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Metabolism of gut

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Absorption (monosaccharides, fat, aminoacids, vitamines, water, ... gases: CO2, CH4, H2, H2S, NH3, acetic, lactic, propionic and butyric acid. H2O is absorbed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Metabolism of gut


1
Metabolism of gut
2
Function of the small intestine
  • Absorption (monosaccharides, fat, aminoacids,
    vitamines, water, metals and trace elements)
  • Defence against bacteria, toxines and antigen
    entry
  • Hormone production
  • Motility transit of nutrients

3
Absorption in small intestine
  • Jejunum
  • Glucose and monosaccharides
  • FA, glycerol, mono- acylglycerol,phospholipids
  • Aminoacids
  • Vitamines
  • Electrolytes, Ca, Fe
  • Ileum
  • Cholic acids
  • B12 vit
  • H2O, Na, K, ….

4
Investigation of intestinal function
  • Test of carbohydrate absorption monosaccharides
    (D-xylose, L-rhamnose) are not metabolized in the
    body are excreted and in the urin is measured the
    content
  • Test of fat absorption normaly is dietary fat
    absorbed in the small intestine. Pancreatic,
    hepatic and intestinal disease increased the fat
    content in faeces( normaly must be lower than
    6g/24h).
  • Triolein breath test 13C-triolein substrate
    is metabolized and samples of expired 13CO2
    12CO2 are measured.
  • Aminoacid absorption malabsorption of specific
    AA occures in inherited metabolis diseases

5
Decreased absorption of nutrients malabsorption
  • Deficit microvillar enzymes alactasia,sucrase-iso
    maltase deficit
  • Pancreatic enzymes deficiencyprotein lossing
    enterophaty
  • Bile salt deficiency steatorhea
  • Deficit of transport mechanism
  • Anemia (Fe, folic acid, B12)
  • Osteomalacia (Ca, D vitamin)
  • Aminoacids

6
Most ingestet food is absorbed in small
intestine, the residue passes into large
intestine
  • Bacteria produce gases CO2, CH4, H2, H2S, NH3,
    acetic, lactic, propionic and butyric acid
  • H2O is absorbed
  • Ions are absorbed
  • End material is excreated in form of stool

7
The main role of the colon is the absorption of
water and electrolytes. Input and output of water
and electrolytes in the GI over 24 h
8
Stool
  • Volume lt200g/d (higher volume is in
    malabsorption)
  • Dry weight make 30
  • Composition25 minerals (Na, K, Cl, Ca, PO4, Fe,
    Cu, Mn, Zn, I)
  • 25 intestinal flora
  • 50 organic components

9
Stool
  • pH-neutral(acidic pH 5,5 by microbial dyspepsia)
  • Color from bile pigments urobilin and
    stercobilin. Newborns bilirubin
  • Odour gases and scatol, indol, thiomethan
  • Enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase
  • Toxic and neurotoxic metabolites H2S, NH3,
    diamines, tyramin, neurin
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