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Title: Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win th


1
10th American HistoryUnit VI Looking Toward
the Future
  • Chapter 21 A Search for Order
  • Section 2 Carters Presidency

2
Carters Presidency
  • The Main Idea
  • Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to
    win the presidency in 1976, but he soon met
    challenges that required other qualities as well.
  • Reading Focus
  • What were some of the difficult domestic
    challenges facing Carter and the nation in the
    late 1970s?
  • What were Carters greatest foreign-policy
    triumphs and challenges?
  • How did international crises affect Carters
    presidency?

3
FACTS about this decade.
  • Population 204,879,000 Unemployed in 1970
    4,088,000 National Debt 382 billion Average
    salary 7,564 Food prices milk, 33 cents a
    qt. bread, 24 cents a loaf round steak, 1.30 a
    pound Life Expectancy Male, 67.1 Female, 74.8
  • Watergate forced a president to resign or be
    impeached.
  • SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms
    Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to
    May 1972. During that period the United States
    and the Soviet Union negotiated the first
    agreements to place limits and restraints on some
    of their central and most important armaments.

4
Fads
  • Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's cube, Sea
    Monkeys, smiley face stickers, and pet rocks all
    captured the imagination of Americans during this
    decade. The wildest fad surely was streaking nude
    through very public places! Families vacationed
    in station wagons and everyone wanted an RV.

5
Fashion
  • The men sported shoulder length hair.
  • Non-traditional clothing became the rage,
    including bellbottom pants, hip huggers, colorful
    patches, hot pants, platform shoes, earth shoes,
    clogs, T-shirts, and gypsy dresses. Knits and
    denims were the fabrics of choice.
  • Leisure suits for men became commonplace, and
    women were fashionable in everything from
    ankle-length grandmother dresses to hot pants and
    micro-miniskirts.
  • The movie Annie Hall (1977) even inspired a
    fashion trend with women sporting traditional
    men's clothing such as derby hats, tweed jackets,
    and neckties worn with baggy pants or skirts.

6
The movies
  • The Seventies was the decade of the big comeback
    for the movies. After years of box office erosion
    caused by the popularity of television, a
    combination of blockbuster movies and new
    technologies such as Panavision and Dolby sound
    brought the masses back to the movies. The sci-fi
    adventure and spectacular special effects of
    George Lucas's Star Wars made it one of the
    highest grossing films ever.
  • Disaster movies, Towering Inferno, Earthquake,
    Poseidon Adventure, and Airport.
  • Sylvester Stallone's Rocky reaffirmed the
    American dream and gave people a hero with a
    "little guy comes out on top" plot.
  • The Godfather spawned multiple sequels.
  • There also was the terror of Steven Spielberg's
    Jaws, the chilling Exorcist, and the moving
    Kramer vs. Kramer.
  • There was a definite public yearning for simpler,
    more innocent times as evidenced by the
    popularity of the movies, American Graffiti and
    Grease, which both presented a romanticized view
    of the Fifties. Saturday Night Fever with John
    Travolta fueled the "disco fever" already
    sweeping the music and dance club scenes and t
  • The nation's experience in the Vietnam War and
    its aftermath influenced the themes of several
    movies, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter,
    and Apocalypse Now.

7
Television and the movies
  • All in the Family which had plots on many
    controversial issues such as abortion, race, and
    homosexuality.
  • Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and
    people once thought of as off limits for such
    treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was
    considered sacred.
  • Television satellite news broadcasts from the
    frontlines of the conflict in Vietnam continued
    to bring the horrors of war into the homes of
    millions of Americans and intensified anti-war
    sentiment in the country.
  • TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in
    genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for
    the plight of blacks, and an increased interest
    in African American history.
  • Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group
    of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to
    nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically
    presented the contemporary family.
  • The relatively new publicly funded Corporation
    for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and
    stature with such fare as Sesame Street for
    children, and live broadcasts of the Senate
    Watergate hearings.

8
Technology
  • The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next
    year Intel introduced the microprocessor, the
    "computer on a chip."
  • Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon,
    brought back 250 samples of rock and soil.
    Unmanned space probes explored the moon, Jupiter,
    Mars, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus.
  • The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked
    up in space to conduct joint experiments.
  • Atari produced the first low-priced integrated
    circuit TV games, and the videocassette recorder
    (VCR) changed home entertainment forever.
  • Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight,
    doubling passenger capacity and increasing flight
    range to 6,000 miles.
  • The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings
    but leaves buildings intact, was developed.
  • In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques
    were developed. The sites of DNA production on
    genes were discovered, and the fledging research
    in genetic engineering was halted pending
    development of safer techniques. The first test
    tube baby was born, developed from an
    artificially inseminated egg implanted in the
    mother's womb.

9
Music
  • Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles
    soft-rock, hard rock, country rock, folk rock,
    punk rock, shock rock - and
  • The dance craze of the decade, disco!
  • Among the top names in popular music were
    Aerosmith, the Bee Gees, David Bowie, Jackson
    Browne, Alice Cooper, Eagles, Electric Light
    Orchestra, Emerson, Lake Palmer, Fleetwood Mac,
    Billy Joel, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, John
    Lennon, Pink Floyd, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen,
    Rod Stewart,Three Dog Night, and The Who.
  • "Easy listening" regained popularity with groups
    such as the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a
    huge core of fans in the U.S. performing Jamaican
    reggae music.
  • This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and
    the death of Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two
    major influences.

10
CB Radio Jimmy Hoffa, the Concorde, Muscle Cars,
Munich and Video Games- 1803
  • http//www.history.com/minisite.do?content_typeMi
    nisite_Video_Clipscontent_type_id54486display_o
    rder1mini_id54488

11
Oil Embargo
  • October 17, 1973, when Arab members of the
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC), in the midst of the Yom Kippur War,
    announced that they would no longer ship
    petroleum to nations that had supported Israel in
    its conflict with Egyptthat is, to the United
    States and its allies in Western Europe.
  • At around the same time, OPEC-member states
    agreed to use their leverage over the world
    price-setting mechanism for oil to quadruple
    world oil prices

12
Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple.
  • The charismatic leader of Jonestown, was Jim
    Jones, a preacher who set up the Peoples Temple
    in San Francisco and ultimately moved his
    followers to a more clandestine site in Guyana.
  • While Jones was preaching in San Francisco, he
    helped out many local and even national campaigns
    and was seen as a healer which much power in the
    community.
  • However, once he had all of his members in
    Jonestown, his personality changed. Away from the
    constraints of American soil, Jonestown and its
    members became very cultish.
  • In 1978, 913 followers of Jim Jones and the
    Peoples Temple committed a mass suicide in
    northern Guyana at a site called, Jonestown.
    After making all 276 children at Jonestown drink
    the punch, all the adults proceeded. In the end,
    after Jones apparently killed himself with a
    gunshot to the head.

13
Patty Hearst and the SLA
  • SLA was an American paramilitary group and was a
    proponent of radical ideology. Members of the
    group were accused and convicted of committing
    murders, bank robberies, and acts of violence
    between 1973 and 1975. Even though they never had
    more than 13 members, they became the top ongoing
    media story during their underground fugitive
    period. More than anything else, this was
    generated by their spectacular kidnapping of
    wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst, making them
    household names. On Feb. 4, 1974, the SLA carried
    out its most notorious crime the kidnapping of
    19-year-old newspaper heiress Patricia Campbell
    Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher William
    Randolph Hearst and an art history major at
    Berkeley, it was a national media event.
  • A SLA communiqué to a local newspaper said the
    group had "served an arrest warrant" on Hearst,
    daughter of the "corporate enemy of the people.
  • SLA's first demand that every poor person in
    California be given 70 in free food. The
    estimated cost of such a food distribution would
    be 400 million. Instead a food donation program
    was set that provided 2 million in food.
  • The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San
    Francisco. Two surveillance cameras captured
    Hearst carrying a carbine and shouting orders at
    terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were
    shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA
    10,692. Urban Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed
    to all that she had become more and more
    sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and
    eventually joined the group, taking part in their
    illegal activities, including bank robberies.
  • When she went on trial for bank robbery, she
    claimed the SLA had brainwashed her into
    believing the FBI would kill her if she tried to
    return to her parents. A jury rejected Hearst's
    claim and she spent two years in prison before
    President Carter commuted her sentence.

14
Jonestown- 324
  • http//www.history.com/videos/jonestown-massacrej
    onestown-massacre

15
Apollo Missions
  • Apollo 12 was launched at 112200 a.m. EST on
    November 14, 1969. The mission plan called for a
    landing in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of
    Storms) area. Survey of the area, collect
    samples experiments photographs
  • Apollo 13 was launched at 21300 p.m. EST on
    April 11, 1970. None of the primary misson
    objectives was accomplished. The mission was
    aborted after nearly 56 hours of flight
  • The Apollo 14 Mission, was launched from Kennedy
    Space Center, Florida, on January 31, 1971. To
    explore, collect scientific data and material.
  • The Apollo 15 Mission- explore over longer
    ranges, more hours and more equipment.
  • The Apollo 16 Mission- explore over longer
    ranges, more hours (20) and more equipment and a
    lunar rover-27 kilometers.
  • The Apollo 17 Mission- the last of the Apollo
    missions. Awesome midnight launch its flawless
    operation, its 72-hour lunar staytime, its
    deployment of scientific instrumentation, its
    return of the richest collection of lunar
    materials from any lunar site, its orbital
    science coverage.

16
Jimmy Carter 0149
17
President Jimmy Carter
  • 39th President- 1977-1981 - Democrat
  • Who was Jimmy Carter?
  • Foreign Problems
  • Human Rights
  • Russians SALT II
  • Panama Canal Treaties (2)
  • Developed Nations and Underdeveloped Nations
  • Middle East- Arabs (PLO) v. Israel
  • Camp David Accords - Peace Treaty 1976
  • Hostages in Iran
  • Nicaragua and the Sandanistas
  • Soviets Invade Afghanistan and the Olympic
    Boycott.

18
Carter Faces Domestic Challenges
  • Jimmy Carter came across as an honest man of deep
    religious faith who promised not to lie to the
    American people.
  • Carter immediately tried to help the nation heal
    some of the wounds of the past.
  • Ex. He issued a pardon to thousands of Vietnam
    War draft dodgers.
  • Carter tackled problems in the economy and with
    energy.
  • Finally, Carter tried to deal with environmental
    issues.

19
President Jimmy Carter
  • Domestic Problems
  • Failed to work closely with Dem. Congress Social
    Security- paying out more than taking in. Taxes
    were raised.
  • Congress blocked energy, electoral reform, and
    welfare reform
  • Special Interests
  • Inflation
  • Energy Problems
  • Environment coal nuclear power
  • Energy Crisis

20
Challenges Facing the Nation
  • The Economy and Energy
  • Inflation and unemployment were high.
  • Carter made the development of a national energy
    policy a priority.
  • Wanted to ease dependence on foreign oil through
    energy conservation, developing new energy
    supplies, and loosening government regulation of
    the American oil industry
  • Asked Americans to conserve energy
  • Promoted the development of alternative energy
    sources
  • The Impact
  • The economy added many new jobs to help battle
    unemployment.
  • Carter was unable to bring down inflation, in
    fact, it got worse.
  • Carters energy policies were successful at
    helping reduce American dependence on foreign
    oil.
  • American production of energy increased under
    Carter.

21
Environmental Concerns
  • Environmental Wins
  • Believed that conserving fuel was a key way to
    avoid plundering the environment
  • Passed the Alaska National Interest Lands
    Conservation Act
  • The act protected more than 100 million acres of
    land and doubled the size of the nations park
    and wildlife refuge system.
  • Environmental Losses
  • In 1979 a mishap at a nuclear power plant on
    Three Mile Island terrified the nation.
  • Although little radiation was released, public
    concern about the safety of nuclear power grew.
  • Chemicals that a company dumped in New York began
    to seep up through the ground at Love Canal and
    were linked to high rates of birth defects.
  • Experts warned that there were likely many more
    toxic waste sites around the nation.

22
Environment
  • What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an
    incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in
    western New York state in the 1890s. From the
    1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a
    chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was
    then sold and used for residential purposes, and
    soon people began complaining about strange odors
    and possible health problems. Since the late
    1970s, many studies have been done to ascertain
    whether any health problems can be traced to the
    waste dumped into Love Canal.
  • Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just outside
    Harrisburg, Penn.
  • A failed valve, and a miss reading by a worker
    caused the reactor to be exposed and radiation to
    escape. No deaths or illnesses. 1/2 hour away
    from a meltdown.

23
Changing World
  • Two Worlds- East and West- US and USSR
  • Third World- nations in Europe, Latin America,
    Asia and Africa who were not attached to either
    East or West. (Non-aligned)
  • Developed Nations- industrialized nations
  • Developing nations-
  • Underdeveloped poorer nations looking for help.
  • 2/3 of worlds population
  • Useful allies, raw materials, and profitable
    trade.
  • How to win them over???

24
Challenges Facing the Nation
  • What were some of the difficult domestic
    challenges facing President Carter and the nation
    in the late 1970s?
  • Recall What did America know of President
    Carter when he came to office?
  • Summarize What steps did President Carter take
    to solve the energy problem?
  • Make inferences What was the significance of
    President Carters promise to never lie to
    Americans?

25
Challenges Facing the Nation
  • Recall What two environmental disasters
    occurred during the Carter administration?
  • Make inferences What was the significance of
    the discovery of chemical seepage at Love Canal?

26
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Carter came to office with little foreign-policy
    experience.
  • Carter promised that the concept of human rights
    would be at the forefront of his foreign policy.
  • Carter worked to strengthen ties between the
    United States and the Soviet Union and China.
  • Carter gave control of the Panama Canal back to
    Panama.
  • Carter helped Egypt and Israel deal with some of
    the divisions that caused conflicts between their
    countries.

27
Panama Canal Treaties
  • Why-
  • The U.S. had been in control of Canal since 1903
    and could be forever.
  • Riots in Panama demanding control of canal, the
    biggest industry in Panama.
  • Panamanian Dictator Omar Torrijos threatened to
    blow up the canal if the U.S. didn't get out.
  • 1st Treaty
  • U.S. hands over Canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999
  • 2nd Treaty
  • Canal to be neutral waterway
  • U.S. has permanent right to protect and defend
    that neutrality.

28
Nicaragua 1979
  • Dictator Anastasio Somoza is overthrown by
    Marxist rebels. (U.S. had helped his father get
    control)
  • US recognizes the rebel government hoping to work
    with it to keep the Communists from setting up
    another base of operations.
  • The rebels- The Sandinistas, named after the
    resistance leader Cesar Augusto Sandino, started
    their struggle in Nicaragua in 1962. In the
    seventies this culminated in a civil war against
    the government of President Somoza, the third
    president of the Somoza dynasty since 1933.
  • Sandanistas, were not willing to work with the
    U.S.

29
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Human Rights
  • Basic ideas outlined in the United Nations
    Declaration of Human Rights
  • Carter expected friends and enemies alike to
    uphold the highest standards in the treatment of
    their citizens.
  • Soviet Relations
  • Carter wrote to Brezhnev about his concerns with
    Soviet human rights issues.
  • Brezhnev politely said that each country should
    mind their own business.
  • Concluded SALT II talks in 1979 that limited
    nuclear weapons
  • Recognizing China
  • Formally recognized the government of the
    Communist Peoples Republic of China
  • Ended recognition of the Republic of China on
    Taiwan

30
Issue of Human Rights
  • Carter took a bold stand on Human Rights.
  • By praising Russian dissidents (Sakarov) he
    angered the Russian government.
  • He cut aid to Ethiopia, Argentina, and Brazil
    because of human rights violations.
  • Critics felt Carter needed to be more behind the
    scenes rather than so public.

31
Dealing with Russia
  • SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
  • SALT I- about to expire
  • SALT II- Carter has a broad plan for limitation.
  • Carter admits the US is more powerful and the
    Russia should fear this. (Cruise missile for
    ex.)
  • He backed off on Russia human rights violations.
  • June 1979- SALT II is signed.
  • However due to increased suspicion about Russian
    intentions the Senate never approved the treaty.
    It did not become law.

32
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Panama Canal
  • American control of the Panama Canal had been a
    source of conflict between the two countries.
  • In 1977 Carter and Panamas leader agreed that
    Panama would take control of the canal by the end
    of 1999.
  • The Senate narrowly approved the treaties.
  • For some Americans, loss of control of the canal
    represented a decline in American power.
  • Camp David Accords
  • Greatest foreign-policy achievement
  • Conflict between Egypt and Israel continued.
    Egypt would not recognize Israel and Israel
    continued to occupy Egyptian territory.
  • Carter guided Anwar el-Sadat and Menachem Begin
    to a historic agreement that came to be called
    the Camp David Accords.
  • Begin and Sadat won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.

33
(No Transcript)
34
Camp David Accords
  • Camp David Accords- 1977
  • Anwar Sadat- new President of Egypt- wants peace
    with Israel.
  • Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel
  • President Jimmy Carter of U.S.A
  • All three meet at Camp David, the presidential
    retreat.
  • Sept. 17. 1978 peace agreement reached.
  • Other Arab nation objected and said Egypt acts
    alone. Arabs put a economic boycott on Egypt.

35
Carters Foreign Policy
  • What were Carters greatest foreign-policy
    triumphs and challenges?
  • Identify What was SALT II?
  • Make inferences What was the significance of
    Carters appointment of Andrew Young as U.S.
    Ambassador?
  • Evaluate in what ways did President Carters
    commitment to human rights help and hurt him?

36
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Describe What were the key features of the Camp
    David Accords?
  • Summarize What was the general American
    reaction to the Panama Canal Treaty?
  • Develop What does it mean when one country
    refuses to recognize another?

37
How did international crises affect Carters
presidency?
In 1979 a series of events occurred that seemed
to overwhelm Carters presidency.
In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
On November 4, 1979, a mob attacked the American
embassy in Tehran, Irans capital, and took
several dozen Americans hostage.
38
International Crises
  • Afghanistan
  • Soviets invaded Afghanistan to ensure continued
    Communist rule in the country.
  • The attack threatened U.S.-Soviet relations and
    called into question Carters ability to respond
    to Soviet aggression.
  • Carter blocked shipment of grain to the Soviet
    Union and said the United States would boycott
    the 1980 Olympics.
  • Americans did not like the grain embargo or the
    Olympic boycott because they seemed to hurt the
    United States as much as the Soviet Union.
  • Iran
  • Revolution in Iran overthrew the shah and
    replaced him with the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.
  • The American government allowed the shah to enter
    the United States for medical treatmentthis
    action enraged many Iranians.
  • A mob attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran and
    took Americans hostage.
  • Carters attempts to negotiate the release of the
    hostages went nowhere.
  • A military attempt to rescue the hostages failed.

39
Soviets Invade Afghanistan
  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year
    war fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan,
    and foreign fighters in Afghanistan. The
    'shooting' war is generally held to have started
    December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately
    withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and
    February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially
    announced that all of its troops had left
    Afghanistan on February 15.
  • The CIA invested US2.1 billion over a 10-year
    period to create an anti-Soviet resistance.
  • USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded
  • Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded,
    Roughly 1.3 Million Civilian deaths.
  • One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin
    Laden
  • Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the
    Christian or atheist Soviets controlling
    Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as
    of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a
    "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support of the
    Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and
    money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics
    against the Soviets.
  • U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow
    Olympics.

40
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan- 1979
  • U.S. embargoes grain sales and technology, and
    culture exchanges to USSR.
  • U.S. and 61 other nations boycott the 1980 Summer
    Olympics in Moscow
  • The Soviet stay in Afghanistan until April 14,
    1988- Soviet Vietnam.

41
The Russian Invasion of Afghanistan 0314
42
Iran and the United States
  • Shah of Iran
  • Improved education
  • Womens rights
  • Improved public health
  • U.S. ally
  • but was a dictator, corrupt, and used torture to
    westernize
  • Islamic revolution
  • Overthrew the Shah. Shah goes to US for Cancer
    treatment
  • Ayatollah Khomeini- New Fanatical Muslim leader
    of Iran
  • Fundamental Islam
  • U.S. Embassy in Teheran
  • Our interest were oil based.
  • Islamic fundamentalist mob invades embassy and
    siezed the Americans there.
  • Demand return of Shah and unfreeze Iranian assets
  • Carter refuses the demands
  • Hostage Crisis- 52 for 444 days

Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Embassy Cultural Officer
one of two female hostages.
43
The Iran Hostage Crisis 0530
44
A Crisis of Confidence
  • The Iranian Hostage situation dragged on
    throughout the presidential election year of
    1980.
  • The situation in Iran also drove up gasoline
    prices so that prices of goods in the United
    States went up and inflation soared.
  • Many voters held Carter responsible for the
    problems and the downcast mood of the country.

45
International Crisis
  • How did international crises affect Carters
    presidency?
  • Recall Why was the Soviet invasion of
    Afghanistan troubling to the U.S.?
  • Evaluate Was blocking a shipment of grain and
    refusal to participate in the Olympics in Moscow
    an adequate response to the Soviet invasion?

46
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