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Use of skeletal muscles and transfer of energy From the whole animal to the cellular level

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Title: Use of skeletal muscles and transfer of energy From the whole animal to the cellular level


1
Use of skeletal muscles and transfer of
energy From the whole animal to the cellular
level
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TRANSFER OF ENERGY
Energy output
Energy input
Food energy
Metabolic pool in body
Internal work
Thermal energy (heat)
External work
Energy storage
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Calorie The amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one gram of water from 14.5C to
15.5C. 1 calorie 4.184 joules.
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  • A good example of a structure and function
    relationship is skeletal muscle

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Where does the ATP come from?
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Muscle contraction
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The body must regulate the level of ATP since
you only want it around when you need it as it
will break down and make heat.
Regulation of ATP production comes about by
controlling production through graded
reactions inside cells.
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The breaking of these chemical bonds will
produce heat. The energy stored in the chemical
bonds is transferred to heat.
Glucose is broken down to make ATP
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Most cells in your body.
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Most ATP is produced here in the chemical
reactions. This ATP can be used to allow muscle
cells to function.
Mitochondria are the power house of the cell.
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Energy within the cells used to drive the tissue-
to organ- to system.
Energy transfer from food (fuel) to ATP in cells
that can then be used to make proteins or used
to contract muscles or to keep cells working
properly by transporting items for the cell (Na
sodium K potassium).

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Muscle contraction
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Getting rid of the heat from muscle contraction
and breaking chemical bonds to make the ATP is a
problem in exercise.
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Many chemical reaction in our body give off heat.
Heat
Building a compound
A B
C
Heat
Breaking down a compound
A
B C
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Direction of arrows denotes direction of heat
transfer
Snowball
Heating pad
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Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation
Liquid converted to gaseous vapor
Convection current
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4
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Transfer heat from the hot body to cool water
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For work from muscles Energy comes from food or
body reserves (fat, protein, glycogen). Food or
body reserves provides ATP through a series of
chemical reactions inside cells. (Energy
transfer from chemical bonds to ATP
heat) ATP used for muscles to function.
Sliding units of muscle. (Energy transfer from
muscles to external work heat)
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Muscle fatigue This is a study of human
performance. Task dependant (type of
muscle) Before we can study this one has to
know how nerves and muscles work for performing a
task
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Muscle fatigue This is a study of human
performance. Task dependant (type of
muscle) Before we can study this one has to
know how nerves and muscles work for performing a
task
nerve
muscle
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Terminal button
Muscle fibers
Axon terminals
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Presynaptic axon terminal
Voltage-gated Ca2 channel
Synaptic knob
Ca2
Neurotransmitter molecule
Synaptic vesicle
Synaptic cleft
Subsynaptic membrane
Chemically-gated ion channel for Na, K, or Cl2
Receptor for neurotransmitter
Postsynaptic neuron
Muscle
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muscle
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Neurotransmitter
Ion movement results in electrical change across
cell membrane
Na
Receptor on cell
K
Muscle cell
3 Na
ATP
Pump ions back across membrane (needs ATP)
2 K
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Axon of motor neuron
Action potential propagation in motor neuron
Myelin sheath
Axon terminal
Terminal button
Vesicle of acetylcholine
Acetylcholine receptor site
Voltage-gated calcium channel
Acetylcholinesterase
Action potential propagation in muscle fiber
Plasma membrane of muscle fiber
Ca2
Na
Voltage-gated Na channel
K
Na
Motor end plate
Chemically gated cation channel
Contractile elements within muscle fiber
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Electrical change results in a process within
the cell to cause the muscle to
contract. (calcium ion movement)
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Ca2 is pumped back Takes ATP
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Need fine control Pick up a piece of paper or a
rock.
  • To increase muscle contraction
  • Increase muscle cell activity
  • (increase nerve activity
  • by of electrical events)
  • Increase the of muscle units
  • (increase of nerves used)

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Muscle fatigue
1. The nerve
nerve
2. At the nerve to muscle
muscle
3. At the muscle level
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Muscle fatigue
1. The nerve
ATP needed here to keep ions (Na K) normal
nerve
2. At the nerve to muscle
ATP needed here to keep vesicles cycling
muscle
3. At the muscle level
ATP needed here to keep muscle working
Note ATP is made inside the cells that require
it.
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  • Grip strength 1st
  • -1 second series of contractions
  • - measure the time it takes to fatigue 50
  • - graph each others data
  • - discussion of results
  • 1. measures of forearm circumference and
    relate to time (muscle mass, bone
    thickness- distorts results)
  • 2. did they just eat, tired, sleep, etc..
  • (could have a box to check off on chart)

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  • Pinch strength
  • Same idea as the grip strength
  • Can graph on same graph (left and right sides)

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Heart rate changes Decrease HR - decrease
breathing rate just sitting still (not to slow
that you pass out) - cold rag on back of the
neck (not on face - some people have strong
diving responses and can pass out. KIDS !!!)
Increase HR - increase breathing rate just
sitting still (not to fast that you pass out) -
measure before and after running in place (5
min) Graph data with variable used. Compare
with class and have discussion. - Reasons for
the changes. - Reasons for differences in
students for same test. - List what other types
of experiments could be done.
53
Why does HR go up or down?
  • Oxygen to tissues for making ATP for the muscles
    to work.
  • How does oxygen get to the tissues?
  • Heart is a pump for blood. The blood carries the
    oxygen. So HR goes up to bring the blood with its
    oxygen to the muscle.

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Heart pumps the blood
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Acknowledgements
  • Robin Cooper
  • (UK- Biology)
  • Terry Williams
  • (UK- Biology, Secondary science Ed.)
  • Richard Cooper
  • (6th- Morton Middle)
  • Ann Cooper
  • (10th- Lafayette High, past Morton student)

Jan. 2007
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Folder Human Physiology with Vernier
Inside folder find---- 17a Grip Strength
Fatigue Note do not hold on to hand grip place
when conducting finger fatigue experiment.
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Hand Grip
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Finger Grip
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Find program 27 Heart Rate Fitness
Note Watch the direction of arrows on hand
device and monitor. Need to be in the same
direction and keep hands between the monitor.
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NAME OF PROGRAM 27 Heart Rate Fitness
1st page should look like this
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1sec hand grip contractions Do it for 30 sec to
match 50 fatigue
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To copy pictures Go to select all and then
copy and paste Can be put directly into ppt
or any graphic program
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