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Waste to Resources

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Title: Waste to Resources


1
Waste to Resources
  • Ian Harvey
  • Principal Adviser Waste Strategy
  • Environment Protection Agency
  • presented by BVC 2004

2
What is waste?
3
How much waste is there?
  • Fresh Kills - the worlds largest dumping ground,
    located in Staten Island, New York.
  • Provides disposal for five boroughs of NYC -
    receives 12,000 t/day of commercial and household
    waste ( approx 4.3mt/yr).
  • 4 square miles, over 100 feet high with 2.9
    billion cubic feet of waste.
  • Fresh Kills takes in just 0.018 of the waste
    generated in the USA daily.

4
How much waste did you say?
  • Total annual waste in the United States
    (excluding wastewater) exceeds 50 trillion pounds
    a year - thats approx 25 trillion kg/yr
  • To count to a trillion at the rate of one per
    second would require the entire life-times of
    24,000 people!!
  • (Natural Capitalism, 1999)

5
History of garbage in Australia
  • Early Aboriginal inhabitants produced little
    garbage
  • Early European settlers produced little garbage
    (materials and equipment were in short supply and
    hard to get) therefore materials were repaired,
    reused or salvaged for parts.
  • During 1800s and early 1900s people practiced
    re-use and recycling (eg no excess packaging,
    refillable containers etc)

6
History continued.
  • Until 1955 the City of Adelaide disposed of its
    garbage by incineration at Halifax Street depot.
  • Most Councils had a local tip (incl. Old
    quarries, sand pits gullies etc and waste was
    burned)
  • Located out of the way where disposal was cheap
    and health and environmental issues were not a
    priority.

7
Present day
  • Rationalisation of landfills.
  • Disposal to landfill continues to be the primary
    technology for dealing with waste.
  • Recycling and resource recovery enterprises
    struggle to gain a competitive foothold.
  • Emergence of new technologies.

8
Why do we recycle and why recover resources?
  • 4 short stories

9
The story of a can
10
Waste or a resource?
  • The can of English cola
  • bauxite - reduction mill (Al oxide waste) - ore
    carrier (overseas) - smelter - Al metal ingots -
    shipped to roller mill (Al sheet metal) - cold
    rolling mill (even thinner sheet metal) - Factory
    where metal is formed into cans
    (washed/painted/lacquered) - bottler
    (washed/filled) - packed and freighted
  • Drunk in lt 5 minutes - discarded as a waste or a
    resource worth keeping?

11
Still thinking about why?
  • Packaging that lasts 400 years to keep on a shelf
    for two months a product that we consume in two
    minutes!
  • Throwing the can away takes a second!

12
Out of sight...
  • Every product we consume has a similar hidden
    history.
  • It also has attendant waste generated by its use
    and disposition.
  • In Germany, this hidden history is called
    ecological rucksack
  • The amount of waste generated to make a
    semiconductor chip is over 100,000 times its
    weight.

13
Brain teaser!
14
Whats the ecological rucksack of a cupboard?
15
You have to ask yourself - why?
16
So why do we recycle?
  • Is there a shortage of landfills? - No
  • Is the cost of disposal too high? - not here
  • Is recycling and resource recovery
    cost-effective? - not necessarily in economic
    terms

17
Cricket Test Match, Adelaide Oval 1963.
18
Football grand final, Adelaide Oval 1973.
19
Protest against non-returnable containers,
Parliament House. Adelaide 1974.
20
Communities and landfills
  • Environmentally and socially acceptable locations
    for landfill facilities are limited.
  • Communities are less tolerant of this sort of
    development.
  • Increasing recognition and expectation for
    recycling and resource recovery.

21
Community opposition
22
(No Transcript)
23
So what has changed?
  • Community awareness
  • Increased legislation, compliance
  • cost issues - less waste more productivity
  • International competitiveness (eg ISO 14001,
    global market place EPR etc)
  • Public / community relations
  • Liability issues
  • New technologies - eg waste to energy
    composting resource recovery etc

24
The Waste Hierarchy
  • Most preferred
  • Avoidance
  • Reduction
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Recovery (eg energy)
  • Least preferred
  • Treatment
  • Disposal

25
Waste Management Hierarchy
26
Measuring waste
27
Waste to landfill-Composition-
28
B/D waste stream
  • Soil 32.4
  • Clean fill (lt150mm) 23.1
  • Clay 15.7
  • Rubble 7.7
  • Concrete 7.2
  • Rocks/bricks 6.6
  • Other 7.4
  • eg asphalt, ferrous metal, plasterboard,
    leather/textile tyres / rubber etc

29
C/I Composition and quantity
  • Food/kitchen 23.2
  • Cardboard 16.8
  • Garbags 11.5
  • Paper 8.9
  • Wood/timber 6.8
  • Soil 6.1
  • Bags/film 5.2
  • Vegetation/garden 4.3
  • Tyres/rubber 3.9
  • Other 13.1

30
The story of rocks, bricks, concrete, timber and
things...
31
(No Transcript)
32
Out of sight
33
Waste to resources
  • 500,000 - 700,000 tonnes of B/d waste recycled
    every year (concrete asphalt).
  • Materials produced - mostly road base and
    aggregates
  • fill material - eg landfill management Port
    River Expressway
  • Timber - composting fuel (waste to energy)

34
The source
  • New building construction
  • domestic residence generates approx 6 tonne of
    waste per site
  • Refurbishment of existing homes
  • demolition of existing buildings and structures

35
Construction of your home!
  • photo

36
Commercial demolition
  • photo

37
Commercial demolition
38
Barriers
  • Location issues - sites community council
  • Supply of feedstock - competition with landfill
    disposal
  • Standards and specifications
  • Consumer perception / preference
  • competition with virgin materials (eg quarried
    products - concessions / Indenture Acts etc)
  • cost eg de-construction vs knockdown

39
Opportunities
  • Greater market share due to green preferences
    eg tenders that specify recycled product
    content
  • blended products
  • Virgin resource availability - diminishing
    natural capital
  • Improved product range and specifications

40
The story of organic waste
41
What is it?
  • Municipal
  • Garden waste (kerbside and council)
  • Non-municipal
  • Commercial green waste
  • Commercial food / kitchen waste (23)
  • Biosolids (or sewage sludge)
  • Farm wastes / intensive agriculture
  • Wool scourings
  • Other (eg grain dust fish wastes etc)

42
How much is there?
  • Total quantity of recyclable organics generated
    is 244,000 t/yr.
  • Refers only to organic waste from parks, yards,
    road reserves and gardens.
  • Total quantity of organics recycled in Adelaide
    (from municipal an non-municipal sources) is
    approx 93,000 t/yr (38).
  • The total quantity of recyclable organics
    disposed to landfill is 151,000 t/yr (62).

43
B 1 and B 2 (and 3, 4)
44
Exercise Ecological rucksack of a lettuce!
45
From waste to resources
  • compost
  • mulch
  • soil conditioner
  • Horticulture viticulture domestic sales
  • Conserve landfill space

46
Barriers
  • Location sites community council
  • Low technology - environmental impacts
  • odour dust leachates gases
  • standards and specifications
  • contamination (plastics metals - needles etc)
  • health issues (eg Legionella)
  • competition with chemical fertilisers
  • uncertainty of supply

47
Opportunities
  • Agricultural practices
  • the Green revolution - organic farming
  • nurseries, orchards, market gardens, cut flowers,
    mushroom growers, viticulture, forestry
  • Water conservation / retention applications
  • Waste to energy (grape marc animal wastes)
  • bio-fuels (syngas organic residue)
  • Rehabilitation - eg quarry site landfills etc

48
The man of steel!
49
The story of metal
  • Ferrous metals recycling
  • South Australia (not including internal re-use),
    175,000 tonnes
  • Adelaide metro, 122,500 tonnes
  • Commercial / Industrial 61,000 tonnes
  • Little data available for non-ferrous metals, -
    estimated at 30,000 tonnes
  • (source Business SA)

50
Waste to resources
51
Collection
52
Dont transport air!
53
Simsmetal - Adelaide
54
Simsmetal shredder - Adelaide
55
Flock
56
Lets focus on vehicles
  • Australia 12 million vehicles registered
  • attrition rate of 573,000 vehicles annually
  • South Australia - 1 million vehicles
  • 45,000 vehicles retired annually
  • average vehicle life in SA of 10 - 12 years

57
In Europe
  • Europe
  • 160 million registered vehicles
  • 14 million deregistered annually
  • 12 million shredded annually
  • The Directive 2000/53/EC of the European
    Parliament and of the Council of 18 September
    2000 on end-of life vehicles

58
The Directive
  • 2002 incorporate into legislation
  • 2003 no hazardous substances
  • 2006 - minimum 85 for reuse and recovery,
    minimum 80 for reuse and recycling
  • 2015 - minimum 95 reuse and recovery, minimum
    85 for reuse and recycling

59
In Australia
  • metal
  • plastic bumpers (Holden)
  • lead acid batteries
  • waste lubricating oil
  • tyres
  • No specific legislation dealing with end of life
    vehiclesyet!

60
What can Government do?
  • Proposed new waste policy
  • To shift waste management from waste disposal to
    resource recovery, effectively leading to zero
    waste going to landfill.
  • ZERO WASTE - a journey rather than a destination

61
What should the policy do?
  • Economic measures - to discourage and encourage.
  • Bans to landfill
  • Measures to increase product stewardship cleaner
    production polluter pays, etc

62
The Bottom line
  • ...is that while recycling and resource recovery
    is not always profitable for businesses in the
    short term, it is nonetheless a valid response to
    a long-term environmental problem, which cannot
    be reduced to narrowly economic terms.

63
Conclusion continued
  • The identification of broader environmental
    objectives does not mean, however, that recycling
    or resource recovery programs are detached from
    the economy or can afford to ignore questions of
    cost-effectiveness and efficiency.
  • However

64
Conclusion continued
  • It is important to keep trying to improve the
    bottom line results of recycling programs and
    equally important to remember that the ultimate
    measure of success for resource recovery and
    recycling will not always be found on a balance
    sheet.
  • Ultimately, sustainability is about achieving
    quality of life for all within the means of
    nature.

65
What to remember
  • The Waste Hierarchy
  • The story of a can of cola
  • Sustainability will not always appear on the
    positive side of the ledgerbut it should not
    necessarily be be perceived through a monetary
    lens!!

66
Questions?
  • Thanks
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