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He thus turned away a US warship -- on a UN mission -- wit

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Title: He thus turned away a US warship -- on a UN mission -- wit


1
Information and Cyber Warfare
  • Lesson 5

2
Motivating Factors in Hacking 4 Domains
outlined by Dr. Denning
  • Play hacking/cracking, phreaking
  • crime illegal acts including intellectual
    property crime and computer fraud and abuse
  • individual rights conflicts over free speech
    and privacy
  • national security foreign intelligence
    operations, war and military conflicts,
    terrorism, and operations against a nation by
    nonstate players

3
Motivation -- Play
4
Motivation -- Play
  • From an Interview of a cracker by Dr. Dorothy
    Denning
  • Hacking was the ultimate cerebral buzz for me. I
    would come home from another dull day at school,
    turn my computer on, and become a member of the
    hacker elite. It was a whole different world
    where there were no condescending adults and you
    were judged by your talent. I would first check
    in to the private bulletin boards where other
    people who were like me would hang out, see what
    the new was in the community, and trade some info
    with people across the country. Then I would
    start actually hacking. My brain would be going
    a million miles an hour and Id basically
    completely forget about my body as I would jump
    from one computer to another trying to find a
    path into my target. It was the rush of working
    on a puzzle coupled with the high discovery many
    magnitudes intensified. To go along with the
    adrenaline rush was the illicit thrill of doing
    something illegal. Every step I made could be
    the one that would bring the authorities crashing
    down on me. I was on the edge of technology and
    exploring past it, spelunking into electronic
    caves where I wasnt supposed to be.

5
Motivation -- Play
  • Bored at school
  • member of an elite group
  • thrill (adrenaline rush)
  • curiosity
  • power sense of control

6
Motivation -- Crime
  • Intellectual Property (figures from Dennings
    1999 book)
  • Piracy (losses exceed 20B, mostly external to
    US)
  • Theft of trade secrets (40-250B)
  • Biggest risk is insider
  • Fraud
  • telemarketing scams (40B)
  • identity theft and bank fraud (s fuzzy but
    includes credit card theft)
  • telecommunications (5-10B)
  • Computer Fraud Abuse
  • Organized Crime

7
Motivation -- Individual Rights
Rights to Privacy Free speech Where do these
rights come from? Are they universal? Privacy,
who owns the info about you? Check a companys
privacy statement Conflicts between free speech
and harmful or disturbing speech flaming -vs-
defamation Conflicts over censorship some
countries restrict satellite and Internet access
for national interests or religious reasons some
restrict to protect groups such as children
8
Governments at War
  • The U.S. has been the target of widespread
    technological and industrial espionage from our
    allies.
  • In 1997, the American Society for Industrial
    Security identified several nations that
    routinely conduct industrial espionage against
    the U.S.
  • France
  • Germany
  • Israel
  • China
  • South Korea
  • Four of these are considered Allies.

9
First real IW attack within 20 yrs
  • From a 1996 GAO report to the DoD
  • Defense officials and information systems
    security experts believe that over 120 foreign
    countries are developing information warfare
    techniques. The techniques enable our enemies to
    seize control of or harm sensitive Defense
    information systems or public networks, which
    Defense relies upon for communications.
    Terrorists or other adversaries now have the
    United States to launch untraceable attacks from
    anywhere in the world.

10
Information Warfare
  • Information Warfare is about money. Its about
    the acquisition of wealth and the denial of
    wealth to competitors.
  • Information Warfare is about power. He who
    controls the information controls the money.
  • Information Warfare is about fear. He who
    controls the information can instill fear in
    those who want to keep their secrets a secret.
  • Information Warfare is about politics.
  • Information Warfare is about survival.
  • Excerpts from Information Warfare by Winn
    Schwartau

11
Information Warfare
  • Theres a war out there, and its about who
    controls the information. Its all about the
    information.
  • COSMO in Sneakers
  • Information is the currency of victory on the
    battlefield.
  • GEN Gordon Sullivan, CSA (1993)

12
Schwartaus 3 classes of IW
  • Class 1 Personal Information Warfare
  • Class 2 Corporate Information Warfare
  • Class 3 Global Information Warfare

13
Information Warfare weapons
  • Computer Viruses
  • Worms
  • Trojan Horses
  • Logic Bombs
  • Trap Doors
  • Van Eck devices
  • Chipping
  • Nano machines and Microbes
  • Electronic Jamming
  • HERF Guns - EMP Bombs
  • Penetration exploits and tools

14
Tool development From Corporate Espionage by
Ira Winkler
Tools and Knowledge
Foreign Intelligence Agencies
Criminals
Information about Targets
15
What is an act of war?
  • Article 51 of the UN Charter
  • Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the
    inherent right of individual or collective
    self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a
    Member of the United Nations
  • Article 41
  • The Security Council may decide what measures not
    involving the use of armed force are to be
    employed to give effect to its decisions, and it
    may call upon the Members of the United Nations
    to apply such measures. These may include
    complete or partial interruption of economic
    relations and of rail, sea, air,
    postal,telegraphic, radio, and other means of
    communication, and the severance of diplomatic
    relations.

16
What is a valid target?
WASHINGTON, May 23 (Reuters) - U.S. President
Bill Clinton has approved a top-secret plan to
destabilize Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic,
using computer hackers to attack his foreign bank
accounts and a sabotage campaign to erode his
public support, Newsweek magazine reported on
Sunday. The magazine, in its May 23 edition,
quoted sources as saying Clinton issued an
intelligence "finding" allowing the Central
Intelligence Agency to find "ways to get at
Milosevic." The finding would permit the
CIA to train ethnic Albanian rebels in Kosovo in
the art of sabotage, including such tricks as
cutting telephone lines, fouling gasoline
reserves and pilfering food supplies, the
magazine said. The CIA also was instructed to
wage a cyberwar against Milosevic, using computer
hackers to tap into the Yugoslav president's
foreign bank accounts, the magazine said.
17
Information Warfare
  • Definition of Information Warfare
  • 'Actions taken to achieve information superiority
    by affecting an adversary information,
    information-based processes, information systems,
    and computer-based networks while defending one's
    own information, information-based processes,
    information systems, and computer-based
    networks.'
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction No. 3210.01

18
IW from Cornerstones
19
(No Transcript)
20
Information Operations
  • For to win one hundred victories in one hundred
    battles is not the pinnacle of skill. To subdue
    the enemy without fighting is the pinnacle of
    skill. -- Sun Tzu.
  • True hackers don't give up. They explore every
    possible way into a network, not just the well
    known ones. --
    The hacker Jericho.
  • The most likely perpetrators of cyber attacks on
    critical infrastructures are terrorists and
    criminal groups rather than nation-states.
    -- The
    Gilmore Commission
  • Cyberspace is the battlefield of tomorrowInstead
    of confronting us head-to-head on the traditional
    battlefield, adversaries will confront the U.S.
    at its point of least resistance-- our
    information infrastructure. -- Sen. Fred
    Thompson, Chairman of the Senate Committee on
    Governmental Affairs, June 1998
  • By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.
    -- Benjamin Franklin

21
What are the types/forms of IO?Martin Libicki,
NDU, August 1995, What is Information Warfare?
  • Command-and-Control Warfare
  • C2W Command-and control-warfare is the military
    strategy that implements Information Warfare (DoD
    Directive TS- 3600.1, 21 December 1992,
    "Information Warfare") on the battlefield and
    integrates physical destruction. Its objective is
    to decapitate the enemy's command structure from
    its body of command forces.
  • Intelligence-Based Warfare
  • IBW occurs when intelligence is fed directly into
    operations (notably, targeting and battle damage
    assessment), rather than used as an input for
    overall command and control. IBW results directly
    in the application of steel to target (rather
    than corrupted bytes).

22
IO (cont)
  • Electronic Warfare
  • The first two forms of IW discussed deal with
    attacks either on systems (C2 warfare) or by
    systems (IBW). The third form is EW, or
    operational techniques radioelectronic and
    cryptographic, thus war in the realm of
    communications. EW attempts to degrade the
    physical basis for transferring information,
    while cryptographic warfare works between bits
    and bytes.
  • Psychological Warfare
  • Psychological warfare, as used here, encompasses
    the use of information against the human mind
    (rather than against computer support). There are
    four categories of psychological warfare (i)
    operations against the national will, (ii)
    operations against opposing commanders, (iii)
    operations against troops, and -- a category much
    respected abroad -- (iv) cultural conflict.

23
IO (cont)
  • Hacker Warfare
  • Winn Schwartau, among others, uses the term
    information warfare to refer almost exclusively
    to attacks on computer networks. In contrast to
    physical combat, these attacks are specific to
    properties of the particular system because the
    attacks exploit known holes in the system's
    security structure. In that sense the system is
    complicit in its own degradation.
  • Hacker warfare varies considerably. Attackers can
    be on site, although the popular imagination can
    place them anywhere. The intent of an attack can
    range from total paralysis to intermittent
    shutdown, random data errors, wholesale theft of
    information, theft of services (e.g., unpaid-for
    telephone calls), illicit systems' monitoring
    (and intelligence collection), the injection of
    false message traffic, and access to data for the
    purpose of blackmail. Among the popular devices
    are viruses, logic bombs, Trojan horses, and
    sniffers.

24
IO (cont)
  • Economic Information Warfare
  • The marriage of information warfare and economic
    warfare can take two forms information blockade
    and information imperialism.
  • The effectiveness of an information blockade
    presumes an era in which the well-being of
    societies will be as affected by information
    flows as they are today by flows of material
    supplies. Nations would strangle others' access
    to external data.
  • To believe in information imperialism means
    believing in modern day economic imperialism.
    Thus, trade is war. Nations struggle with one
    another to dominate strategic economic
    industries. Nations specialize in certain
    industries. The good industries command high
    wages and, usually, feature high growth rates.
    They tend to be knowledge- intensive. The
    constant exchange of information, in particular,
    early access to interesting technical questions
    and information resources, provides one an edge
    in coming up with interesting solutions.
  • (Libicki doesnt directly address it but what
    about corporate information espionage?)

25
IO (cont)
  • Cyber Warfare
  • Includes information terrorism, semantic attacks,
    simula-warfare and Gibson-warfare.
  • Although terrorism is often understood as the
    application of random violence against apparently
    arbitrary targets, when terrorism works it does
    so because it is directed against very specific
    targets, often by name. Thus, Information
    terrorism would target information about a
    specific individual to affect their actions.
  • A system under semantic attack operates and will
    be perceived as operating correctly (otherwise
    the semantic attack is a failure), but it will
    generate answers at variance with reality.
  • Could fighting a simulated war prove to the enemy
    that it will lose?
  • Gibson-warfare from William Gibson's Neuromancer.
    Think conflict on the Internet, maybe at first
    only in the guise of virtual stalkers, sexual
    harassers, or flame wars. Now consider
    technologies capability to, in effect, launch a
    simulacrum into the net, armed with its master's
    wants and needs, to make reservations, acquire
    goods, hand over assets, and, with work, to
    negotiate terms for enforceable contracts. Now
    take the next step and allow an individuals
    online agents to conduct their own info battle.
    -- TRON.

26
Information Warfare
  • Michael Brown in The Revolution in Military
    Affairs The Information Dimension described
    several aspects of IW.
  • May be aimed at the Nation or the military
  • Has three distinct phases
  • Peace
  • Crisis
  • War
  • Identified three types
  • Type I Perception Management
  • Type II Denial, Destruction, degradation,
    distortion
  • Type III Exploiting enemy information flows

27
Recent IW
  • 2007 Estonia Russian patriots wage campaign
  • 2009 DOS on Georgia
  • In July 2009, it appeared to the Georgian
    government that it was being attacked by a
    presumed ally the U.S., or at least from a
    civilian computer in U.S. territory. In August,
    cybersecurity experts observed a second, much
    larger wave of DDoS attacks against Georgian
    government Web sites. In response, the Georgian
    government took an unorthodox step and sought
    cyberrefuge in the U.S., Poland and Estonia.
    Within the U.S., Georgia located its
    cybercapabilities on servers at Tulip Systems
    (TSHost) in Atlanta, Ga., and at Google in
    California. When Estonia experienced a
    cyberattack in 2007, it essentially defended in
    place Georgia, on the other hand, maneuvered. It
    elegantly relocated strategic IP-based
    cybercapabilities to other defensive points on
    the Internet, thereby ensuring continued war-time
    communications with Georgian citizens and forces.
    By doing so, the Georgian government partially
    defeated the botnet cyberattack by flowing a
    portion of its strategic C2 through the U.S. and
    other allies.
  • Ref http//www.armedforcesjournal.com/2009/0
    1/3801084

28
Protecting the National Infrastructures
  • What are they?
  • Systems so critical to the United States that
    their loss or damage would have serious impact on
    the functioning and operation of the nation.

29
Critical Infrastructures (original)
Information Communication Electrical Power
Systems Gas Oil Production, Storage
Transportation Banking Finance Transportation
Water Supply Systems Emergency
Services Government Services
30
Protecting the National Infrastructures
What are they? Who might attack? Criminals (drug
cartels) terrorists crackers governments
31
PSYOPS andPerception Management
  • Perception Management
  • information operations that aim to affect the
    perceptions of others in order to influence their
    emotions, reasoning, decisions, and ultimately
    actions.
  • PSYOPS (psychological operations)
  • aim to influence behavior by affecting the human
    psyche through fear, desire, logic, and other
    mental factors.

32
Perception Management
  • Any medium can be exploited
  • face-to-face communications, print,
    telecommunications, broadcast, and computer
    networks.
  • PM often taken to mean media manipulation (for
    good or bad).
  • NOT just a military function, also seen in
  • Politics
  • Advertising
  • everyday relationships

33
SOFTWAR (Chuck de Caro)
  • The hostile use of global television to shape
    another nations will by changing its vision of
    reality.
  • Global television offers parties a cheap,
    accurate, real-time, politico-military
    intelligence service that simultaneously acts as
    an extremely potent instrument to affect
    adversely and directly the US domestic body
    politic.

34
Softwar (example)
  • Haiti
  • A Haitian dictator, using global TV as the
    Poor Mans IW judged the likely US reaction
    in the wake of revulsion at the video-tape of
    Rangers being killed and mutilated in Somalia.
    He optimized his political-military moves to
    forestall US intervention by having a handful of
    rabble assemble on a pier, mug angrily-on-cue for
    global TV while waving English-language placards.
    He thus turned away a US warship -- on a UN
    mission -- with nothing more than the video of an
    alleged mob that generated the perception of
    imminent bloodshed projected and amplified by TV.
    The perception was worsened by video coverage of
    the warship sailing away. -- Chuck de Caro
    Softwar
  • Somalia

35
Softwar (example)
  • L.A. rioting - skipping ignition pulse
  • In 1965, the Watts area of Los Angeles was a
    tinder-box, with an ignition temperature set by
    local conditions of poverty, crime, racism and
    escalating tensions between the populace and the
    police. All that was needed was a localized
    ignition pulse a spark that ironically came when
    the police arrested an intoxicated black
    motorist. Once ignited, the riot spread in the
    classic manner, outward from the center by
    word-of-mouth to the edges of Watts. By
    contrast, the 1992 Los Angeles upheaval,
    broadcast as-it-happened on global real-time TV
    sent an ignition pulse that set off simultaneous
    fires wherever the same ignition conditions
    existed, without a localized spark. The result
    was a hopping phenomenon, generating riots in
    San Francisco, Seattle, Atlanta and then even to
    Toronto, Canada. -- Chuck de Caro, Softwar

36
The nature of TV
  • Television, by its nature, is an effective,
    insidious and dangerous medium for delivery of
    propaganda television is a cool medium that
    defines events by the viewers perception of
    images and sound, rather than of reality.
  • Perception can be further distorted by various
    aspects of telegenics lighting, sun angle,
    star quality, voice quality,
  • An example
  • The Nixon-Kennedy debate during the 1960
    Presidential election is one example. The
    transcripts show a fairly even contest those
    listening on radio felt strongly that Nixon had
    won. To the millions watching television,
    however, Kennedys natural camera appeal was
    enhanced by makeup and a dark suit and contrasted
    with a perspiring Nixon with a five-oclock
    shadow, leaving the perception that Kennedy had
    won decisively.

37
What can we trust on TV?
  • 1st down line in football coverage
  • Forrest Gump
  • Wag the Dog

38
Whats in a name?
  • Pro-choice -vs- Pro-life
  • Florida Election
  • Fair -vs- Timely (or legal)

39
The incubator story
  • During the invasion, Iraqi soldiers entered
    multiple Kuwaiti hospitals, removed babies from
    incubators, shipped the incubators back to Iraq,
    and left the babies on the floor.
  • Story repeated often, several witnesses came
    forward.

40
The incubator story
The players
Nayirah President Bush
Congressmen Citizens for a Free
Kuwait Congressional Human Rights Caucus Hill
Knowlton
41
The Testimony
  • Nayirah's full name was being kept confidential
    to prevent Iraqi reprisals against her family in
    occupied Kuwait. Sobbing, she described what she
    had seen with her own eyes in a hospital in
    Kuwait City. Her written testimony was passed
    out in a media kit prepared by Citizens for a
    Free Kuwait.
  • "I volunteered at the al-Addan hospital," Nayirah
    said. "While I was there, I saw the Iraqi
    soldiers come into the hospital with guns, and go
    into the room where . . . babies were in
    incubators. They took the babies out of the
    incubators, took the incubators, and left the
    babies on the cold floor to die.
  • -- John R. MacArthur, Second Front Censorship
    and Propaganda in the Gulf War

42
Lying to Congress?
  • "The Human Rights Caucus is not a committee of
    congress, and therefore it is unencumbered by the
    legal accouterments that would make a witness
    hesitate before he or she lied . . . Lying under
    oath in front of a congressional committee is a
    crime lying from under the cover of anonymity to
    a caucus is merely public relations.
  • -- John R. MacArthur, Second Front Censorship
    and Propaganda in the Gulf War

43
The story continues
  • Hill Knowlton had the baby incubator story
    repeated before the United Nations Security
    Council chamber in an audiovisual presentation on
    November 27.
  • The presentation was loaded with anonymous
    charges of Iraqi brutality and the reiteration of
    the baby incubator story. A Kuwaiti dentist,
    claiming to be a surgeon and using a false name,
    testified that under his supervision 120 newborn
    babies were buried in the second week of the
    invasion.

44
President Bush
  • the baby incubator story was repeated six times
    by George Bush in various political speeches,
    including a speech to the troops near Dhahran
  • "It turns your stomach when you listen to the
    tales of those that have escaped the brutality of
    Saddam the invader. Mass hangings. Babies pulled
    from incubators and scattered like firewood
    across the floor."

45
Was it True?
  • January 17, 1991 article by Alexander Cockburn in
    the Los Angeles Times openly challenged the
    incubator myth.
  • According to London Amnesty International
    spokesman Sean Styles, "we spoke to well over a
    dozen doctors of different nationalities who had
    been in Kuwait at the time and they couldn't
    stand the story up, and it became quite clear to
    us that credible medical opinion was that this
    didn't happen."
  • Amnesty International backed down from their
    original story in the seventh paragraph of a
    press release, stating that they had found
  • "no reliable evidence that Iraqi forces had
    caused the deaths of babies by removing them or
    ordering their removal from incubators."

46
Was it True?
  • After the war, Middle East Watch was shown death
    certificates for 30 Kuwaiti babies who were all
    buried on August 24, 1990. Of those 30 babies, 19
    had died before the Iraqi invasion began, and 11
    died during the occupation. None of the 30 were
    ever shown to have been removed from incubators.
    All of the witnesses backed off from their
    original claims of having supervised or
    participated in the burial of babies.
  • Andrew Whitley, executive director of Middle East
    Watch, and part of a two-man investigation in
    Kuwait, was quoted as having said
  • "Soon after we arrived in Kuwait, two weeks after
    the liberation it became apparent that the story
    was a complete hoax. We were able to go 'round
    the hospitals to count the incubators and find
    that - possibly with one or two that had been
    misplaced - that none were missing. So none of
    the incubators were removed in the first place.
    Moreover, it seemed quite clear that there
    weren't any deaths which had been deliberately
    the cause of the Iraqis having gone in and stolen
    equipment."

47
What was the effect?
  • The final decision to go to war was made on
    January 12, 1991 in a Senate vote of 52 to 47 (a
    margin of 3). Before passing this resolution, six
    pro-war senators specifically brought forth the
    baby incubator allegations in their speeches
    supporting the resolution.
  • OPERATION DESERT STORMOUTRIGHT DISINFORMATION
    SCHEME by David Fingrut
  • Without this story, would there have been a war?

48
Hill Knowlton
  • 100 individuals worked on the campaign
  • 11M in fees
  • They present themselves as an international PR
    firm
  • Interesting background considering their
    Integrity statement

49
Hill Knowlton
50
Washington State suit against tobacco industry
  • The defendants are American Tobacco Brown
    Williamson Tobacco Corp., Lorillard Tobacco
    Co., Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.,
    United State Tobacco Co., B.A.T. Industries
    P.L.C. and related organizations, including Hill
    Knowlton, The Council for Tobacco
    Research-USA Inc., Smokeless Tobacco Council and
    the Tobacco Institute.

51
Tobacco PR
  • Legendary PR figures John Hill, Ivy Lee and
    Edward Bernays (now revered within the industry
    as the "father of public relations") all worked
    on PR for tobacco, pioneering techniques that
    today remain the PR industry's stock in trade
    third-party advocacy, subliminal message
    reinforcement, junk science, phony front groups,
    advocacy advertising, and buying favorable news
    reporting with advertising dollars.
  • To persuade women cigarette smoking could help
    them stay beautiful, Bernays developed a campaign
    based on the slogan, "Reach for a Lucky Instead
    of a Sweet." The campaign played on women's
    worries about their weight and increased Lucky
    sales threefold in just 12 months. (The message,
    "cigarettes keep you thin," reverberates today in
    the brand name Virginia Slims.)

52
Tobacco and PR Crisis
  • IN 1952, READER'S Digest ran an influential
    article titled "Cancer by the Carton." A 1953
    report by Dr. Ernst L. Wynder heralded to the
    scientific community a definitive link between
    cigarette smoking and cancer.
  • For help, the tobacco industry turned to John
    Hill, the founder of the PR megafirm, Hill
    Knowlton. Hill designed a brilliant and expensive
    campaign the tobacco industry is still using
    today in its fight to save itself from public
    rejection and governmental action.

53
Hills campaign
  • At Hills suggestion, the industry created a
    group called the Tobacco Institute Research
    Committee (TIRC), and ran a full-page ad, titled
    "A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers," in more
    than 400 newspapers. The ad acknowledged tobacco
    companies had a "special responsibility" to the
    public, and promised to sponsor "independent
    research" aimed at "learning the facts about
    smoking and health.
  • The TIRC maintained a library with cross-indexed
    medical and scientific papers from 2,500 medical
    journals, as well as press clippings, government
    reports and other documents. TIRC employees
    culled this library for scientific data with
    inconclusive or contrary results regarding
    tobacco and the harm to human health. These were
    compiled into a carefully selected 18-page
    booklet, titled "A Scientific Perspective on the
    Cigarette Controversy," which was mailed to over
    200,000 people, including doctors, members of
    Congress and the news media.

54
Tobacco PR (cont.)
  • In 1963 the TIRC changed its name to the Council
    for Tobacco Research. In addition to this
    "scientific" council, Hill Knowlton helped set
    up a separate PR and lobbying organization, the
    Tobacco Institute.
  • Philip Morris is fighting back through a
    California PR firm called the Dolphin Group.
    Dolphin CEO Lee Stitzenberger used a half-million
    dollars from Philip Morris to set up a front
    group called "Californians for Statewide Smoking
    Restrictions." Using this deceptive name, members
    gathered signatures to put a referendum on the
    California ballot in November 1994, which the
    Dolphin Group promoted with billboards reading,
    "Yes on 188--Tough Statewide Smoking
    Restrictions--The Right Choice." In reality,
    Proposition 188 was a pro-tobacco referendum
    which, if passed, would have undermined 270
    existing local anti-smoking ordinances in
    California cities, as well as the state's new
    statewide smoke-free workplace law.

55
Tobacco Advertising
56
Tobacco Advertising
57
Tobacco Advertising
58
The Marlboro Man
59
Image is important...
60
To sum it all up...
-- http//www.desert.net/tw/11-22-95/cover.htm
61
Summary
  • What is the Importance and Significance of this
    material?
  • How does this topic fit into the subject of
    Voice and Data Security?
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