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INDIA: OUTBREAK OF AVIAN INFLUENZA: Control and Containment

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Title: INDIA: OUTBREAK OF AVIAN INFLUENZA: Control and Containment


1
INDIA OUTBREAK OF AVIAN INFLUENZA Control and
Containment
  • Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying
    Fisheries
  • Government of India

2
Why we are so much talkingabout AI
  • Are we over reactive?
  • Will Avian Influenza become Pandemic ?
  • Why we are so conscious
  • about AI

3
  • The present situation can give rise to another
    influenza pandemic.
  • Avian and human influenza viruses can exchange
    genes when a person is simultaneously infected
    with viruses from both species.
  • The process of gene swapping inside the human
    body can give rise to a completely new sub-type
    of the influenza virus to which only a few humans
    would have natural immunity.
  • If the new virus contains sufficient human genes,
    direct transmission from person to person can
    occur (happens in 1918 1919 in 2 year
  • 40 50 million persons died)

4
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5
WHY THERE IS A PANIC WORLDWIDE?
  • Human immune system will have no pre-existing
    immunity.
  • Once a fully contagious virus emerges global
    spread is must.
  • Speed volume of international air travel
    infection can reach all countries less than 3
    months.
  • 5 150 million people can die.
  • No beds will be in the hospital - no antiviral
    drug.
  • No people will be available to contain the
    disease.
  • Entire economy will collapse.
  • Social disruptions will be great.

6
History of Avian influenza
1878- Perroncito described serious disease in
chicken in Italy

7
  • Four recorded outbreaks in the last century

8
Pandemics recur 1st in last century
1918-1919 Spanish Flu A (H1N1)
40-50 m. deaths Worldwide. Nearly half were
young, healthy adults
9
Spanish Flu 1918-1919
10
Deaths due to Influenza in India-1918
Source Annual Report of The Sanitary
Commissioner with the Govt. of India
11
Pandemics recur 2nd in last century
1957-1958 Asian Flu (H2N2) 1st identified
in China Feb. 1957
2 million deaths
12
Pandemics recur 3rd in last century
1968 Hong Kong Flu
(H3N2)
1-4 million deaths
13
4th in last century.
  • Present wave commenced in Hong-Kong in 1997

H5, H7
14
Latest Situation of AI in poultry
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) 71
    countries in four continents since 1997
  • 2 in America
  • 11 in Africa,
  • 30 in Europe
  • 28 in Asia

15
18 Countries affected with HPAI in 2007

16
AI in Asia 14 countries in 2007
17
Countries with confirmed H5N1
18
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19
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20
Confirmed cases of H5N1 in human since 2003
21
Impact
  • Large economic losses to poultry industry
  • Over 250 million poultry dead or destroyed
  • Loss for upstream and downstream sectors at 15
    of stock
  • Additional costs and responsibilities for
    Governments in outbreak countries
  • Trade restrictions on outbreak countries
  • Negative spillover into other industries eg
    tourism
  • Combined loss to GDP at more than USD 10 billion
    to USD 15 billion globally

22
Human cases in 12 countries
23
Avian Influenza in India
  • No case of Avian Influenza (H5 or H7) in India
    till January 2006
  • First outbreak on 18th Feb. 2006

24
Sequence of Outbreaks
25
Endemic neighborhood
  • Five countries neighboring India
  • Afghanistan,
  • Bangladesh,
  • Pakistan
  • China
  • Myanmar

26
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27
Pakistan
  • Earlier reported H7
  • 1st Outbreak of H5N1 in 2006 freedom
  • 2nd outbreak of H5N1 on 4th Feb 2007 Punjab
    NWFP poultry, pigeons, parakeets, pheasants,
    peacocks
  • Total 35 outbreaks
  • 20 outbreaks in 2007

28
Bangladesh
  • H5N1 reported on March 30th 2007
  • Recent outbreak on 13th May 2007
  • 30 outbreaks
  • Affected areas very close to West Bengal
  • Downplaying the situation
  • Porous border
  • Sale of cheap poultry and poultry products a
    cause for concern
  • 1 crore poultry along WB border

29
Afghanistan
  • 1st outbreak in March 2006
  • 2nd outbreak in February 2007
  • 22 outbreaks in all

30
China
  • 1st reported on 27th January 2004
  • Last outbreak reported on 1st March 2007
  • China has not been free since 2004
  • 87 reported outbreaks
  • H5N1 reported in wild/ migratory birds in Qinghai
    lake in Tibet area
  • Subtypes continue to emerge
  • Situation not under control 2005
  • Mass vaccination of poultry
  • Human cases 24/15

31
Myanmar
  • 1st outbreak reported in March 2006
  • Recent outbreak in February 2007
  • 86 outbreaks in all
  • Porous border

32
3 Major flyways of migratory birds
  • may be the cause?

33
Flyways of migratory birds
34
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35
Research findings of Bhopal
  • Introduction of infection through migratory birds
  • Vietnam-Thailand-Malaysia lineage in Navapur
    virus
  • Virus of high pathogenicity
  • Highly virulent to mammals
  • Potentiality to adapt to mammals
  • Sensitive to Tamiflu

36
Flyways of migratory birds
Large number of water bodies and sanctuaries
are located in the country
Source www.mapsofindia.com
37
Key wintering areas of migrating waterbirds in
India
Source www.kolkatabirds.com
38
Etiology
  • Viral disease, member of Orthomyxoviridae
  • A - BIRDS, MAMMALS
  • (including humans, pigs, horses,
    mink, sea mammals etc)
  • B HUMANS
  • C HUMANS, PIGS

39
Avian Influenza Hosts
  • AIV can infect a variety of domestic wild avian
    species (including chickens, turkeys, ducks,
    domestic geese, quail, pheasants, psittacines,
    gulls, shorebirds, emu others). Clinical
    manifestation of infection ranges from
    asymptomatic infection to rapidly fatal disease
  • Aquatic birds, particularly ducks, shore birds
    gulls are considered the natural reservoirs for
    AIV These waterfowl generally do not develop
    disease when infected with AI viruses.
    Asymptomatically infected domestic ducks are
    shedding more H5N1 to domestic poultry

40
TRANSMISSION
  • Direct contact with infected birds secretions,
    faeces.
  • Airborne virus can spread from bird to bird
    when inhaled.
  • Droppings from infected wild bird both in
    commercial backyard poultry.
  • Contaminated feed, water, equipment, vehicles,
    cages, clothing and shoes.
  • Feet and body of the animals i.e. rodents
    acts as mechanical vectors.
  • Clinically normal waterfowl sea birds.
  • Contaminated broken eggs.
  • 1 gm. contaminated manure can infect 1 m.
    birds.

41
CLINICAL SIGNS
  • Incubation period 3-5 days.
  • Severe depression, inappetence.
  • Drastic decline in egg production.
  • Facial oedema with swollen cyanotic combs
    wattles.
  • Petechial haemorrhages on internal membrane
    surfaces.

42
CLINICAL SIGNS
  • Sudden death (100 mortality)
  • Neurological signs
  • Lack of energy and appetite
  • Swelling of head, eyelids,comb, wattles and legs
  • Purple discoloration of thewattles and combs
  • Nasal discharge
  • Coughing and sneezing
  • Diarrhoea from greenish to white

43
SYMPTOMS IN HUMANS
Fever, Sneezing, Cough, Sore throat, Muscle
aches, Eye infections, Pneumonia
Severe Respiratory distress.
44
Action Plan of Government of India to combat
Outbreak of Bird Fluin India
45
  • The Action Plan Constitutes
  • Pre-outbreak preparedness
  • Steps to be taken in case of suspicion of
    outbreak of bird flu
  • Action Plan in case outbreak of HPAI is
    confirmed.
  • Bio Security Measures, Advice to persons handling
    HPAI infected poultry etc.

46
I. Pre-outbreak preparedness
47
  • I.1. Surveillance Need to be in a state of
    alertness and preparedness
  • Surveillance to include both poultry and
    migratory birds
  • Poultry owner is responsible for reporting
    unusual mortality and sickness
  • Routine Surveillance
  • Population density of poultry birds in each
    tahsil both in backyard and commercial.
  • Fly-way of migratory birds.
  • Existence of wild-life sanctuaries/National Parks
    / water bodies visited by migratory / wild birds.
  • Population of ducks/ geese etc acting as virus
    carriers.
  • Active and targeted surveillance (detection
    reporting in 24 hrs.)
  • Mortality more than 5 of bird population in a
    commercial poultry in 48 hours time can be taken
    as unusually high mortality

48
  • Immediate response to unusual sickness and
    mortality
  • In addition to the poultry owner the field
    veterinary institution shall ensure the
    detection and reporting of any unusual mortality
    or sickness in 24 hours.
  • Regular visit to high density poultry unit both
    in commercial and backyard.
  • The entire machinery of Animal Husbandry/
    Veterinary Department in a state of full
    alertness and preparedness.
  • All veterinary Officers in the District
    (Government/ Semi government / Private) report to
    CVO/DAHO immediately by FAX, E-mail/Phone in case
    there is a mortality above average or unusual
    sickness which can not readily diagnosed in
    poultry and in wild and migratory birds.
  • Similar action by forest officials to senior
    Forest officer and Animal Husbandry Department
  • Integration of strategy for surveillance of
    poultry and wild/migratory birds

49
II. STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN CASE OF A SUSPICION OF
OUTBREAK OF BIRD FLU
50
II.1. CVO/DAHO TO VISIT SITE IMMEDIATELY ON
RECIEPT OF PRELIMINARY INFORMATION
  • On receipt of information of unusual or above
    average mortality
  • CVO/DAHO along with DIO equipped with Kit
    should visit the site within 24hrs
  • Conduct preliminary and clinical investigations
    and collect required samples for laboratory
    analysis

51
II.2. Preliminary and clinical investigations by
DIO
  • Wear protective gear and equipment for DIO.
  • Information to be collected
  • Identification of the specific unit of the farm
    and its subunits including topography of the farm
  • Number of birds and other animals on the farm
  • Identification of staff and vehicles directly
    involved with the unit
  • Recent movement of people, equipment, vehicles
    and animals/birds
  • Availability of disinfectants and equipments for
    disinfecting the premises on site

52
II.3. IDENTIFICATION OF ALERT ZONE
An area of 10 Kms radius from the affected place
should be identified as the alert zone. All
villages and habitations with in that area
should be identified. Panchayat authorities,
civil and veterinary staff in those areas should
be alerted about the possibility of avian flu and
requested to strictly enforce the restrictions
stated
10Kms
53
II.4. RESTRICTIONS TO BE ENFORCED AT THE ALERT
ZONE PENDING RECIEPT OF TEST REPORTS
  • Pending receipt of the results, the entire
    suspected farm should be cordoned and following
    restrictions should be immediately enforced in
    the farm and in the alert zone.
  • 1. No vehicles to be allowed to come in
  • and out of the affected farm premises.
  • 2. No movements of poultry, eggs, dead
  • carcass, manure, used litter, farm machinery,
    equipments or any such material should allowed
    within the alert zone and to outside the zone
  • 3. Disinfection procedures should be strictly
    applied at the entrance of premises.

54
  • 4. The farm personnel should wear protective
    clothing all the time inside the farm, including
    face masks and gloves, gumboots etc.
  • 5. While leaving the farm premises, farm
    personnel should leave the protective clothing
    etc. at the farm and clean themselves thoroughly
    with suitable disinfectants.
  • 6. Movement of people to and from the suspected
    farm to be restricted. No other animals should be
    allowed in the farm.
  • 7. Inter-sectional movements of farm personnel to
    be banned. They should not visit any other
    poultry farm, bird sanctuary, zoo etc.
  • 8. All records of birds present at the farm are
    to be maintained properly.
  • 9. The possibility of closing the markets and
    shops in the area may be explored in
    consultations with revenue authorities, if more
    farms become suspect during this period.

55
  • The poultry farmers at the suspected site to be
    informed about the restrictions and asked them to
    comply with the same.
  • Pending receipt of results, CVO/DAHO should
    arrange to record the mortality or sickness of
    birds at the suspected site and in the alert
    zone.
  • During this period the information also to be
    collected about individual total poultry
    population those who keeping more than 100 birds
    in the alert zone (separately in a radius of 0-3
    Kms and 3-10 kms from the suspected site).
  • Actions by Forest Department in bird sanctuaries
    etc as indicated in paras II.1 to II.7.

56
III. ACTION PLAN IN CASE OUTBREAK OF HPAI IS
CONFIRMED
57
III.1. IMPLEMENTION OF CONTINGENCY PROCEDURES
UNDER CO-ORDINATION OF DISTRICT COLLECTOR/DEPUTY
COMMISSIONER
  • Once the occurrence of NAI is confirmed all
    contingency procedures for containment and
    eradication of NAI to be implemented at once.
  • The responsibility of this shall vest with the
    District Collector/Deputy Commissioner with
    technical assistance of Animal Husbandry, Human
    Health and Forest Departments.
  • CVO/DAHO act as the supervisor officer for
    operations on the animal health side.

58
  • Conduct of operations in
  • Outbreak areas in India ---
  • A pictorial sequence
  • on the line of Action Plan

59
III.2. Pre-requisites to launch operations
  • Control Room
  • RRTs
  • Personal Protective
  • Equipment (PPE)
  • Antiviral drug (Oseltamivir)

60
Control Room
Control room becomes the nerve centre for the
entire operations against the disease
The Nerve Centre
61
Essentials
  • Telephone with STD
  • Fax Machine
  • Computer with internet access
  • Secretarial assistance
  • 24 hour operation
  • Designated officer (s)
  • Information capacity to communicate

62
Logistic Support
  • JCBs, Trucks Tempos etc.
  • Jeeps cars
  • Suction cum jetting machine
  • Fogging Machine, Flame Guns, LPG cylinder, Blower
  • Spray pumps, fogging machine
  • Spade, groom
  • Plastic gunny bags, plastic sheets
  • Diesel, kerosene, fire wood, coal
  • Gum boot, extra gloves, masks, shoe covers
  • Vaccinator, syringes needles
  • Casual labourers
  • Disinfectants
  • Calcium hydroxide
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Sodium hypochlorite
  • Formalin, phenyle, KMn04
  • Bleaching powder
  • Quick Slack Lime
  • Sodium Phenobarbital
  • Alpha chlorazole

63
RAPID RESPONSE TEAMS (RRTs)
  • Animal Husbandry RRTs - responsible for
    operations of culling, disposal, vaccinating,
    supervising and undertaking clean up and
    disinfection etc.
  • State Govt. should ensure
  • Total nos. of RRTs based on poultry population
  • Composition of RRTs vary as per the task
  • Min. time required to mobilize RRTs to the site
  • Deployment of RRTs- detailed plan
  • Man power may be required from other districts

64
RRTs
  • Veterinary and Para-veterinary Staff
  • Train all vet/paravets in control and containment
  • Develop capacity to lead and supervise
  • Ensure and emphasize individual safety
  • After operation responsibility quarantine,
    self-observation, surveillance

65
PPE- most consumed item
  • 2 kinds of kits
  • N-95 is a must for cullers/persons in direct
    operations
  • Stock reserves of PPE
  • Keep supply chain open with capacity to supply
    quickly in emergency

66
In the morning of the day of operation
Use of PPE
  • RRTs were trained to use of PPE.
  • Single use item No PPEs shall be used twice.
  • Shall be burned or buried after use.
  • No entry in the farms or start of operation
    without wearing of PPE.
  • Farmers were requested to co-operate with the
    Government machinery for culling the birds.
  • Farmers were informed about the rate of
    compensation mode of payment as soon as the
    Panchnama is ready.

67

BRIEFING
68
Very large quantities used up in operations
69
III.3. DECLARATION OF INFECTED AND SURVEILLANCE
AREAS
10Km RADIUS SURVEILLANCE ZONE (VACCINATION)
IMMIDEATE REPORTING
  • Sign boards in
  • local language
  • Names of all
  • villages, habitat,
  • poultry
  • population, no.
  • of farms in that area

5Km RADIUS INFECTED ZONE
70
ONCE HPAI IS REPORTED FOLLOWING STEPS TO BE
INITIATED
  • ABSOLUTE BAN ON MOVEMENT OF POULTRY AND ITS
    PRODUCTS (movement of poultry/ products/ farm
    personnel from and to infected area)
  • CLOSURE OF POULTRY AND EGG MARKETS/ SHOPS IN 10
    KM. RADIUS (assistance of Revenue and municipal/
    Panchayat authorities)
  • BAN ON MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES PERSONS AND
    DISINFECTION OF THE SAME (farm personnel in 10 km
    area should not allow to visit other poultry
    farm)
  • RESTRICT ACCESS TO WILD STRAY BIRDS
  • (All steps to be taken to ensure that wild and
    stray birds
  • do not have access to the poultry, poultry
    sheds and water
  • supplies in the infected area)

71
Quarantine Restrict access to infected
premises Jalgaon- village
Navapur-station and
bus-stand shifted
72
Quarantine to reduce further spread control
over the movement of personnel's vehicles
73
Physical survey of the area of operation
74
Physical survey of the area of operation
75
Physical survey of the area of operation
76
Physical survey of the area of operation
77
Outcome of Physical Survey Navapur
  • Cleaning of the farms was not being undertaken
    regularly
  • Hygienic conditions of most farms were poor
  • Huge quantities of solid, semi-solid, liquid
    fecal material, feathers and other waste
    material lying unattended
  • Farmers un-co-operative

78
Outcome of Physical Survey Jalgaon outbreak
  • Largely backyard, free-roaming poultry
  • Villages ranged from clean to very dirty
  • Larger deployment of manpower as
  • poultry spread over
  • Quicker operation as lesser birds
  • Clean-up spread over but not as time
  • consuming as in Navapur
  • Co-operative locals?

79
III.4. Destruction of birds
  • The entire stock of diseased and in-contact birds
    to be destroyed.
  • Stamp out all birds in the infected zone of 5 km.
    radius and surveillance zone of 5-10 km. radius
  • Destruction in presence of designated officer,
    concerned local authorities i.e. revenue
    department, municipality, panchayet etc. for
    determining the compensation to be paid.

80
DEPOPULATION
  • The depopulation and disposal of infected birds
    must be done in quickest possible time to prevent
    spread of infection

81
Culling more than 14.5 lakh birds killed
82
Culling The birds were sedated with sodium
phenobarbital mixed with water. The medicated
water was supplied to the birds in the morning
kept at over-night fasting at least 3-4hrs prior
to culling
Sodium Pheno Barbital, Alpha chlorazole
83
Culling review required for quicker,
mass-killing alternatives on commercial farms
Decapitation and dislocation of neck
84
Culling public announcement not to release birds
in morning panchayats involved common disposal
ground identified in villages birds collected by
veterinarians in morning cash for bird
tremendous response
Different Strategy For Backyard poultry
Poultry owners were advised to observe
precautions such as cover face, nose etc. while
dealing with birds.
85
Backyard poultry sites for disposal identified
by panchayat
86
III.5.DisposalTwo methods burn or bury
  • Dispose birds, eggs/trays, sacks, feathers,
    feed/feed ingredients, fecal material, manure
    etc.
  • All non-disinfectable, biodegradable material
    (wood, card board) must be buried along with the
    birds.
  • Burning material requirements higher
    Approximately 5 quintals of wood per 100 dead
    birds, bury ash, remains etc. burn well
  • Burying dig deep dumped material be kept below
    ground level
  • No access of rodents or stray animals to the
    burial place. Site to be suitably marked and
    should not be opened for at least 5 years.

87
Safe Disposal of Birds
Lime 5-6 bags of in 2 x 2 mtr pit cover with
40 cm. earth layers
  • Deep trenches
  • dug by JCBs
  • also used in Jalgaon
  • even though poultry
  • is backyard.
  • Pit size
  • 2 mtr.x 2 mtr. x 2 mtr.
  • - 1800 fully grown birds
  • 3000 birds by making
  • the deep 1 mtr. More

88
Disposal killed birds were buried into pits
dug by JCBs
89
Disposaleggs destroyed and buried with egg trays
etc. more than 16.67 lac eggs destroyed
90
Disposal of feed and feed materials
  • Infected material
  • Feed manufacturing units within poultry farm
  • More than 8500 MT burnt and buried in Navapur
    Uchhhal

91

Disposal of feed and feed materials
92
Disposal of feed and feed materials
93
Disposal of feed and feed materials
94
Disposal of other material PPE
PPE burnt on each farm on exit by each person
from each farm
95

Disposal Clean up Solid and wet litters
Commercial farms
Major activityFarms are largely two-tier
structures.
96
Disposal Clean upCommercial farms
Upper storey has bird cages and support systems
97

Disposal Clean upCommercial farms
Lower storey is dump ground for fecal matter
slurried due to water leakage from bird water
systems
98
Disposal Clean upCommercial farms
Physically impossible to enter clean
up.Difficult to access lower storey due to
low height

99

Disposal of Solid Litters
laborious work not possible manually
100
Disposal digging of pit for disposal of solid
litters
101

Disposal of solid litters Commercial farms
Sheds cleaned manually thereafter

102
Disposal material carried out manually for
disposal from farms/villages
103
Disposal Clean upWet Litter Commercial farms
Many farms were in this situation especially in
MH.
104
Disposal Clean up Wet Litter Commercial farms
105

Disposal Clean upWet Litter Commercial
farms
Jetting suction machines deployed
106

Disposal Clean upWet Litter Commercial farms

Liquid material pumped out
107
Disposal Clean up pits covered by earth and
limed
Alternate layers of earth and lime to pack it
well
108
Disposal Clean up pits covered with plastic
sheets
109
Feather disposal
laborious work not possible manually
110
Feather disposal
Flame guns purchased and used operated by LPG
111
Feather disposal
112
Feather disposal
113
III.6. DISINFECTION CLEAN UP
  • All units physically or functionally connected to
    the establishment (i. e, hatchery , egg storage
    rooms, packaging rooms , egg trolleys , egg
    product plants) must be disinfected.
  • Vehicles used for transporting live animals, eggs
    animal feed to be disinfected.
  • Washing disinfection of walls, floors ceiling
    of the infected establishments. All equipment
    inside the house such as drink food hoppers
    must be washed treated with a disinfectant for
    at least 48 hours.
  • Water reservoirs must be emptied, washed
    disinfected.
  • Feed tanks need to be emptied, washed with a hot
    water pressure pump subsequently fumigated.
  • After washing disinfecting, all units must be
    fumigated twice with at least two weeks between
    fumigation.

114
LIST OF ACTIVE DISINFECTANTS
  • Wash floors and walls with calcium hydroxide
  • (3 solution)
  • Spray of bleaching powder lime in floors of
    sheds and farm area
  • White-wash of concrete and bricked area with lime
  • Spray 4 formalin over area
  • Treat equipment with sodium hypochlorite solution
    (2) for 48 hours
  • KMnO4 mixed in water tanks etc
  • Close chamber fumigated with KMnO4 formalin

115
Disinfecting Spraying Commercial Poultry
116
Disinfecting Spraying Commercial Poultry
117
Disinfecting Spraying Commercial Poultry
118
Disinfecting Spraying Commercial Poultry
Foggers provided by GOI. Sprayers to be
provided by State Govt.
119
Disinfecting Spraying Commercial Poultry
120

Disinfecting Spraying Backyard Poultry
  • Different strategy
  • Heavily populated villages in Jalgaon
  • Complete culling in village before starting
    clean-up
  • Burn baskets/egg trays/litter/feed and all the
    poultry in 10 km radius
  • Bury the eggs
  • Remove, burn all litter from permanent cages and
    clean the cages
  • Burn garbage around poultry keeping area
  • Whitewash the houses 3km/10km

121
Disinfecting Spraying Backyard Poultry
  • Spray all houses in 0-3 km
  • Spray poultry rearing houses and yards in 3-10 km
    zone
  • Spray all damp areas/drains with 4 formalin
  • Formalin not to be used in inhabited areas due to
    irritation to humans
  • Alternatives Trilocid Concentrate, Virkon-S,
    Sodium hypochlorite
  • Sprinkle lime on the roads, streets etc in all
    the villages under the operation

122
Cleaning of cages
123
Burning of baskets/egg trays/litter/feed
124
Spray in poultry rearing houses
125
Sprinkle lime on the roads, streets etc
126
Sanitized farms
127
Sanitized farms
128
Sanitized farms
129
Sanitized farms
130
Sanitized farms
131
Sanitized farms
132
Poultry owners to be responsible for clean up and
disinfection
  • States may consider that clean up and
    disinfection is the responsibility of the poultry
    owners under the supervision of
    veterinarians/Para veterinarians.
  • Because they are responsible to maintain minimum
    standards of hygiene.

133
Sealing of farms
134
Sealed farms
135
III.7. Post operation Surveillance Protocol
(POSP) freedom from disease
  • Issue of sanitization certificate
  • Intensive physical surveillance of operational
    area No poultry to be re-stocked for 3 months
  • Surveillance of adjoining area for 3 months 5 km
    zone clinical, serological, virological
  • Disease-free if no sample tests positive and no
    outbreak of Avian
    Influenza.
  • Fumigation and spraying every 15 days
  • Maintain vigil

136
III.8. Restocking of poultry in farms
  • After the POP, the farms were allowed to re-stock
    by keeping sentinel birds for 21 days
  • 50 shed capacity 8000 or 10,000 brooder/grower
  • 100 - shed capacity more than above
  • 0 day - serum sample from 5 birds per shed
  • 12 day - cloacal/pharyngeal/nasal swabs. One
    pooled sample of 5 birds.
  • 21 day Serum sample from the same birds.
  • Any mortality
  • If owner does not follow restocking protocol, he
    will not be allowed to restock the birds.

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III.9. Compensation

More than Rs. 3 crore paid.
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COMPENSATION TO BE PAID FOR FORCED CULLING
  • For effective control of the disease, adequate
    compensation to poultry farmers is essential.
  • Advisable to involve District Collectors for
    minimizing the chances of misuse in disbursement
    of compensation.

139
Quarantine of RRTs and labor after active
engagement for 10 days
Issues of catering and labor wages for
Quarantine Period
140
IV. Bio Security Measures, Advice to persons
handling HPAI infected poultry etc.
141
IV.1. MEDIA BRIEFING BY OFFICIAL SPOKESPERSON
  • In order to avoid spreading panic both in terms
    of public and distress selling by poultry
    farmers, clear and precise briefing of the media
    should be made regularly by a designated official
    spokesperson of the state Govt.
  • The notification, instruction to be followed and
    information in terms of human consumption of
    poultry products should be announced through
    media
  • Unauthorized persons should be discouraged from
    voicing opinion in the media which is left to the
    experts identified by state Govt. for HPAI

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IV.2. Bio-security measures
The best way to control HPAI by preventing to
exposure to virus imposing strict bio-security
measures
  • Keep distance
  • Keep cleanliness
  • Do not let the disease enter the farm
  • Know the signs
  • Report sick bird
  • Guidelines for farm personnel

143
IV.3. PUBLIC AWARENESS
  • Awareness in the general pubic about the disease
    and its consequences should be made through
    printed mass media campaigns based on
    scientific facts figures
  • The media people should also be invited to
    awareness campaigns to report the things in the
    right perspective.

144
Campaign to reduce panic fear amongst public
145
IV.4. ADVICE ABOUT CONTACT WITH POULTRY IN AN
AREA WITH HPAI
  • People should avoid contact with chickens, ducks
    or other poultry even if the birds are thought to
    be healthy.
  • Children - no contact with poultry or any
    affected birds.
  • Avoid handling (live or dead) chickens, ducks or
    any other poultry while visiting friends or
    family
  • Avoid contact with chicken farms, duck farms or
    any farm sick birds, killed or are thought to
    have bird flu.
  • If a person comes in contact with an environment
    that has had sick/dead chickens, ducks and other
    poultry, he/she must wash hands well and monitor
    temperature for 4 days, consult a doctor.
  • If he/she develops high temperature, consult
    doctor to see if treatment is needed.

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IV.5. PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN BY ALL THOSE
INVOLVED IN THE SLAUGHTERING OF AFFECTED BIRDS
  • Cullers should be provided with appropriate PPE
    and should disinfect their hands after the
    operation.
  • All persons who have been in close contact with
    the infected animals should wash their hands
    frequently.
  • Environmental clean up should be carried out in
    areas of culling.
  • All persons exposed to infected chickens or to
    farms under suspicion should be under close
    monitoring by local health authorities.

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IV.6. RAISING POULTRY AT HOME IN AN AREA AFFECTED
WITH HPAI
  • He/she should know what to do if and when they
    are killed or die. He/she should know how to
    dispose of them and clean up the yard/pen, etc.
  • In contact with poultry, shed/pen or anything
    with faeces on it, make sure he/she is protected
    by a mask, goggles, gown, rubber boots and
    gloves. If not available, use a cloth around
    the mouth and nose, plastic bags to cover the
    hands and shoes, over-all that can be washed etc.
  • After the work remove all the protective apparel
    and wash hands, clothes and if possible the body.
    A shower is the best option. If possible wash
    clothes in hot or warm soapy water and hand them
    in the sun to dry. Discard gloves, plastic bags
    and any other disposable materials. Clean all
    reusable items such as rubber boots and glasses.

148
CONCLUSION
  • Export of eggs and DOC was totally stopped.
  • At higher temperature virus does not survive in
    the environment.
  • It is not a food borne disease.
  • Cooking of the meat and eggs will destroy the
    virus.
  • No human to human transfer.

149
Future course..
Surveillance work has to be taken up on top
priority basis --- Must continue.
150
Presented byDr.D.BiswasRegional Quarantine
Officer, AQCS, Kolkata Department of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying FisheriesGovernment of
India
Thank you
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