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The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management: Getting It Right

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Inclination of students to work with teacher to establish climate conducive to ... (Canter, 1976) Teacher-centered (teacher as enforcer) Teacher must be in charge ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management: Getting It Right


1
The Trainee Teacher and Classroom Management
Getting It Right
Christopher Blake, Ph.D. Mount St. Marys
University Maryland
2
What is Discipline?
  • Collection of factors, not discrete entity
  • More than simply reaction to misbehavior
  • Teacher-influenced AND student-influenced
  • Encompasses multiple phases
  • Power plays important role
  • Effective instruction effective discipline

3
Working Toward a Definition
  • Texts definition of discipline
  • Inclination of students to work with
    teacher to establish climate
    conducive to learning (Wilen, et
    al., 2004, p. 71)
  • Dynamic set of conditions affecting causes
    and outward expressions of behavior

4
Four Phases of Discipline
  • 1) Prevention
  • Motivation
  • Identity
  • Stimulation
  • Security
  • Power
  • 2) Management
  • 3) Intervention
  • 4) Remediation

5
Research on Discipline
  • Difficulties with discipline research
  • studying discipline
  • translating research into recommendations for
    practice
  • Importance of research lies in its
    incorporation into teachers underlying
    belief system

6
Research Group Dynamic (Kounin, 1970)
  • Withitness (awareness and anticipation)
  • Overlapping (multitasking)
  • Ripple effect (control measure applied to one
    student has effect on
    entire group)

7
Research Effective Classroom Managers I
(Evertson Emmer, 1982)
  • Be explicit about what constitutes acceptable
    behavior
  • Monitor student compliance with rules
  • Develop student accountability for work
  • Communicate information clearly
  • Organize instruction

8
Research Classroom Management (Doyle, 1986)
  • Teachers main task establishing and maintaining
    work systems
  • Rules, procedures, etc. are supplements to
    orchestration of programs of action
  • Difficulties arise if students unable/unwilling
    to follow teachers lead

9
Research Classroom Management (cont.)
  • Curriculum and management processes should be
    examined together
  • Routinization of classroom procedures and use
    of familiar activities can foster order
  • Keys to teacher success 1) understanding likely
    sequence of events, 2) skill in monitoring

10
Research Effective Classroom Managers II
(Evertson Harris, 1992)
  • Make effective use of time
  • Use appropriate group-work strategies
  • Develop lesson plans and activities conducive
    to student engagement
  • Communicate rules clearly
  • Implement management system from beginning

11
Research Motivation (Cotton Savard, 1984)
  • Tangible rewards have temporary positive effect
    but long-term negative effect
  • Misbehavior decreases when opportunities exist
    for academic and social success
  • Punishment largely ineffective

12
Other Research
  • Gettinger, 1988
  • Be proactive prevention better than remediation
    for achieving optimum classroom conditions
  • Recent research (mid-late 1990s)
  • Teacher power over vs. power with

13
Models Assertive Discipline (Canter, 1976)
  • Teacher-centered (teacher as enforcer)
  • Teacher must be in charge
  • No student has right to interfere
    with instruction
  • Regulatory and contractual definitive set of
    procedures

14
Models Assertive Discipline (cont.)
  • Evidence-based
  • External control over behavior rather than
    diagnosis and treatment of causes
  • Helpful for teachers who lack confidence
    and/or viable strategies
  • Better suited for middle school students

15
Models Group Management
  • Rule-based
  • Procedural correctness
  • Human and time management emphasis
  • Engagement of active learners
  • Better suited to high school and
    elementary students

16
Models Democratic Discipline
  • Preserves student dignity and integrity
  • Produces personal social-learning outcomes
  • Promotion of student self-control
  • Does something WITH or FOR students rather than
    TO students
  • Avoids aggravating already troubled student

17
Models Democratic Discipline (cont.)
  • Analysis of teacher power
  • Referent (relational power, charisma)
  • Expert (pedagogy and content area knowledge)
  • Legitimate (implicit use of authority)
  • Coercive (explicit use of authority)
  • Reward (approval of student performance)

18
Models Democratic Discipline (cont.)
  • Emphasis on teacher authority, not control
  • Constructivist orientation students have own
    role to play
  • Goal fostering community of learners

19
Whats Wrong With the System?
  • Up to 50 of new teachers leave within 5 years
  • 2 million new teachers must be hired within five
    years to reduce class sizes

20
What Needs to Change?
  • Teacher-education programs need to be dynamic and
    flexible so more people enter them.
  • First-year teachers need support so they are
    effective not overwhelmed.

21
Teacher Education Programs Need Balance
  • Prospective teachers should be in the classroom
    early
  • Students should be free to pursue an academic
    pursuit even while preparing to teach.

22
They Should Also Be Flexible
  • It is good to have teachers who have been
    employed outside of education
  • They should not have to give up a paycheck during
    the transition

23
How can these ideas be implemented?
Let us go to Cincinnati for a look...
24
The Cincinnati Initiative for Teacher Education
  • Five-year program
  • Provides dual bachelors degrees education and
    an academic discipline
  • Classroom practice begins in the first year
  • The fifth year is a paid, year-long internship

25
They are sent up the creek… but given a paddle
  • The student is in full charge of the class for
    half the day
  • They learn the details of classroom management
  • They are guided by a mentor teacher, a
    university adviser, and a CITE coordinator

26
But what can the schools do...
Once the novice is on his own?
27
What Assistance Does the Novice Teacher Require?
  • A lighter load
  • Professional development
  • Mentoring

28
A Lighter Load Allows the Teacher to
  • Spend more quality time setting goals and
    developing lessons
  • Not have to choose between calling a parent and
    correcting papers

29
Professional Development Opportunities Provide
  • Ideas to hone skills
  • A chance to exchange ideas with other teachers
  • A chance to reflect on current practices

30
Mentors Provide
  • A sounding board for ideas
  • An introduction into the culture of the school
  • Advise for handling the many concerns of a
    teacher (i.e. parents, students, administration,
    etc.)
  • A place to vent

31
Are there any school systems that provide these
elements for first year teachers?
Let us look into the Santa Cruz New Teacher
Project...
32
In this program the mentors
  • Have weekly professional development meetings
    with other mentors
  • are released from classroom duties to assist 14
    beginning teachers
  • broaden their perspective of effective teaching

33
Mentors help new teachers by
  • Meeting weekly to observe, coach, and offer
    emotional support
  • assisting with planning, classroom management,
    and facilitate communication with principals

34
Is it successful?
  • 94 of teachers who began this program in 1992
    are still in the profession

35
Case Findings
  • Enterprising teacher education programs prepare
    creative and intelligent student teachers for
    their professions.
  • Novice teachers given proper support are more
    effective and likely to make teaching their
    career.

36
Examples of Classroom Discipline Observed in
Internship I
  • Eye contact with students
  • Clear rules and expectations posted
  • Withitness anticipated problems before they
    occurred
  • Proximity effect

37
Internship I Discipline Observations (cont.)
  • Flexible lessons (lesson modified to adjust
    to student attitude)
  • Appropriate praise for accomplishments
  • Climate of acceptance
  • Teacher familiar with each student as
    individual

38
Mount St. Marys Professional Development Schools
  • State National Standards
  • Accountability
  • Accreditation
  • Partnerships between the IHEs and LSS

39
Mount St. Marys Professional Development Schools
  • Requirement across all programs (Undergrad, Grad,
    Trad, Non-Trad)
  • Two semesters of school-based partnerships
  • Behavior Management Course in Internship I

40
Behavior Management Induction Plan
  • Extensive Internship (Internship I II)
  • Benchmark Phases Beginning
  • Middle
  • End
  • Rubric based on national INTASC
  • Aligned to national standards for pedagogy
    content

41
Curriculum Oversight Pre-Service
  • Coordinating Council (IHE/LSS)
  • Internship I II Syllabi 5 Areas
  • Planning
  • Communication
  • Professionalism
  • Management
  • Analysis Reflection

42
Curriculum Oversight - Inservice
  • Teachers for Teachers Mentoring of Non-Tenured
    Teachers Coordinating Council Accredited
    Program
  • Matched with Intern
  • Same 5 Areas of Development
  • Planning
  • Communication
  • Professionalism
  • Management
  • Analysis Reflection

43
Behavior Management Support Team
  • Team of 8 Faculty, Supervisors, Mentors, LSS
    Administrators, Assistant. Principal, SPED
    Coordinator
  • Mentor Training 3 full days

44
References
  • Research cited in Wilen, W., et al. (2004, 5th
    edition). Dynamics of Effective Secondary
    Teaching, Chapter 3 Democratic Classroom
    Discipline. Boston Allyn Bacon.
  • Class notes, 25 May 2004, MEDUC 505.
  • Moir, Ellen Supporting New Teachers During Their
    First Years of teaching. Edutopia Online
    www.glef.org
  • Curtis, Diane Beyond Ready to Teach. Edutopia
    Online www.glef.org
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