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The expression of the Artist's right to freedom of choic

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The expression of the Artist's right to freedom of choice ... Birthday Greetings to Xonti. 1930. Like Dada, Bauhaus also published periodicals and magazines. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The expression of the Artist's right to freedom of choic


1
Art Movements of the Post WWI Years
1919-1939
Raphaella W. DEF HGHS Chappaqua, NY
2
Essential Question How were the emotions and
actions of the aftermath of WWI expressed in the
following art movements?
3
modernism
1916 - 1940
4
Principles of Modernism
  • The expression of the Artists right to freedom
    of choice in subject and style.
  • Departure from literal representation no longer
    needed with birth of photography.
  • Art for Arts sake
  • Reject tradition and society.

5
Modernism by the Critics
For the younger artists of France have
completely thrown overboard the ideals of
perfection and form, of grace and measure and
tranquility, which we are accustomed to think as
their most valuable possession.
their (Dadaists) manifestos and tracts with
which it is proposed to purge French art of its
slavish subservience to rules.
from The Aesthetic Upheaval in France by Edmund
Wilson Jr., Vanity Fair February 1922
6
Modernism by the Artists
Seven years ago, I tried to make a painting
that would live by its own resourcesAt the
present time I am doing research in art. My
conclusions? I cannot explain my present
researches until I myself have evolved out of
them, that is to say, until I have gone further
in my artistic evolution.
Francis Picabia, quoted from Francis Picabia and
his Puzzling Art (an extremely modernized
academician), from Vanity Fair November 1915
7
Art movements as part of Modernism
  • Dadaism (1916 1924)
  • Bauhaus (1919 1933)
  • Art Deco (1920 1935)
  • Surrealism early (1920 - 1935)

8
dadaism
1916 - 1924
9
Tristan Tzara founder of Dadaism
Freedom Dada Dada Dada, a roaring of tense
colors, and interlacing of opposites and all
contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies LIFE
Dada Manifesto 1919
10
Dadaism
  • Began in neutral Switzerland in WWI
  • Also big in Paris.
  • Reached its peak between 1916 1924
  • Anti Art
  • A movement against rigidity of society and art,
    and the barbarity of war the public didnt
    deserve art after the war.

11
Tristan Tzara
  • Born in Romania in 1896.
  • Lived most of his life in Paris.
  • Wrote the first Dada text, La Premiere Aventure
    celeste de Monsieur Antipyrine in 1916.
  • Penned the movements manifestos, Sept manifestes
    Dada, in 1924.
  • Became an active member of the French Communist
    Party in later life.

12
Characteristics of Dada Art
  • Nonsensical drawings
  • Pastel and faded colors
  • Used collages and layers to confuse the
    unworthy beholder.
  • The beginnings of surrealism many Dada
    artists went on to become members of the
    Surrealist movement.
  • Subjects sometimes mundane, called art as irony.
    (e.g. bicycle wheel, flyer.)

13
Important Artists of the Dada Movement
  • Tristan Tzara (1896 1953)
  • Francis Picabia (1879 1953)
  • Kurt Schwitters (1887 1948)
  • Max Ernst (1891 1976)
  • Marcel Duchamp (1887 1958)

14
Francis Picabia Machine Turn Quickly 1916-1918
15
Francis Picabia Feathers 1921
16
Francis Picabia Chapeau de Paille 1921
17
Kurt Schwitters The Cherry Picture 1921
18
Kurt Schwitters Merz 448 (Moscow) 1922
19
Kurt Schwitters Kleine Dada Soiree 1922
20
Marcel Duchamp Monte Carlo Bond 1924
21
Marcel Duchamp You Me (Tu-M) 1918
22
Publications of the Dada movement
  • Many publications within Dada Movement
  • Was not only an art movement, but included poetry
    and theatre.
  • First publication - Cabaret Voltaire
  • Followed by Dada in July 1917 - an art and
    literature review organized by Tristan Tzara.
  • Other publications included Le courre a Barbe,
    Der Dada, De Stijl, Proverbe, Freie Straße

23
Example covers of Dada Magazine (1917 1920)
24
Example articles from De Stijl and Dada
25
bauhaus
1919 - 1933
26
Walter Gropius Founder of Bauhaus
The School will gradually turn into a
workshop Art and Technology - a new unity.
27
Bauhaus
  • Began in 1919 with Bauhaus School in Weimar,
    Germany.
  • Lead by Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Ludwig
    Mies Van Der Rohe.
  • Wanted to create new art to reflect the new times
    they were living in after WWI.
  • Artist should be trained to work in the industry.

28
Walter Gropius
  • Born in Berlin in 1883
  • Served as Sgt. Major in WWI.
  • In 1919 was employed as the new master of the
    Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in
    Weimar became the Bauhaus School.
  • Fled Germany and the Nazi Party in 1934.
  • Died in Boston, MA in 1969.

29
Characteristics of Bauhaus
  • A lack of recognizable objects wanted to find
    the true meaning of art through disassembling it.
  • Clean lines, geometric shapes layered.
  • In architecture clean, functional.
  • Like Dadaism, was a step toward surrealism for
    artists such as Wassily Kandinsky.
  • Stylistic patterns altered as leaders of the
    school changed earlier Bauhaus is different to
    later Bauhaus.

30
Important members of the Bauhaus school
  • Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
  • Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
  • Josef Albers (1888-1976)
  • Herbert Bayer (1900 - 1985)

31
Bauhaus School in Dessau, Germany
32
Wassily Kandinsky Contrasting Sounds 1924
33
Wassily Kandinsky On White II 1923
34
Wassily Kandinsky Yellow Red Blue 1925
35
Josef Albers Figure (Glass, Colour and Light) 1921
36
Herbert Bayer Profil en Face 1929
37
Herbert Bayer Birthday Greetings to Xonti 1930
38
  • Like Dada, Bauhaus also published periodicals and
    magazines.
  • Head of printing and design for Bauhaus Magazine
    was Herbert Bayer.
  • The Bauhaus school also published books called
    Bauhausbücher

39
art deco
1920 - 1935
40
Art Deco
  • Center Paris.
  • Gained the title Art Deco from Exposition
    Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels
    Modernes in 1925
  • A new kind of decorative and elegant art.
  • Reached its high point in the mid 20s mid
    30s.
  • Reaction to the forced austerity caused by WWI.

41
Characteristics of Art Deco
  • Geometric shapes
  • Although not the flowing swirls of Art Nouveau,
    had bolder curves and less fussy designs.
  • Bold colors, and new ways of shading pictures.
  • Idealistic images of the flaming youth of the
    roaring twenties.
  • Carried a theme through pieces, especially in
    interiors and architecture.

42
Exposition Internationale des arts Decoratifs et
Industriels Modernes
  • April November 1925
  • Held in Paris
  • To show the world that France once again led the
    way in a new evolving international style Art
    Deco.
  • Changed the perception of Bauhaus, Colonial Art
    and, predominantly, the Art Deco style as
    legitimate movements.

43
Important Art Deco Artists
  • Tamara de Lempicka (1898 1980)
  • Erte - Romain De Tirtoff (1892 1990)
  • William Van Allen (1883 1954)
  • Cassandre - Adolphe Mouron (1901 1968)

44
Tamara de Lempicka Sleeping Girl 1935
45
Tamara de Lempicka Portrait of a Young Girl in a
Green Dress 1929
46
Tamara de Lempicka Self Portrait in the Green
Bugatti 1925
47
Erte Costume Design for Les Pierres
Precieuses 1923
48
Erte Design for Lanternbearer in Venise
XVII 1919
49
Erte LArc En Ciel (Cover for Harpers
Bazaar) 1929
50
Cassandre Cigarettes Celtique 1935
51
Cassandre LAtlantique 1932
52
Cassandre LIntransigeant 1925
53
early surrealism
1920 - 1935
54
Surrealism
Inspired by new psychology of two men
Sigmund Freud Carl Gustav Jung
55
Basic Principles
  • Freud
  • Human development is best understood as changing
    objects of sexual desire
  • Wishes are repressed and emerge from the
    subconscious in accidental bursts Freudian
    slips.
  • Neuroses are caused by repressed memories and
    unconscious conflicts.
  • ID, Ego and Super Ego.
  • Jung
  • Neuroses are caused by conflicts between
    individuals subconscious and greater world.
  • Sexual desire does not play as huge a role.
  • Must make a healthy relationship between the
    conscious and unconscious shouldnt be cut off
    from it, but shouldnt be swamped by it.

56
Surrealism
  • Divided into two groups based on different
    interpretations of Freud and Jung the
    Automatists and the Veristic Surrealists.
  • Automatists - suppress conscious in order to
    free the subconscious, inspired by more Dadaist
    ideals, shouldnt be overly analyzed.
  • Veristic Surrealists - follow the images of the
    subconscious so they can be interpreted art is a
    way to freeze ideas of the subconscious.

57
Surrealism
  • Lead by Andre Brenton, a French doctor who had
    served in the trenches during WWI.
  • Subject matter was varied
  • some pieces show a complete
    dislocation from any sort of literal
    reality (for example, Max Ernsts
    works)
  • -- other pieces show normal
    situations with a spark of absurdity
    (for example, Rene Magritte's works.)
  • Bright colors among sometimes dull backgrounds.

58
Max Ernst Hydrometric Demonstration Of How To
Kill By Temperature 1920
59
Max Ernst Kupferblech 1919
60
Max Ernst The Elephant Celebs 1921
61
Max Ernst The Couple in Lace 1925
62
Rene Magritte The Menaced Assassin 1927
63
Rene Magritte Voice of Space 1931
64
Rene Magritte The False Mirror 1928
65
Rene Magritte The Lovers 1928
66
To summarize Post WWI art, a quote from its true
founder
67
Tristan Tzara - leader of Dada movement
The beautiful and the true in art do not exist
what interests me is the intensity of a
personality transposed directly, clearly into the
workand in what manner he knows how to gather
sensation, emotion, into a lacework of words and
sentiments.
Lecture on Dada 1922
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