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Title: Black Death bubonic ... History of the Black Death.avi


1
Math 210G Mathematics AppreciationDr. Joe Lakey
  • website http//www.math.nmsu.edu/jlakey/home.htm
    l
  • phone 505-646-2417
  • office Science Hall 230

2
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3
Theories of disease
  • Ancient historical view spontaneous generation
  • Atharvaveda ancient Hindu text deals with
    medicine. Identifies causes of disease as living
    causative agents
  • Earliest western references On Agriculture by
    Marcus Terentius Varro (c. 36 BC) ...and
    because there are bred certain minute creatures
    which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in
    the air and enter the body through the mouth and
    nose and there cause serious diseases.

4
  • Avicenna (1020 AD) bodily secretion
    contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies
    before being infected contagious nature of
    tuberculosis/infectious diseases introduced
    quarantine

5
  • Black Death bubonic plague 14th century
  • Ibn Khatima hypothesized infectious diseases
    caused by "minute bodies
  • Ibn al-Khatib On the Plague
  • notices how he who establishes contact with
    the afflicted gets the disease, whereas he who is
    not in contact remains safe, and how transmission
    is affected through garments, vessels and
    earrings."

6
  • The History of the Black Death.avi

7
Fracastoro (1478-1553) Redi(1626-1697)
8
  • Girolamo Fracastoro (1546) epidemics caused by
    transferable seedlike entities direct or
    indirect contact OR long distances.
  • Francesco Redi (1668) proof against spontaneous
    generation. 3 jars. meat loaf. (1) open, (2)
    covered with gauze (3) sealed. After a few days
  • (1) covered by maggots, (2) maggots on surface of
    the gauze (3) none.
  • maggots only on surfaces accessible by flies.
  • No spontaneous generation

9
Agostino Bassi (1773-1856)
  • Credited with germ theory of disease
  • observations on muscardine disease of silkworms.
    1835 blamed deaths of insects on a contagious,
    living agent, visible to the naked eye powdery
    spores

10
  • Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) Hungarian
    obstetrician Vienna's Allgemeines Krankenhaus in
    1847,
  • high incidence of death from puerperal fever
    amongst women who delivered at the hospital
    (30.)
  • physicians had usually come directly from
    autopsies.
  • made doctors wash their hands with water and lime
    reducing mortality from childbrith lt 2
  • theories were viciously attacked by most of the
    Viennese medical establishment.

11
John Snow
  • 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
  • miasma (Greek "pollution") "bad air"
  • germ theory microorganisms
  • Snow statistical analysis

12
  • RSC honours Dr John Snow.avi

13
Snow and Cholera (1813-1858)
14
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
15
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16
John Snow, letter to the editor of the Medical
Times and Gazette
  • nearly all the deaths had taken place within a
    short distance of the Broad Street pump only
    ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to
    another street-pump. In five of these they
    always sent to the pump in Broad Street. In
    three other cases, the deceased were children who
    went to school near the pump in Broad Street...
    With regard to the deaths occurring in the
    locality belonging to the pump, there were 61
    instances in which I was informed that the
    deceased persons used to drink the pump water
    from Broad Street, either constantly or
    occasionally...
  • The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there
    has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of
    cholera in this part of London except among the
    persons who were in the habit of drinking the
    water of the above-mentioned pump well.
  • I had an interview with the Board of
    Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of
    the 7th inst Sept 7, and represented the above
    circumstances to them. In consequence of what I
    said, the handle of the pump was removed on the
    following day.

17
Light microscope
  • 1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias
    Janssen and his son Hans, while experimenting
    with several lenses in a tube, discovered that
    nearby objects appeared greatly enlarged.
  • 1609, Galileo, heard of these early
    experiments, worked out the principles of lenses,
    and made a much better instrument with a focusing
    device.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) taught himself
    new methods for grinding and polishing tiny
    lenses of great curvature magnifications up to
    270 diameters, He was the first to see and
    describe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life
    in a drop of water, and the circulation of blood
    corpuscles in capillaries.
  • Robert Hooke, the English father of microscopy,
    re-confirmed Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discoveries
    of the existence of tiny living organisms in a
    drop of water. Hooke made a copy of Leeuwenhoek's
    light microscope and then improved upon his
    design.

18
The microscope
  • first microscope was made around 1595 in
    Middleburg, Holland
  • Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625
  • Hookes (pictured)

19
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
20
discovered bacteria observing plaque between
his own teeth under a microscope On September
17, 1683, Leeuwenhoek wrote to Royal Society,
"a little white matter, which is as thick as if
'twere batter." Repeated observations on
presumably wife and daughter, and on two old
men who had never cleaned their teeth "I then
most always saw, with great wonder, that in the
said matter there were many very little living
animalcules, very prettily a-moving. The
biggest sort. . . had a very strong and swift
motion, and shot through the water (or spittle)
like a pike does through the water. The second
sort. . . oft-times spun round like a top. . .
and these were far more in number."
21
  • Van Leeuwenhoeks discovery of bacteria was not
    immediately accepted by scientists.
  • the Society appointed two scientists - Nehemiah
    Grew, the plant anatomist and Robert Hooke, the
    microscopist. First time they failed, casting
    doubts on his report. However, Hooke again tried
    using a microscope with 330 X (power of
    magnification) and confirmed Leeuwenhoeks
    success. Both scientists confirmed that their
    observations were similar to those described in
    the letters by Leeuwenhoek.
  • Now, the Royal Society accepted Leeuwenhoek as
    scientist and declared him as the discoverer of
    bacteria.

22
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  • (1860-1864) fermentation and growth of
    microorganisms in nutrient broths.
  • Filters stop particles passing through to the
    growth medium no growth implies no spontaneous
    generation

23
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  • First to devise proofs to verify germ theory.
  • Koch's Postulates (1875) demonstrated anthrax
    caused Bacillus anthracis.
  • Postulates still used today to help determine if
    newly discovered disease caused by a
    microorganism.

24
  • Casimir Davaine (1850s) bacterium "rod"or
    "staff".
  • 3 types
  • bacillus rectangular with sharply rounded ends,
    which varies in diameter between 20 µm and 0.5
    µm.
  • coccus which resembles two tiny beans lying face
    to face. This type of bacteria is about 0.5 µm in
    diameter.
  • spiral, which is about 15 µm in length.

25
Viruses
26
Viruses are small
  • Pasteur could not find the germ some diseases,
    such as rabies (and common cold, mumps, measles
    and polio)
  • Rabies almost always fatal. Noted weakened
    extract of tissue infected with rabies might be
    protective against the disease, even after a
    person had been bitten.

27
  • Pasteur 1885 applied extract 9-year-old Joseph
    Meister who had been bitten by a rabid dog.
    Vaccine worked. Joseph Meister lived another 55
    years.
  • Pasteur hypothesized rabies due to small
    bacteria.

28
Jenner (1749-1823) smallpox
  • 18th-c. Europe 95 pop. contracted smallpox at
    some point in their lives
  • as many as one in 10 died of it.
  • New World wiped out millions of Native
    Americans.
  • Edward Jenner (1796) milkmaids got cowpox
    (milder) but rarely smallpox.
  • Could exposure to cowpox protect against smallpox
    as well?

29
  • Smallpox survivors thereafter immune.
  • Jenner cowpox imply smallpox immunity?
  • Tested on a healthy 8-year-old James Phipps pus
    from milkmaid's cowpox sore, scratched into the
    boy's arm. Small infected spot soon subsided.
  • 6 weeks later inoculated Phipps with smallpox.
    Phips never contracted smallpox.

30
  • Academy of Achievement's Exclusive Interview
    Jonas Salk.avi

31
Martinus Beijerinck (1851-1931) and Dmitri
Ivanovsky (1864-1920)
32
  • Germ theory accepted by late 19th century
  • Dmitri Ivanovsky (1892) tobacco mosaic disease,
    was clearly infectious Hoping to find bacteria
    Ivanovsky ran extract of diseased leaves through
    filter, pores small enough to trap any known
    bacteriacaused .went right through liquid
    retained the power to infect other plants.
  • Ivanovsky published findings little attention
    was paid
  • Martinus Beijerinck (1898) same experiments
    same results
  • infectious agent destroyed when the liquid was
    heated.
  • Beijerinck concluded agent was a "contagious
    living fluid."
  • Beijerinck (as Jenner) used the term "virus"
    (Latin for poison or pestilence.
  • hoof-and-mouth disease, yellow fever, were also
    caused by these "filterable viruses."
  • .
  • 1930s filters with pores tiny enough to prove
    that viruses are particulate after all, rather
    than being fluid in nature.
  • The earliest electron microscopes also appeared
    in the 1930s, and viruses could at last be seen.
  • Today we know that viruses are not living cells
    like bacteria, but rather tiny packets of genetic
    material that must infect the cells of their
    unwilling host in order to reproduce.

33
Viruses are small
  • Largest viruses 1/10 typical bacteria 0.22.0
    µm
  • NOT simply miniature bacteria

34
  • Ångström (1868) wavelength of electromagnetic
    radiation in multiples of one ten-millionth of a
    millimetre,
  • (Ångström unit)
  • Humans 4,000 å (violet) to 7,000 å (dark red) so
    the use of the ångström as a unit provided

35
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36
Electron microscope
  • uses electrons to illuminate specimen and create
    image.
  • can magnify specimens up to 2 million times,
  • best light microscopes 2000 times. Both
    electron and light microscopes have resolution
    limitations, imposed by their wavelength.
  • wavelength of an electron much smaller than that
    of a light photon
  • electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses by
    controlling electron beam ..in a manner similar
    to lenses in light microscope

37
Other deadly diseases
38
Smallpox
  • Smallpox (430 BC? - 1979)
  • 30 to 35 mortality rate
  • Smallpox killed an estimated 60 million
    Europeans, including five reigning European
    monarchs, in the 18th century alone.
  • and most of the native inhabitants of the
    Americas 90 to 95
  • Killed more than 300 million people worldwide in
    the 20th century alone,

39
Spanish flu
  • Spanish Flu (1918 - 1919) (2.4 to 5 of world
    population at the time)
  • Killed 50 to 100 million people worldwide in less
    than 2 years
  • WWI blamed as factor in its spread
  • more people than Hitler, nuclear weapons and all
    the terrorists of history combined.
  • The pandemic came and went like a flashin the
    United States a quarter of the nation's
    population -- and a billion people worldwide --
    had been infected

40
  • Obama on the spanish flu.avi

41
Cholera
  • Cholera (1817 - today) (bacterium Vibrio
    cholerae.)
  • 8 pandemics hundreds of thousands killed
    worldwide
  • Transmission to humans occurs through ingesting
    contaminated water or food
  • The major cholera pandemics are generally listed
    as First 1817-1823, Second 1829-1851, Third
    1852-1859, Fourth 1863-1879, Fifth 1881-1896,
    Sixth 1899-1923 Seventh 1961- 1970, and some
    would argue that we are in the Eighth 1991 to
    the present. Each pandemic, save the last, was
    accompanied by many thousands of deaths. As
    recently as 1947, 20,500 of 30,000 people
    infected in Egypt died. Despite modern medicine,
    cholera remains an efficient killer.

42
Typhus
  • Typhus (430 BC? - today) (bacterial)
  • Charles Nicolle 1909 lice were the vectors for
    epidemic typhus.
  • Killed 3 million people between 1918 and 1922
    alone
  • Common major outbreaks during wars
  • .Following the development of a vaccine during
    World War II epidemics occur only in Eastern
    Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa.

43
Malaria
  • Malaria (1600 - today)
  • Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease
    caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by
    female Anopheles mosquitoes (plasmodium)
  • widespread in tropical and subtropical regions
  • about 400900 million cases of fever and
    approximately one to three million deaths
    annually
  • little change in which areas are at risk of this
    disease since 1992.
  • death rate could double in the next twenty years.
  • the majority of cases are undocumented.

44
AIDS
  • AIDS (1981 - today) (retrovirus)
  • Killed 25 million people worldwide one of the
    most destructive epidemics in recorded history
  • first recognized in 1981,
  • claimed approximately 3.1 million in 2005,
    including 570,000 were children.
  • There are an estimated 40.3 million (estimated
    range between 36.7 and 45.3 million) people now
    living with HIV.
  • The key facts surrounding this origin of AIDS are
    currently unknown, particularly where and when
    the pandemic began, though it is said that it
    originated from the apes in Africa.
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