
    Mohenjo-Daro ?

How did people of the Indus River valley
civilization build cities?
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49
Section 3-2
Section 3 Lecture Notes
2 of 11
Introduction
  • A third civilization, larger than both Egypt and
    Sumer, arose in the
    in South Asia. ?
  • It reached its height between 2500 B.C. and 1500
    B.C.

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50
Section 3-3
Section 3 Lecture Notes
3 of 11
The Subcontinent
  • Three modern nationsIndia, Pakistan, and
    Bangladeshtrace their roots to the Indus Valley
    civilization. ?
  • These nations lie on the of South Asia, a
    large, triangular-shaped landmass that juts into
    the Indian Ocean.

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51
Section 3-4
Section 3 Lecture Notes
4 of 11
Bounded by Mountains
  • The and the
    mountain ranges separate the
    South Asian subcontinent from the heart of Asia. ?
  • Throughout history, invaders entering the
    subcontinent by land have had to cross the few
    high mountain passes of the Hindu Kush to get to
    the fertile plains at their southern base. ?
  • Three major rivers flow across the wide plains of
    South Asiathe
    .

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52
Section 3-5
Section 3 Lecture Notes
5 of 11
Seasonal Winds
  • Cold air masses from the north are blocked by the
    mountains, leaving the weather mild in South
    Asia. ?
  • Two seasonal winds called affect the
    region. The northeast, or winter, monsoon blows
    from November to March and the southwest, or
    summer, monsoon from June to September.

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53
Section 3-6
Section 3 Lecture Notes
6 of 11
The Indus Valley Civilization
  • Less than a century ago, archaelogists identified
    an ancient civilization in South Asia. ?
  • They dated this civilization to about B.C.

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54
Section 3-7
Section 3 Lecture Notes
7 of 11
Centrally Planned Cities
  • The Harappan civilization had at least two major
    cities along the Indus River ?
  • , located in present-day
    Pakistan ?
  • , located near the
    Arabian Sea ?
  • The ruins of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are
    excellent examples of urban planning. ?
  • A was built on a brick
    platform overlooking each city.

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55
Section 3-8
Section 3 Lecture Notes
8 of 11
Centrally Planned Cities (cont.)
  • Streets were skillfully laid out in a grid
    pattern of straight streets crossing each other
    at right angles. ?
  • The used oven-baked bricks to
    build houses some were several stories
    high. ?
  • Almost every house had a bathroom with drains and
    chutes connected to a system under the
    streets.

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56
Section 3-9
Section 3 Lecture Notes
9 of 11
Harappan Life
  • Most Harappans were farmers who, by creating a
    food surplus, allowed city dwellers to engage in
    industry and commerce. ?
  • Trade was established with Mesopotamia as early
    as B.C.

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57
Section 3-10
Section 3 Lecture Notes
10 of 11
Language and Religion
  • There is a lack of surviving written records from
    the civilization, leaving artifacts as the
    only true clues. ?
  • Animal and humanlike figures suggest that the
    Harappans worshiped gods associated with natural
    forces. ?
  • By B.C., the Harappan civilization had
    vanished, possibly from floods or invaders.

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58
Section 3-11
Section 3 Lecture Notes
11 of 11
Collapse of a Civilization
  • By 1500 B.C., the Harappan civilization had
    vanished. ?
  • Historians theorize that possibly floods or
    invaders caused this collapse.

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59
Section 3-Assessment
Section 3 Assessment
What do archaeological clues suggest about the
decline and collapse of the Indus Valley
civilization?
60
Section 4-1
Section 4
Early China
1 of 11
Setting the Scene
  • Terms to Define mandate ?
  • People to Meet Yu the Great ?
  • Places to Locate Huang He valley, Anyang ?

What were the major contributions of early
Chinese civilization?
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61
Section 4-2
Section 4 Lecture Notes
2 of 11
Introduction
  • For many centuries the lived in relative
    isolation and saw themselves as the of the
    world. ?
  • The lack of outside contacts allowed the Chinese
    to develop one culture across many regions and a
    strong sense of national unity as well. ?
  • has the oldest continuous
    civilization in the world.

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62
Section 4-3
Section 4 Lecture Notes
3 of 11
Chinas Geography
  • Chinas varied has affected its historical
    development. ?
  • , which make up about
    one-third of Chinas area, hindered cultural
    diffusion both into and out of China. ?
  • On the east, Chinas coastline touches the
    Ocean.

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63
Section 4-4
Section 4 Lecture Notes
4 of 11
Chinas Geography (cont.)
  • Eastern China contains a number of fertile river
    valleys and plains with three major rivers ?
  • (Yellow River) ?
  • (Yangtze) ?
  • (West River) ?
  • A favorable climate, plenty of rainfall, and
    fertile soil made the North China Plain a very
    successful farming area.

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64
Section 4-5
Section 4 Lecture Notes
5 of 11
The Shang Dynasty
  • Very little is known about the of Chinese
    civilization. ?
  • Neolithic finds dated to earlier than 5000 B.C.
    make it clear that the
    invited
    settlement from very early times.

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65
Section 4-6
Section 4 Lecture Notes
6 of 11
Chinese Myths
  • The Chinese developed many myths to explain the
    past. ?
  • , according to myth,
    hatched the universe from an egg. ?
  • Also according to myth,
    , a miraculous engineer, founded Chinas
    first dynastythe
    around 2000 B.C. ?
  • The first dynasty to be dated from written
    records in China is the , which ruled from
    about 1700 B.C. to 1000 B.C.

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66
Section 4-7
Section 4 Lecture Notes
7 of 11
Early Religion
  • Shang kings were also high and, as in
    many other early civilizations, were responsible
    for both government and religious affairs. ?
  • They communicated with ancestors or predicted the
    future by having priests interpret

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67
Section 4-8
Section 4 Lecture Notes
8 of 11
Important Achievements
  • The Shang priests who wrote on the bones
    used a script with many characters. ?
  • These characters represented objects, ideas, or
    sounds and were written in vertical columns. ?
  • This script grew into characters that were
    hard to memorize therefore, few people in
    ancient could read or write.

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Section 4-9
Section 4 Lecture Notes
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Important Achievements (cont.)
  • The Chinese had mastered , pottery, and . ?
  • The Chinese built their first cities under
    the Shang dynasty, and archaeologists have
    identified seven capital cities, including
    .

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69
Section 4-10
Section 4 Lecture Notes
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Expansion and Decline
  • Shang kings, with superior weapons, eventually
    took over much of the Huang He valley. ?
  • The Shang dynasty lacked strong leaders and, in
    time, became weak. ?
  • Around 1000 B.C., , the ruler of a former
    Shang territory in the northwest, killed the
    Shang king and established a new dynasty, known
    as the , which lasted for 800 years.

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70
Section 4-11
Section 4 Lecture Notes
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Many Centuries of Dynasties
  • The Chinese believed that their rulers governed
    through a principle known as the
  • If their rulers were just and effective, they
    received a , or authority to rule, from
    heaven. ?
  • If rulers did not govern properly, they lost the
    mandate to someone else. ?
  • The Mandate of Heaven first appeared during the
    dynasty.

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71
Section 4-Assessment
Section 4 Assessment
Explain the basic features of the Chinese writing
system as it developed in early times. How
widespread was the use of this method of writing
in China under the early dynasties?
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