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Illinois Wetland Ecosystems

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Mudflat annual communities made up of smartweeds, grasses ... Ethylene and Aerenchyma. Root Porosity and Rhizosphere. Water Lily Adaptations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Illinois Wetland Ecosystems


1
Illinois Wetland Ecosystems
2
Prairie Pothole Wetlands
3
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4
Wetland Plant Types
5
Prairie Wetland Plant Communities
  • Wet meadows, composed of sedges, forbs, and
    grasses
  • Mudflat annual communities made up of smartweeds,
    grasses
  • Emergent communities (plants with roots growing
    underwater or in water logged soil, while the
    rest of plant emerges from water into air) - made
    up of cattails, bulrushes, reeds, bur reeds
  • Floating leaved communities which feature species
    such as water-lilies
  • Free-floating communities made up of duckweeds
    and watermeals
  • Submersed communities made up of pondweeds,
    coontails, naiads, and bladderworts

6
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7
Dry Marsh
  • Dry marsh (also called drawdown phase) - this
    develops during years of low water caused by
    below-normal precipitation when all or a large
    part of the marsh may be nearly dry or at least
    has no standing water
  • Mudflat annuals and emergent species are the
    dominant plants

8
Dry Marsh
9
Regenerating Marsh
  • Regenerating marsh - when normal precipitation
    resumes, standing water returns, allowing
    germination of submersed and free-floating plants
  • The regenerating marsh is characterized by an
    extensive cover of emergent species with
    submersed as an understorey

10
Regenerating Marsh
11
Regenerating Marsh
12
Degenerating Marsh
  • Degenerating marsh - during this phase there is a
    decline in the populations of emergents due to a
    variety of interrelated factors which may include
    anoxia, damage from insects, disease and muskrats
  • This stage has anywhere from a 2575 to 7525
    ratio of emergent vegetation to open water and
    this is the phase with greatest wildlife
    diversity and density

13
Muskrats and Damage
14
Muskrats and Damage
15
Lake Marsh
  • Lake marsh or "eat out" phase is dominated by
    submerged plants like coontails, naiads,
    pondweeds, bladderworts and floating aquatic
    plants like duckweed - the few remaining emergent
    plants may nearly disappear
  • the lake marsh phase continues until the next
    drought lowers the water level (which usually
    occurs on a 5 to 30 year cycle) and returns the
    marsh to the dry marsh state, starting the cycle
    over again

16
Lake Marsh
17
Lake Marsh
18
Stresses of Wetland Environments
  • Wetland environments are characterized by several
    environmental stresses that most organisms are
    ill equipped to handle - Aquatic organisms are
    not adapted to deal with the periodic drying out
    that occurs in many wetlands
  • Terrestrial organisms are stressed by long
    periods of flooding
  • Because of the shallow water, temperature
    extremes on the wetland surface are greater than
    normally experienced in aquatic environments

19
Stresses of Wetland Environments
  • But the most severe stress is probably the
    absence of oxygen in flooded wetland soils, which
    prevents organisms from respiring through normal
    metabolic pathways - in the absence of oxygen,
    the supply of nutrients available to plants is
    also modified and concentrations of certain
    elements (iron, sulfur) and organic compounds can
    reach toxic levels
  • In coastal wetlands, salt is an additional stress
    to which organisms must respond

20
Adaptations to Stress
  • Adaptations can be broadly classified as those
    that enable the organism to tolerate the stress
    and those that enable it to regulate the stress
  • Tolerators have functional modifications that
    enable them to survive, and often to function
    efficiently, in the presence of stress
  • Regulators actively avoid the stress or modify it
    to minimize its effects

21
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22
Aerenchyma air spaces in root tissues
23
Ethylene and Aerenchyma
24
Root Porosity and Rhizosphere
25
Water Lily Adaptations
26
Water Lily Adaptations
27
Red mangrove with prop roots
28
Black mangrove with pneumatophores
29
Pneumatophores
30
Bald cypress knees
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