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The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management: Getting It Right


Inclination of students to work with teacher to establish climate conducive to ... (Canter, 1976) Teacher-centered (teacher as enforcer) Teacher must be in charge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management: Getting It Right

The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management
Getting It Right
Christopher Blake, Ph.D. Mount St. Marys
University Maryland
What is Discipline?
  • Collection of factors, not discrete entity
  • More than simply reaction to misbehavior
  • Teacher-influenced AND student-influenced
  • Encompasses multiple phases
  • Power plays important role
  • Effective instruction effective discipline

Working Toward a Definition
  • Texts definition of discipline
  • Inclination of students to work with
    teacher to establish climate
    conducive to learning (Wilen, et
    al., 2004, p. 71)
  • Dynamic set of conditions affecting causes
    and outward expressions of behavior

Four Phases of Discipline
  • 1) Prevention
  • Motivation
  • Identity
  • Stimulation
  • Security
  • Power
  • 2) Management
  • 3) Intervention
  • 4) Remediation

Research on Discipline
  • Difficulties with discipline research
  • studying discipline
  • translating research into recommendations for
  • Importance of research lies in its
    incorporation into teachers underlying
    belief system

Research Group Dynamic (Kounin, 1970)
  • Withitness (awareness and anticipation)
  • Overlapping (multitasking)
  • Ripple effect (control measure applied to one
    student has effect on
    entire group)

Research Effective Classroom Managers I
(Evertson Emmer, 1982)
  • Be explicit about what constitutes acceptable
  • Monitor student compliance with rules
  • Develop student accountability for work
  • Communicate information clearly
  • Organize instruction

Research Classroom Management (Doyle, 1986)
  • Teachers main task establishing and maintaining
    work systems
  • Rules, procedures, etc. are supplements to
    orchestration of programs of action
  • Difficulties arise if students unable/unwilling
    to follow teachers lead

Research Classroom Management (cont.)
  • Curriculum and management processes should be
    examined together
  • Routinization of classroom procedures and use
    of familiar activities can foster order
  • Keys to teacher success 1) understanding likely
    sequence of events, 2) skill in monitoring

Research Effective Classroom Managers II
(Evertson Harris, 1992)
  • Make effective use of time
  • Use appropriate group-work strategies
  • Develop lesson plans and activities conducive
    to student engagement
  • Communicate rules clearly
  • Implement management system from beginning

Research Motivation (Cotton Savard, 1984)
  • Tangible rewards have temporary positive effect
    but long-term negative effect
  • Misbehavior decreases when opportunities exist
    for academic and social success
  • Punishment largely ineffective

Other Research
  • Gettinger, 1988
  • Be proactive prevention better than remediation
    for achieving optimum classroom conditions
  • Recent research (mid-late 1990s)
  • Teacher power over vs. power with

Models Assertive Discipline (Canter, 1976)
  • Teacher-centered (teacher as enforcer)
  • Teacher must be in charge
  • No student has right to interfere
    with instruction
  • Regulatory and contractual definitive set of

Models Assertive Discipline (cont.)
  • Evidence-based
  • External control over behavior rather than
    diagnosis and treatment of causes
  • Helpful for teachers who lack confidence
    and/or viable strategies
  • Better suited for middle school students

Models Group Management
  • Rule-based
  • Procedural correctness
  • Human and time management emphasis
  • Engagement of active learners
  • Better suited to high school and
    elementary students

Models Democratic Discipline
  • Preserves student dignity and integrity
  • Produces personal social-learning outcomes
  • Promotion of student self-control
  • Does something WITH or FOR students rather than
    TO students
  • Avoids aggravating already troubled student

Models Democratic Discipline (cont.)
  • Analysis of teacher power
  • Referent (relational power, charisma)
  • Expert (pedagogy and content area knowledge)
  • Legitimate (implicit use of authority)
  • Coercive (explicit use of authority)
  • Reward (approval of student performance)

Models Democratic Discipline (cont.)
  • Emphasis on teacher authority, not control
  • Constructivist orientation students have own
    role to play
  • Goal fostering community of learners

Whats Wrong With the System?
  • Up to 50 of new teachers leave within 5 years
  • 2 million new teachers must be hired within five
    years to reduce class sizes

What Needs to Change?
  • Teacher-education programs need to be dynamic and
    flexible so more people enter them.
  • First-year teachers need support so they are
    effective not overwhelmed.

Teacher Education Programs Need Balance
  • Prospective teachers should be in the classroom
  • Students should be free to pursue an academic
    pursuit even while preparing to teach.

They Should Also Be Flexible
  • It is good to have teachers who have been
    employed outside of education
  • They should not have to give up a paycheck during
    the transition

How can these ideas be implemented?
Let us go to Cincinnati for a look...
The Cincinnati Initiative for Teacher Education
  • Five-year program
  • Provides dual bachelors degrees education and
    an academic discipline
  • Classroom practice begins in the first year
  • The fifth year is a paid, year-long internship

They are sent up the creek… but given a paddle
  • The student is in full charge of the class for
    half the day
  • They learn the details of classroom management
  • They are guided by a mentor teacher, a
    university adviser, and a CITE coordinator

But what can the schools do...
Once the novice is on his own?
What Assistance Does the Novice Teacher Require?
  • A lighter load
  • Professional development
  • Mentoring

A Lighter Load Allows the Teacher to
  • Spend more quality time setting goals and
    developing lessons
  • Not have to choose between calling a parent and
    correcting papers

Professional Development Opportunities Provide
  • Ideas to hone skills
  • A chance to exchange ideas with other teachers
  • A chance to reflect on current practices

Mentors Provide
  • A sounding board for ideas
  • An introduction into the culture of the school
  • Advise for handling the many concerns of a
    teacher (i.e. parents, students, administration,
  • A place to vent

Are there any school systems that provide these
elements for first year teachers?
Let us look into the Santa Cruz New Teacher
In this program the mentors
  • Have weekly professional development meetings
    with other mentors
  • are released from classroom duties to assist 14
    beginning teachers
  • broaden their perspective of effective teaching

Mentors help new teachers by
  • Meeting weekly to observe, coach, and offer
    emotional support
  • assisting with planning, classroom management,
    and facilitate communication with principals

Is it successful?
  • 94 of teachers who began this program in 1992
    are still in the profession

Case Findings
  • Enterprising teacher education programs prepare
    creative and intelligent student teachers for
    their professions.
  • Novice teachers given proper support are more
    effective and likely to make teaching their

Examples of Classroom Discipline Observed in
Internship I
  • Eye contact with students
  • Clear rules and expectations posted
  • Withitness anticipated problems before they
  • Proximity effect

Internship I Discipline Observations (cont.)
  • Flexible lessons (lesson modified to adjust
    to student attitude)
  • Appropriate praise for accomplishments
  • Climate of acceptance
  • Teacher familiar with each student as

Mount St. Marys Professional Development Schools
  • State National Standards
  • Accountability
  • Accreditation
  • Partnerships between the IHEs and LSS

Mount St. Marys Professional Development Schools
  • Requirement across all programs (Undergrad, Grad,
    Trad, Non-Trad)
  • Two semesters of school-based partnerships
  • Behavior Management Course in Internship I

Behavior Management Induction Plan
  • Extensive Internship (Internship I II)
  • Benchmark Phases Beginning
  • Middle
  • End
  • Rubric based on national INTASC
  • Aligned to national standards for pedagogy

Curriculum Oversight Pre-Service
  • Coordinating Council (IHE/LSS)
  • Internship I II Syllabi 5 Areas
  • Planning
  • Communication
  • Professionalism
  • Management
  • Analysis Reflection

Curriculum Oversight - Inservice
  • Teachers for Teachers Mentoring of Non-Tenured
    Teachers Coordinating Council Accredited
  • Matched with Intern
  • Same 5 Areas of Development
  • Planning
  • Communication
  • Professionalism
  • Management
  • Analysis Reflection

Behavior Management Support Team
  • Team of 8 Faculty, Supervisors, Mentors, LSS
    Administrators, Assistant. Principal, SPED
  • Mentor Training 3 full days

  • Research cited in Wilen, W., et al. (2004, 5th
    edition). Dynamics of Effective Secondary
    Teaching, Chapter 3 Democratic Classroom
    Discipline. Boston Allyn Bacon.
  • Class notes, 25 May 2004, MEDUC 505.
  • Moir, Ellen Supporting New Teachers During Their
    First Years of teaching. Edutopia Online
  • Curtis, Diane Beyond Ready to Teach. Edutopia