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ME551GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007

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Title: ME551GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007


1
ME551/GEO551 Geology of Industrial Minerals
Spring 2007
  • Commodities, Part 4
  • Magnesium, Perlite, nitrogen, phosphate, potash,
    salt, pumice

2
Schedule
  • NMGS Spring meeting April 13
  • Final given out April 24
  • commodities presentation by students on April 24
  • project presentations on May 1
  • final and project due May 7

3
Magnesium
4
Magnesiumintroduction
  • Greek word for a district in Thessaly called
    Magnesia

5
Magnesiumintroduction
  • In 1618 a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to
    give his cows water from a well.
  • This they refused to drink because of the water's
    bitter taste.
  • However the farmer noticed that the water seemed
    to heal scratches and rashes.
  • The fame of Epsom salts spread.

6
Magnesiumintroduction
  • 8th most abundant element
  • 2 of crust
  • Magnesite or magnesia
  • Light
  • silvery-white
  • ignites upon heating in air
  • 1/3 lighter than Al

7
Magnesiumproperties
8
Magnesiumuses
  • flashlight photography
  • flares and pyrotechnics, including incendiary
    bombs
  • improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding
    characteristics of aluminum
  • hydroxide (milk of magnesia), chloride, sulfate
    (Epsom salts), and citrate are used in medicine
  • refractory purposes such as brick and liners in
    furnaces and converter

9
Magnesium compoundsuses
  • Refractories, 69
  • agricultural, chemical, construction,
    environmental, and industrial applications, 31

10
Magnesium metaluses
  • constituent of aluminum-base alloys, 53
  • castings and wrought products, 30
  • Desulfurization of iron and steel, 12
  • reducing agent in nonferrous metals production,
    1

11
Magnesiumproduction
12
Magnesiumproduction
13
Magnesiumproduction
14
Magnesiumproduction
15
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16
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17
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18
Magnesiumgeology
  • brines, wells, and sea water

19
Magnesite http//www.webmineral.com/specimens/Magn
esite.shtml
20
Dolomite http//209.51.193.54/minerals/...
21
Brucite http//209.51.193.54/minerals/...
22
Olivine http//209.51.193.54/minerals/...
23
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24
Cautions
  • Magnesium metal and alloys are highly flammable
    in their pure form when molten, as a powder, or
    in ribbon form.
  • DO NOT USE WATER or CO2
  • USE CLASS D
  • bright white light produced by burning magnesium
    can permanently damage the retinas of the eyes

25
Perlite
  • What is perlite?

26
Perliteintroduction
  • Volcanic siliceous glass
  • rhyolite composition
  • commercial perlite must expand
  • vitreous, pearly luster
  • inert
  • 2-5 water allows it to expand similar to popcorn
    above 871 degrees C
  • gray, white, black, but when expanded-white

27
http//www.perlite.net/
28
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29
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30
Perliteuses
  • What are the uses of perlite?

31
Perliteuses
  • building construction products, 69
  • horticultural aggregate,12
  • filter aid, 8
  • fillers, 7
  • other, 4

32
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33
Perliteproduction
  • New Mexico leading state
  • Turkey, Greece, Italy, Russia, Australia, South
    Africa

34
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35
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36
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37
Perlitesubstitutions
  • Diatomite
  • expanded clay and shale
  • pumice
  • slag
  • vermiculite

38
Perlitegeology
  • Volcanic fields
  • Grants perlite quarry (U.S. Gypsum)

39
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40
Nitrogen and nitrates
41
Nitrogenintroduction
  • Gas
  • 78.1 of the atmosphere
  • essential element of life
  • obtained by liquefaction and fractional
    distillation
  • inert

42
Nitrogen as ammoniauses
  • What are uses of ammonia?

43
Nitrogen as ammoniauses
  • Fertilizer (Haber process), 89
  • nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizers
  • nitric acid (Ostwald process)
  • produce plastics
  • synthetic fibers and resins
  • explosives
  • annealing stainless steel and other steel mill
    products
  • numerous other chemical compounds.

44
Nitrogen as gas or liquiduses
  • Produce ammonia
  • gas mixtures
  • refrigerant both for the immersion freezing of
    food products and for transportation of foods
  • build up pressure in wells to force crude oil
    upward

45
Nitrogen as ammoniaproduction
46
Nitrogen as ammoniaproduction
47
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48
Nitrogen as ammoniatransportation
  • refrigerated barge
  • rail
  • pipeline
  • truck

49
Nitrogengeology
  • Natural gas fields Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana
  • atmosphere
  • ammonia produced when coal is distilled (coke
    ovens)

50
Nitratesgeology
  • Guano deposits in caves
  • Chile natural sodium nitrate (unique)
  • caliche rich in nitrate
  • driest desert in world 0.04 inch/yr allowed slow
    buildup of salines since the Miocene
  • NaCl, SO4, borates, iodine
  • Guggenheim process

51
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52
FORMS
  • Mixed conglomerate cemented by salts rch in
    nitrates
  • Salts filling fractures in basement rock
  • Slats filling interstitial space between rock
    debris at the surface

53
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54
Phosphate
55
Phosphateintroduction
  • essential element for plant and animal nutrition
  • Greek word "phosphoros" meaning "bringer of
    light"
  • discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brand, who prepared
    it from urine

56
Phosphateuses
  • phosphoric acid and superphosphoric acid, 90
  • fertilizers
  • animal feed supplements
  • phosphorus compounds
  • industrial
  • food-additive
  • safety matches, pyrotechnics, incendiary shells,
    smoke bombs, tracer bullets
  • pesticides
  • bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used to produce
    fine chinaware

57
Phosphateproduction
  • Florida, North Carolina, Idaho, Utah

58
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59
Phosphatesubstitutions
  • Bone phosphate of lime

60
Phosphategeology
  • Marine sedimentary deposits
  • phosphorites Precambrian to Recent, on every
    continent
  • beds few cm thick of grains of cryptocrystalline
    carbonate fluorapatite (collophane, francolite)
  • ocean
  • carbonatites

61
Phosphatemineralogy
  • Apatite Ca10(PO4,CO3)6(F,OH,Cl)2
  • wavellite Al3(PO4)2(OH)3.5H2O
  • crandallite CaAL3(PO4)2(OH)5.H2O
  • millisite ((Na, K)CaAl6(PO4)4)(OH)9.3H2O

62
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63
Phosphateenvironmental considerations
  • Uranium is a by-product
  • radioactive
  • radon

64
Potash
  • What are the major potash minerals?

65
Potashintroduction
  • K not found naturally as an element
  • compounds
  • 7th most abundant element
  • end of the 19th century, potash was made from
    hardwood trees

66
Potassiumproperties
  • most reactive and electropositive of metals
  • soft
  • rapidly oxidizes in air
  • catches fire spontaneously on water

67
Potassiumforms
  • potassium chloride (KCl, sylvite),
  • potassium sulfate (K2SO4 or sulfate of potash
    (SOP)), ussually manufactured
  • magnesium sulfate K2SO4C2MgSO4, langbeinite
  • Muriate of potash (MOP), mixture of KCl and NaCl
  • potassium nitrate (KNO3 or saltpeter)
  • sodium-potassium nitrate (NaNO3 KNO3 or Chilean
    saltpeter

68
Potashuses
  • What are the major use of potash?

69
Potashuses
  • Fertilizers
  • alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) is used as a
    heat-transfer medium
  • soap (lye)
  • oil-well drilling muds
  • metal electroplating
  • snow and ice melting
  • water softening

70
Potashuses
  • glass for television and computer monitor tube
    production
  • alkaline batteries
  • food products
  • pharmaceutical preparations
  • photography
  • some fire extinguishers
  • animal feed supplements
  • catalyst for synthetic rubber manufacture

71
Potashproduction
  • New Mexico leading state

72
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73
Potashtransportation
  • Railroad
  • ships
  • truck

74
Potashgeology
  • Evaporate deposits
  • brines
  • Great Salt Lake

75
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76
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77
Underground operations at IMC potash mine,
Carlsbad.
78
Potash ore is processed by flotation, heavy media
separation, dissolution-recrystallization, and
washing.
79
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80
Salt
81
Saltintroduction
  • NaCl
  • table salt
  • essential to life
  • salt was used as a preservative, tanning leather,
    stock, mining
  • salt was used to preserve Egyptian mummies

82
Saltintroduction
  • Trade in salt was very important salt was
    valuable enough to be used as currency in some
    areas.
  • The Latin phrase "salarium argentum," "salt
    money," referred to part of the payment made to
    Roman soldiers.
  • http//www-geology.ucdavis.edu/gel115/salt.html

83
Saltintroduction
  • Greek worshippers consecrated salt in their
    rituals
  • in the Old and New Testaments, covenants were
    sealed with salt
  • Catholic Church used salt in purifying rituals
  • Buddhist believed salt repeals evil spirits
  • Pueblo people worship the Salt Mother

84
http//salt.org.il/frame_rel.html
85
Salt and Silver Processing
  • Patio process developed in 1557 in Pachuca,
    Hidalgo, Mexico
  • silver ores crushed in arrastras to a fine slime
  • mixed with salt, water, copper sulfate, mercury
  • spread onto a patio and allowed to dry in the sun
  • silver could then amalgamate with mercury and
    thus be recovered

86
Saltsold by type in US
  • salt in brine, 52
  • rock salt, 31
  • vacuum pan, 10
  • solar salt, 7

87
Saltuses
  • chemical industry, 42
  • highway deicing, 36
  • distributors, 7
  • industrial, 6
  • agricultural, 4
  • food, 3
  • primary water treatment, 1
  • other, 1

88
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89
Saltsubstitutions
  • Calcium chloride and calcium magnesium acetate,
    hydrochloric acid, and potassium chloride can be
    substituted for salt in deicing, certain chemical
    processes, and food flavoring, but at a higher
    cost.

90
Saltproduction
91
Pumice and pumicite
  • What is pumice and pumicite?

92
Pumice and pumiciteintroduction
  • light colored, frothy volcanic rock
  • lava that is full of gas
  • floats on water

93
Pumiceuses
  • building blocks, 67
  • abrasives, concrete, horticulture, landscaping,
    stone-washing laundries, and other applications,
    33

94
Pumiceproduction
95
Pumicegeology
  • Volcanic fields

96
Las Conchas pumice quarry, Sandoval County
97
http//volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/pumic
e.html
98
http//www.mineralminers.com/images/pumice/mins/pu
mm101.jpg
99
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100
http//volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/scori
a.html
  • What is the difference between scoria and pumice?
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