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Title: THE 4th ANNUAL GREEN VEHICLES WORKSHOP Driving toward 2020

toward 2020
  • Greenhouse Gases and the
  • Inevitable Energy Revolution
  • presented by
  • George T. Stone
  • Milwaukee Area Technical College

  • We are witnessing the dawn of
  • an historic transition for humankind

Energy Resource Revolutions
  • First Energy Revolution
  • humanity utilizes new solar energy (renewable)
    for cooking, home heating, and security
  • (Homo erectus 1.6 to 2.0 million years ago in
    East Africa)
  • Second Energy Revolution
  • industrial and transportation revolutions
    utilize old solar energy (fossil fuels) for
    manufacturing and transportation
  • (nineteenth twentieth centuries)

The Second Energy Revolution The Industrial
  • The Industrial Revolution occurred roughly
    between 1760 and 1830. It began in Britain and
    spread throughout the world.
  • During that time, an economy based on manual
    labour was replaced by one dominated by industry
    and the manufacture of machinery.
  • It began with the mechanization of the textile
    industries, the development of iron-making
    techniques, and increased use of coal.

The Second Energy Revolution The Transportation
  • steamship (1807) coal/diesel
  • steam locomotive (1820s) coal/diesel
  • automobiles/model T (1908) petroleum - gasoline
  • commercial aviation (1930s) petroleum gasoline
    - jet fuel

  • Ground is broken for the Suez Canal
  • Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species
    by Natural Selection
  • Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in the
    United States near Titusville, Pennsylvania
  • John Tyndall began experiments at the Royal
    Institution documenting the heat absorbing
    properties of water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone,
    and other greenhouse gases
  • "every variation of this constituent water
    vapor must produce a change in climate.

Global warming science is not new!
  • John Tyndalls experiments published in 1862 and
    1863 demonstrated that gaseous CO2 and H2O absorb
    infrared radiation. Tyndall concluded that
    changes in the concentrations of these
    atmospheric gases could transform Earths
  • In 1895, Svante Arrhenius calculated that
    doubling C02 in the atmosphere would raise
    Earths surface temperature 5 or 6o C. (In
    1903, Arrhenius was awarded the Nobel Prize in
  • In 1938, engineer Guy Callendar concluded that
    CO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels is
    changing Earths climate.

Drivers Ecologic forcings The Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse Gases
  • The major natural greenhouse gases are water
    vapor (H2O), which causes about 36-70 of the
    greenhouse effect carbon dioxide (CO2), which
    causes 9-26 methane (CH4), 4-9 and ozone
    (O3), 3-7.
  • Most water vapor comes from ocean evaporation.
    The graphic (courtesy shows the
    greenhouse gases that are increasing due to human

Fossil C02 from human activity Time travel for
carbon and energy
  • Combustion of methane (CH4) as an example
  • CH4 2O2 ? CO2 2H2O
  • Manufacture of portland cement
  • CaCO3 ? CaO CO2

Keeling curve of atmospheric CO2
Global mean surface temperature anomalies (1880
2006-2007 winter warmest on record! (National
Climatic Data Center/Ashville, North Carolina/15
March, 2007)
  • The combined land and ocean boreal winter
    temperature (December-February) was the highest
    since records began in 1880 (1.30F/0.72C above
    the 2oth century mean).
  • The global December-February land-surface
    temperature was the warmest on record while the
    ocean-surface temperature tied for second warmest
    in the 128-year period of record
  • During the past century, global surface
    temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.11F
    (0.06C) per decade, but the rate of increase has
    been three times larger since 1976, or 0.32F
    (0.18C) per decade, with some of the largest
    temperature increases occurring in the high
    latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere

Eight Warmest Years Worldwide (since the 1890s)
  • 1 2005
  • 2 1998
  • 3 2002
  • 4 2003
  • 5 2006
  • 6 2004
  • 7 2001
  • 8 1997
  • The 8 warmest years have occurred since 1996!
  • 20 of 21 warmest years have occurred since 1980!!
  • (National Climatic Data Center, 2006)

The greatest achievement of humankind
  • This is the greatest achievement of humankind
    global warming. We have changed the composition
    of a planets atmosphere!
  • -- Jeremy Rifkin (1989)
  • President, Foundation on Economic Trends

The Third Energy Revolution has begun! Return to
new (renewable) solar energy (twenty-first
Drivers of The Third Energy Revolution The
transition has already begun
  • Economic forcings that impact
  • supply and demand
  • - geopolitical instability and
  • production uncertainty
  • Ecologic forcings
  • - pollution, habitat destruction, and

Drivers Economic forcings Supply and
demand/Geopolitics (NYMEX New York Mercantile
Drivers Economic forcings Supply and
demand/Production peaks (APSO Association for
the Study of Peak Oil Gas)
World energy consumption pattern
World Energy Consumption between 1800 - 1990
World Primary Energy Consumption since 1970,
projected to 2025
CO2 emissions accelerating (graphic courtesy of
BusinessWeek online 8-16-04)
Increase in CO2 emissions accelerating (Global
Carbon Project report/Australia CSIRO/November
27, 2006)
  • 7.9 billion metric tons of carbon were emitted as
    CO2 in 2005, and the rate of increase is
  • Land and oceans might take up less CO2 in the
    future than they have in the past, which would
    increase the rate of climate change caused by
    emissions warns Dr. Mike Raupach, co-Chair of
    the Global Carbon Project.
  • Atmospheric CO2 grew by two ppm in 2005, the
    fourth year in a row of above-average growth.
    Unprecedented notes Dr. Paul Fraser of CSIRO.
  • Fossil fuels are having an impact on greenhouse
    gas concentrations in a way we havent seen in
    the past.
  • (CSIRO Reference 06/243)
  • Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Baseline Air
    Pollution Station at
  • Cape Grim, northwest Tasmania

U.S. Projects 19 Percent Emissions Rise (U. S.
Draft Report for UNFCCC/Associated Press/March 3,
  • The draft report, which is still being completed,
    projects that the current administration's
    climate policy would result in the emission of
    9.2 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2020, a
    19 percent increase from 7.7 billion tons in
  • The administration's internal draft covers
    inventories of carbon dioxide and other
    greenhouse gases, projected environmental
    consequences and policies to limit emiussions and
  • The White House Council on Environmental Quality
    has been coordinating the report, which was due
    Jan. 1, 2006. It is required under the U.N.
    Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • http//

EPICA Ice cores from Dome Concordia archive
composition of atmosphere for 650,000
years (Science/November 25, 2005)
EPICA Ice cores from Dome Concordia CH4, ice, and
C02 for last 650,000 years
  • "We find that CO2 is about 30 higher than at
    any time, and methane 130 higher than at any
    time and the rates of increase are absolutely
    exceptional for CO2, 200 times faster than at
    any time in the last 650,000 years," notes EPICA
    project leader Thomas Stocker of the University
    of Bern, Switzerland.

Climate Change vs. Global Warming
  • Climate change has occurred throughout geologic
    time in response to forcings other than human
  • Global Warming is anthropogenic
  • a result of human activities.

Measured current impacts of global warming
  • Impacts on the atmosphere
  • Impacts on the hydrosphere
  • Impacts on the cryosphere
  • Impacts on the geosphere
  • Impacts on the biosphere
  • Impacts on the anthroposphere

Global warming impacts on the atmosphere
  • Increasing air temperatures
  • Migration of climate zones
  • Impacts on the upper atmosphere
  • More extreme weather events
  • heat waves droughts
  • intensified storms floods

Global surface temperature anomalies
1880-2005 (Hansen et al., Proceedings NAS,
September 26, 2006)
Migrating midwest climate zones Report of
Union of Concerned Scientists Ecological
Society of America (updated 2005) by Donald
Wuebbles (University of Illinois) and Dr. George
Kling (University of Michigan)
More extreme weather events (NCAR UCAR/October
19, 2006)
  • Much of the world will face an enhanced risk of
    heat waves, intense precipitation, and other
    weather extremes, conclude scientists from the
    National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR),
    Texas Tech University, and Australia's Bureau of
    Meteorology Research Centre. (Climate Change
    /December, 2006)
  • "It's the extremes, not the averages, that cause
    the most damage to society and to many
    ecosystems," says NCAR scientist Claudia Tebaldi,
    lead author for the report. "We now have the
    first model-based consensus on how the risk of
    dangerous heat waves, intense rains, and other
    kinds of extreme weather will change in the next
  • (UCAR photo by Carlye Calvin)

2003 heat wave kills 30,000 in Europe (Science
News, vol. 166, no. 1, July 3, 2004
  • Average temperatures in the summer of 2003
    approached 5 degrees C above normal in some
    places. A lengthy heat wave killed an estimated
    30,000 Europeans
  • (NOAA/National Climatic Data Center)
  • Much of Europe experienced an extended period of
    unusually hot, dry weather
  • Switzerland saw its hottest June in 250 years,
    with the average temperatures in Basel hovering
    at 29.5 degrees C (85 degrees F), about 5.9
    degrees C above normal
  • Temperatures in France soared to 40 degrees C
    (104 degree sF) and remained high for weeks
  • Europe's 2003 heat wave claimed more than 30,000
    lives, making it the continent's largest natural
    disaster in 50 years

Global warming impacts on the hydrosphere
  • Impacts on sea surface temperatures (SST)
  • Impacts on ocean acidity (pH)
  • Impacts on sea level
  • Impacts on ocean circulation
  • Impacts on tropical storms
  • Impacts on rainfall and floods
  • Impacts on lakes

Global surface temperatures (1880 2005)
SST range for 1.35 million years (Hansen et al.,
Proceedings NAS, September 26, 2006)
Fossil carbon acidifying oceans Threat to
marine life (National Center for Atmospheric
Research/July 5, 2006)
  • Emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels are altering
    ocean chemistry and threatening marine organisms,
    including coral reef ecosystems
  • "This is leading to the most dramatic changes in
    marine chemistry in at least the past 650,000
    years," says Richard Feely, NOAA oceanographer.
  • Increased acidity lowers the concentration of
    carbonate ion, a building block that many marine
    organisms use to grow skeletons and create coral
    reef structures
  • This threat is hitting coral reefs as they are
    also being hit by warming-induced mass bleaching

Impacts on ocean circulation
Intensification of Tropical Storms (National
Center for Atmospheric Research/June 22, 2006)
  • Global warming accounted for about half of extra
    hurricane-fueling warmth in the waters of the
    tropical North Atlantic in 2005, while natural
    cycles were only a minor factor
  • The global warming influence provides a new
    background level that increases the risk of
    future enhancements in hurricane activity.
  • Tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperatures were a
    record 1.7 degrees F above the 1901-1970 average
    for much of the 2005 hurricane season
  • (Image courtesy of NASA)

  • Worldwide, the number of major flood disasters
    has grown significantly, from 6 cases in the
    1950s to 26 in the 1990s
  • From 1971 to 1995, floods affected more than 1
    500 million people worldwide
  • In the most calamitous storm surge, a flood in
    Bangladesh in April 1991 killed at least 138 000
    people and left 10 million homeless

Sources UN-ISDR 2004 DFO 2004 Wikipedia 2006
New England worst floods in 70 years (Associated
Press/May 16, 2006)
Lake Superior warming (University of
Minnesota-Duluth/Large Lakes Observatory/February
26, 2007)
  • Water temperatures are rising almost twice as
    fast as air temperatures - more than 4 degrees
    for the average surface temperature.
  • The date of what we call the spring overturn has
    been getting earlier in the year. In two
    decades, the spring turnover has moved up two
    weeks from early July to mid-June.
  • In another 35 to 40 years Lake Superior will have
    very little ice cover.
  • (research accepted for publication by the
    American Geophysical Union)

Global warming impacts on the cryosphere
  • Impacts on Arctic sea ice
  • Impacts on Greenland
  • Impacts on permafrost tundra
  • Impacts on Antarctica
  • Impacts on mountain glaciers

Dramatic changes in Artic Sea Ice
1979-2003 Progressive Loss of Arctic Ice
Imagine an ice-free Arctic
Greenland melt zone 1979-2002 (Arctic Climate
Impact Assessment, 2004)
Greenland's ice cap is melting much faster than
expected! (NASA Mission News/March 23, 2007)
  • New data from the NASA/German Aerospace Center's
    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace)
    reveal that Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic
    kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year
    from 2002 to 2006
  • Launched in March 2002, twin Grace satellites use
    gravity to map changes in ice mass and cover the
    entire Greenland ice sheet every month
  • While snow added 60 cubic kilometers of ice mass
    to Greenland's interior each year between 2003
    and 2005, low-lying coastal areas lost nearly
    three times as much ice annually
  • "These ice sheets are changing much faster than
    we were expecting.

(No Transcript)
Global warming impacts on permafrost
tundra Western Siberia thawing for the first time
in 11,000 years (New Scientist/August 11, 2005)
  • An area stretching for a million square
    kilometers across the permafrost of western
    Siberia is turning into a mass of shallow lakes
    as the ground melts.
  • The sudden melting of a bog the size of France
    and Germany could unleash billions of tons of
    methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  • Sergei Kirpotin of Tomsk State University
    describes an "ecological landslide that is
    probably irreversible and is undoubtedly
    connected to climatic warming.
  • Western Siberia has warmed some 3 C in the last
    40 years.

West Antarctic Ice Sheet Waking the Sleeping
Giant? (British Antarctic Survey/February 19,
  • Parts of the Antarctic ice sheet that rest on
    bedrock below sea level have begun to discharge
    ice fast enough to make a significant
    contribution to sea level rise. Only five years
    ago, Antarctica was characterised as a slumbering
    giant in terms of climate change. I would argue
    that this is now an awakened giant and we should
    take notice.
  • -- Professor Chris Rapley, Director, British
    Antarctic Survey
  • NOTE 87 of the 244 marine glaciers on the
    Antarctic Peninsula have retreated over the last
    50 years

NASA Mission Detects Significant Antarctic Ice
Mass Loss (University of Colorado/March 2,
  • (photo courtesy British Antarctic Survey)
  • Isabella Velicogna and John Wahr of the
    University of Colorado (Boulder) demonstrated for
    the first time that Antarctica's ice sheet lost a
    significant amount of mass since the launch of
    GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
    in 2002.
  • RELEASE 06-085

All 37 glaciers in GNP have receded
dramatically (U. S. Geological Survey/April 18,
2003) Grinnell Glacier has shrunk 63 and
receded 1.1 km 1938
Upsala Glacier/Argentine Andes in 1928 and 2004
(photos courtesy of GREENPEACE)
Impacts on the biosphere Global warming threatens
millions of species (Nature/January 8, 2004)
  • Global warming may drive a quarter of land
    animals and plants to the edge of extinction by
    2050, a major international study warns
  • In the worst case scenario, between a third to a
    half of land animal and plant species will face
  • The predictions come from extinction models based
    on over 1100 species covering a fifth of the
    Earth's land mass
  • According to principal researcher, the best case
    scenario with the minimum expected climate change
    and all of the species moving into new areas
    means we end up with nine per cent facing
  • This would mean about one million species would
    be doomed, assuming there are 10 million species
    in existence
  • The broad conclusions are very solid, and very
    sound, and very alarming, says Stuart Pimm, an
    expert in extinctions and biodiversity at Duke
    University. It's a hugely important paper.

Melting sea ice stresses polar bears (Integrative
and Comparative Biology/April, 2004)
  • Polar bears cannot survive without sea ice and,
    in all likelihood, summer sea ice will be gone
    from the north polar basin within the next few
    decades (Center for Biological Diversity
  • Given the rapid pace of ecological change in the
    Arctic, the long generation time and highly
    specialized nature of polar bears, it is unlikely
    that polar bears will survive as a species if the
    sea ice disappears

Walrus Calves Stranded by Melting Sea Ice (Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institution/April 13, 2006)
  • Scientists reported an unprecedented number of
    unaccompanied walrus calves in the Arctic Ocean,
    where melting sea ice may be forcing mothers to
    abandon their pups
  • Unable to forage for themselves, the calves were
    likely to drown or starve
  • Lone walrus calves far from shore have not been
    described before, the researchers report in the
    April issue of Aquatic Mammals. The sightings
    suggest that increased polar warming may lead to
    decreases in the walrus population.
  • (walrus bull photo courtesy of NOAA
  • walrus pup photo by Carin Ashjian/ WHOI)

Penguin decline due to global warming (John C.
Topping, Jr., President/Climate Institute/2005)
  • Evidence is accumulating that the Emperor Penguin
    may already be declining due to climate change.
    Its population has reportedly been halved over
    the last 50 years
  • Note emperor penguins have dropped from 300
    breeding pairs to just nine in the western
    Antarctic Peninsula
  • (photo at left by Sharon Chester)
  • Some of these declines have been dramatic with
    the Blackfooted Penguin population falling from
    about 575,000 in the early 1900s to about 178,000
    in the late 1990s
  • Climate change may already have produced large
    reductions in populations of the Rockhopper
    Penguins. The number breeding on one island
    reportedly dropped from about 1.4 million in the
    1940s to about 100,000 today
  • Climate Change may be the leading explanation for
    an apparent halving of the Galapagos Penguin
    population since the early 1970s
  • (photo at left by John H. Tashjian/California
    Academy of Sciences)

Bleaching of The Great Barrier Reef Healthy coral
reef habitat (photo courtesy of NASA/ReefHQ)
Bleaching of The Great Barrier Reef Hot water
causes coral to expel symbiotic algae Coral
turns white (bleaches) eventually dies
(Photos by Ove Hoegh-Guldberg)
Global warming impacts on the anthroposphere
  • Impacts on communities and ecosystems
  • Impacts on water and agriculture
  • Impacts on disease and health

Global warming imperils world food
supply (Consultatative Group on International
Agricultural Research December 5, 2006)
  • hotter, drier weather will result in shorter
    growing seasons and smaller crop yields across
    much of the developing world, challenging the
    livelihoods of billions of people
  • projected temperature increases and shifts in
    rainfall patterns are likely to decrease growing
    periods in sub-Saharan Africa by more than 20
    percent, with some of the worlds poorest nations
    in East and Central Africa at greatest risk
  • warming will slash wheat production in Indias
    breadbasket. Production will drop 50 percent by
    2050 - a decrease that could put as many as 200
    million people at greater risk of hunger
  • "Developing countries, which are already home to
    most of the world's poor and malnourished people
    and have contributed relatively little to the
    causes of global warming, are going to bear the
    brunt of climate change and suffer most from its
    negative consequences," said Louis Verchot, a
    climate change scientist with the World
    Agroforestry Centre

Global warming impacts on human health (World
Health Organization and UW-Madison/November 16,
  • global warming now leads to at least 5 million
    cases of illness and more than 150,000 deaths
    every year
  • temperature fluctuations sway human health in a
    surprising number of ways from influencing the
    spread of infectious diseases to boosting the
    likelihood of illness-inducing heat waves and
  • Those least able to cope and least responsible
    for the greenhouse gases that cause global
    warming are most affected, says lead
    authorJonathan Patz, a professor at UW-Madison's
    Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental
    Studies. "Herein lies an enormous global ethical

Potential catastrophic impacts of global warming
  • Slowdown and cessation of thermohaline
    circulation causing regional cooling and
    interocean disequilibrium
  • Rapid melting and collapse of Greenland glaciers
    causing worldwide rise of sea level
  • Continued breakup of Antarctic ice shelf allowing
    acceleration of glacier outflow and rise of sea
  • Collapse of West Antarctic ice sheet with
    catastrophic worldwide rise of sea level
  • Abrupt climate change world wide ( 10oF) causing
    accute water and food shortages and extreme
    geopolitical instability

we have a very brief window of opportunity Dr.
James Hansen, Director, NASA Goddard Institute
for Space Studies
  • I think we have a very brief window of
    opportunity to deal with climate change . . . no
    longer than a decade, at the most," Hansen said
    September 13, 2006, at the Climate Change
    Research Conference in Sacramento.
  • If the world continues with a "business as
    usual" scenario, Hansen said temperatures will
    rise by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (3.6 to 7.2
    degrees F) and "we will be producing a different

Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate
Change (pre-publication edition issued October
30, 2006)
  • Summary of conclusions
  • The scientific evidence is now overwhelming
    climate change is a serious global threat, and it
    demands an urgent global response.
  • Climate change will affect the basic elements of
    life for people around the world access to
    water, food production, health, and the
    environment. Hundreds of millions of people
    could suffer hunger, water shortages and coastal
    flooding as the world warms.
  • There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of
    climate change if wee take strong action now.
  • (The Review, commissioned by the UK Chancellor
    of the Exchequer in July, 2005, was carried out
    by Sir Nicholas Stern, Head of the UK Economic
    Service and former World Bank Chief Economist.)

What can we do? Emission reduction!
  • (1) Change our mindset, our priorities,
  • and our lifestyle in order to . . .
  • (2) BRING DOWN CO2 CH4 and N2O !!!

Clean Energy Transition The Third Energy
  • Stop time travel plug the worm hole
  • transition away from fossil carbon!
  • Energy Conservation
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Renewables
  • Nuclear Fission ?
  • Nuclear Fusion ??

Emission Reduction Action
  • International Kyoto and beyond
  • National 170 Nations Sign
  • Accord or Protocol
  • Regional Northeast States Provinces
  • Southwestern States
  • State California, New York
  • Local County, Municipal

European Union (EU) leaders agree to increase
action against global warming (Brussels,
Belgium/March 9, 2007)
  • in a two-day summit in Brussels, leaders of the
    27-nation European Union (EU) agreed to a number
    of actions designed to reduce carbon emissions
    and encourage renewable energy
  • the EU committed itself to reducing carbon
    emission by 20 percent by 2020 and increase
    renewable energy to 20 percent of all EU energy
    by 2020

Schwarzenegger Signs Global Warming Solutions
Act to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • I say the debate is over. We know the science
    we know the time for action is now. Global
    warming, pollution and the burning of fossil
    fuels that caused it are threats we see here in
    California and everywhere around the world.
  • On September 27, 2006, Governor Arnold
    Schwarzenegger signed AB 32. "Using market-based
    incentives, we will reduce carbon emissions to
    1990 levels by the year 2020. That's a 25 percent
    reduction.  And by 2050, we will reduce emissions
    to 80 percent below 1990 levels. We simply must
    do everything in our power to slow down global
    warming before its too late.

Five western states take regional action (Copley
News Service/February 27, 207)
  • The agreement calls for Arizona, California, New
    Mexico, Oregon and Washington to develop a
    regional target for reducing greenhouse gases
    within the next six months. A new California law
    requires the state to gradually roll back carbon
    dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a 25
    percent reduction.
  • The multistate pact sets in motion plans to
    create a regional market-based approach, most
    likely using a common tool called cap-and-trade.
    Industries unable to contain emissions could buy
    the right to pollute more from those companies
    that significantly reduce pollution.

Legislation introduced in Wisconsin Assembly and
Senate to mitigate global warming (The Badger
Herald/February 26, 2007)
  • State Rep. Spencer Black, D-Madison, and state
    Sen. Mark Miller, D-Monona, announced a major
    legislative initiative to reduce carbon dioxide
    emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020.
  • Today, we announced the introduction legislation
    to combat global warming the solution is
    similar to a California law signed by Gov.
    Schwarzenegger, Black said. The bill is almost
    identical to the California law.
  • The bill takes a flexible approach, allowing
    market-based action, Black said. It suggests
    conservation of energy, use of bio-fuels, new
    pollution controls and that all major sources of
    carbon dioxide be monitored and then have
    enforceable standards.

Municipal Action U.S. Mayors Climate Protection
  • On June 13, 2005, the Mayors Climate Protection
    Agreement was passed unanimously by the U.S.
    Conference of Mayors.
  • To date, 435 mayors from 50 states and the
    District of Columbia have signed on to the U.S.
    Mayors Climate Protection Agreement initiated by
    Mayor Greg Nickels, meaning cities where more
    than 61 million Americans live are to committed
    meet the Kyoto target.

US companies call for global warming action (U.
S. Climate Action Partnership/ January 22, 2007)
  • Members of USCAP
  • Alcoa BP America, Inc. Caterpillar, Inc. Duke
    Energy DuPont Environmental Defense Florida Power
    Light General Electric Lehman Brothers Natural
    Resources Defense Council Pew Center on Global
    Climate Change PGE Corporation PNM
    Resources World Resources Institute
  • On January 22, 2007, the U. S. Climate Action
    Partnership (USCAP) released a landmark series of
    principles and recommendations calling for the
    federal government to quickly enact strong
    national legislation to achieve significant
    reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The USCAP is an alliance of leading
    non-governmental organizations and major
    corporations that have come together to call for
    mandatory action.

  • We are witnessing the dawn of
  • an historic transition for humankind

historic transition in . . .
  • . . . energy policy, economies, and lifestyles
  • but prerequisite to these essential changes is a
    transition in the paradigm of unlimited growth!
  • For our finite resources of our planet do limit
    growth. . . This is the ultimate inconvenient

The Third Energy Revolution has begun!
  • Take to the Streets!

  • (AP photo courtesy of Dan Crosbie/Canadian Ice
  • Thanks for your attention!!