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Social Marketing, Media


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Title: Social Marketing, Media

Social Marketing, Media Health Promotion
  • Dr. Edwin van Teijlingen

Learning Outcomes
  • Highlight role of mass media in health promotion.
  • Define social marketing and highlight its role(s)
    in health promotion i.e. social change at an
    community level individual behavioural change.
  • Highlight theoretical basis of social
  • Compare/contrast social with commercial
  • Discuss strengths/limitations of mass media as an
    aspect of social marketing for health.

Role of mass media
  • Bring / produce news
  • Entertainment (dog bites man etc.)
  • Make money
  • Reach viewing targets, sell papers, etc.
  • Support democracy, campaign, etc.
  • Educate the reader/viewer

Role of the media example
  • BBC web pages reported newly published study in
    December 2004
  • Study showed that television soaps tend to cover
    sexual issues in an in-depth and informative
    manner, but men's magazines approach the subject
    in a macho and stereotypical way.

Role of the media example
Martin Raymond of HEBS said (on BBC web pages)
that the key to the increase in sexual activity
among young people was the media. "The number
of children depending on the media as a source of
sexual information has grown and grown"
The news story
  • Junk food advertising ban call
  • Later this year, two million infants will receive
    free fruit each day
  • BBC web pages
  • (6th Sept. 2004)

Health advertising
  • Picture from leaflet produced by Arthritis
    Research Campaign (ARC) on Sport Exercise

Social marketing
  • Dole's Nutrition Education Program offers
    education materials free-of-charge to U.S.
    elementary schools.

Range of mass media
  • Printed news
  • Radio, cinema, television, Internet
  • Telephone
  • Bill boards (including back of bus)
  • Hand-outs Leaflets
  • Other balloons, planes

Need to understand media
  • Understanding mass media is a prerequisite to
    gaining the cooperation of those who control
    access to media time and space to improve the
    coverage of health issues about which the public
    needs, and often wants, to know.

Effectiveness of Media I
  • Research has demonstrated effectiveness of mass
    media approaches in
  • Raising awareness
  • Get intended audience to seek info/ service
  • Increasing knowledge
  • Changing attitudes but less in terms of

Effectiveness of Media II
  • Behavioural change is usually associated with
    long-term, multiple-intervention campaigns rather
    than with one-time communication-only programmes.

Media Health Promotion
  • paid advertising
  • versus
  • media advocacy

Edu-tainment I
  • use of entertainment media to disseminate
    information about health.
  • story telling approach instead of traditional
    health awareness campaign approaches.

Edu-tainment II
  • UK examples
  • TV soap operas have had dedicated episodes on
    teenage pregnancy, HIV, racism, child abuse, etc.
  • Since 1950s, the BBC used The Archers to bring
    farmers up to date in a "soap opera" format. The
    Archers are still going strong although their
    storylines include general topical current issues
    as well farming issues.

Edu-tainment III
  • Example from Kenya
  • 'Heart and Soul', a prime time TV radio soap
    opera about the lives of two African families, is
    bringing issues such as HIV/AIDS, poverty and
    human rights to hard-to-reach populations in East
    Africa. Potential audience is 50 to 75 million.
  • http//

Power of the Media
  • Mass media sets the public agenda for discussion
    of an issue, e.g. asylum seekers in UK, ban of
    smoking in public places.
  • Can we make strategic use of Mass Media to apply
    pressure to advance healthy public policy?

Media advocacy
  • Strategic use of Mass Media to apply pressure to
    advance healthy public policy
  • Media sets the public agenda for discussion of an
  • Focus is on institutions and organisations that
    have the ability to control environments

Effective media campaigns I
  • Credibility source can be trusted.
  • Context message should be relevant to the
  • Content message must be meaningful.
  • Clarity receiver must be able to understand the

Effective media campaigns II
  • Continuity message needs to be consistent
    without being boring.
  • Channels message must use the established
    channels of the receiver.
  • Capability receiver must be capable of acting on
    the message.
  • Collaboration Media professionals involved to
    determine how best to use media.

Mass media health promotion What it cant
  • Communication of complex messages
  • Teach complex motor or social interaction skills
    - breast self examination
  • Produce attitude change in resistants

Why media campaigns fail.
  • Mistaken beliefs about the media.
  • A misunderstanding of role of health promotion.
  • A misunderstanding of nature of the communication
  • Stress on evaluative rather than formative

Why media campaigns fail.
  • In adequate or inappropriate targeting.
  • Misunderstanding significant components of the
  • Inappropriate media mix.
  • Failure to use other components of the marketing

Promotion Exercise
  • How would you promote buying a season ticket for
    AFC to a new student at the University of
  • Or
  • How would you promote cycling as a mode of
    transport to students?
  • Or
  • How would you promote drugs to students?
  • Or
  • How would you promote non-smoking to a smoker?

Social Marketing
  • Theoretical basis - economics.
  • Exchange theory.
  • Describe predict consumer behaviour.
  • Design marketing programmes.

  • the application of marketing concepts and
    techniques to the marketing of various socially
    beneficial ideas and causes instead of products
    and services in the commercial sense Fox and
    Kotler (1980)

  • application of commercial marketing
    technologies to the analysis, planning, execution
    and evaluation of programs designed to influence
    the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in
    order to improve their personal welfare and that
    of society
  • Kotler Roberto (1989)

Concept of social marketing
  • Theory of exchange
  • the art of obtaining a desired product from
    someone by offering something in return (Kotler,
  • Consumer focus
  • Consumer behaviour

The Power of Marketing
  • Commercial marketers are demonstrating an
    enviable capacity to influence behaviour
  • (Hastings 20073)
  • Thus if Marlboro manages to sell billions of
    cancer sticks p/a, health promoters should be
    able to sell healthy living.

Aims(s) of social marketing related to health
  • 1. Social change to influence and mobilise
    public opinion.
  • Target audience - the community.
    Egger et al (1988)
  • 2. Encouraging individual behaviour change.
    Nutbeam, Tones

Selling health is not like selling bananas!
  • Social marketing differs from commercial
    marketing in its intent to benefit the target
    population and/or society in general rather than
    the marketer. Nutbeam (2001)

Social marketing - whats the difference I
  • … education (promotion) is frequently
    trying to sell a product that no one in their
    right mind would buy! Tones (1996)
  • Safe sex versus unprotected????
  • Reduced or no alcohol consumption versus a good
    bucket?? Rab C. Nesbitt (1994)

Social marketing - whats the difference II
  • Products easy to define in commercial arena.
  • Long-term benefits versus instant gratification.
  • Socially desirable behaviours - costly in time
    and effort than alternative.
  • Many health behaviours are inconsistent with the
    social milieu.

Social marketing - whats the difference III
  • Target groups are often most negative towards
    proposed changes.
  • Habits strongly reinforced and deeply entrenched.
  • Healthy behaviour is often complex.
  • Subject to political pressures and to a lack of
  • More intermediaries in social marketing - lack of

Social Marketing
  • Marketing research
  • quantitative research, e.g. surveys
  • qualitative research, e.g. focus groups, in-depth
  • integration of both methods

Nature of social marketing
  • Development and implementation of multi-faceted
  • One or more strategies.
  • Consumer driven.
  • Audience analysis and segmentation.
  • Lefebvre and Rochlin in Glanz et al (1997)

Not simply using the media
  • Social Marketing isn't the same as 'using the
    media' (might not involve media at all), it is an
    approach to designing and developing an
    intervention which involves many or most of the
    following eight marketing elements.

A social marketing model
  • 1. Consumer orientated.
  • 2. Voluntary exchanges of goods and services
    between providers and consumers.
  • 3. Audience analysis and segmentation to
    identify meaningful target groups.
  • 4. Concept testing and pre-testing.

A social marketing model
  • 5. Analysis of communication channels.
  • 6. Marketing mix - product, price, place and
  • 7. Process tracking system.
  • 8. Management process.

Social Marketing Wheel
2. Selecting the channels and materials
1. Planning the strategy
3. Developing materials and pre-testing
6. Feedback to refine the regime
4. Implementation
5. Assessing effectiveness
Source (Glanz, lewis and Rimer, 1997)
Marketing Mix
  • Product
  • Price
  • Promotion
  • Placement

Create right marketing mix
  • Product has to have the right features e.g. it
    must look good and work well.
  • Price must be right, but also refers to effort/
    opportunity costs.
  • Goods must be in right place at right time.
  • Promotion make people aware of availability of
    product (communication strategy/channel

Social Marketing
  • Social marketing plan
  • policy legislative outreach
  • communications
  • training of staff
  • service delivery
  • smoking etc. education
  • tracking system

Social marketing, mass media and health promotion
Social Marketing
  • Examples of successful social marketing
  • FairTrade campaign
  • Kellogg
  • Body Shop
  • Eveready

(No Transcript)
The Body Shop
  • "Business must be a force for social change," Ms.
    Roddick said. "At the Body Shop, we're trying …
    to seamlessly transform the acceptance of private
    greed to public good--a truly difficult journey."

Example The Body Shop
  • From human rights to animal welfare and global
    warming to self-esteem, Anita Roddicks The Body
    Shop support such issues.
  • Body Shop has introduced Ruby an anti-Barbie doll
    to challenge disempowering images of women.

(No Transcript)
Body Shop described the Ruby ad campaign like
  • Ruby's prize-winning face and figure are the dawn
    of a new consciousness in the beauty business
    love your body - just the way it is. The Body
    Shop frontperson for its self esteem campaign
    grabbed headlines all over the world. She looks
    like a girl who enjoys life to the fullest - and
    thats what self-esteem is all about. Fret about
    who you could be and youre merely wasting who
    you are.

Summary I
  • Concept of social marketing (with its origins in
    commercial marketing) has been a feature of
    health promotion activity since early 1970s.
  • It main aim has been variously argued to be about
    not only trying to encourage individual behaviour
    change, but also influencing public opinion to
    effect healthy social change.

Summary II
  • Social marketing places great emphasis on
    adequate market research to define issues,
    identify target audiences and pre-test concepts
    and or materials.
  • Selling health is not the same as selling a
    product or service.
  • Mass and limited reach media is a major (but not
    sole) aspect of social marketing.
  • Research has identified characteristics likely
    to increase the the success or failure of health
    promotion media campaigns.

Budd J McCron R (1981) Health education and
mass media past, present, potential in Leather
DS. et al..(eds) Health Education the Media.
Pergamon Press, Oxford. Flay, B.R. (1987), Mass
Media and smoking cessation a critical review,
Am J Public Health, 77 (2) 153-60. Fox K
Kotler P. (1980). Marketing of social causes
first 10 years. J Marketing, 44 24-33.Hastings,
G. (2007) Social Marketing Why should the devil
have all the best tunes?, Butterworth-Heinemann,
London. Kotler P Roberto FL. (1989) Social
Marketing Strategies for changing public
behaviour. Free Press, NY. LeFebvre CR Flora
JA (1988) Social marketing pubic health
intervention. Health Educ Quart 15 219
315. Ling, J. C. et al. (1992) Social Marketing
Its Place in Public Health. Ann Rev Public Health
13 341-362. Thackeray, R. (2005). Social
marketing's unique contributions to health
promotion practice. Health Promotion Practice 6
Useful websites
  • Institute for Social Marketing (Univ Stirling)
  • Social marketing on Canadian health promotion web
    pages, see http//
  • National Social Marketing Centre (London-based)