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Earth Science at NASA: Opportunities, Challenges, and Accomplishments Presentation to ESIP Federatio

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High profile issues attract attention (e.g., TRMM) ... Aquarius - Sea Surface Salinity (with Argentina) Hydros backup mission possibility ended ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Earth Science at NASA: Opportunities, Challenges, and Accomplishments Presentation to ESIP Federatio


1
Earth Science at NASA Opportunities, Challenges,
and AccomplishmentsPresentation to ESIP
FederationJanuary 4 , 2006
  • Jack A. Kaye, Ph.D.
  • Director Research Analysis Program
  • Earth-Sun System Division

2
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

3
(No Transcript)
4
National Goals for Space Exploration
ADVANCE U.S. SCIENTIFIC, SECURITY, AND ECONOMIC
INTERESTS THROUGH A ROBUST SPACE EXPLORATION
PROGRAM
Implement a sustained and affordable human and
robotic program to explore the solar system and
beyond. Extend human presence across the solar
system, starting with a human return to the Moon
by the year 2020, in preparation for human
exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develo
p the innovative technologies, knowledge, and
infrastructures both to explore and to support
decisions about the destinations for human
exploration. Promote international and commercial
participation in exploration to further U.S.
scientific, security, and economic
interests. Study the Earth system from space and
develop new space-based and related capabilities
for this purpose.
Added in The New Age of Exploration to
address other Presidential initiatives and
directives not covered in the Vision for Space
Exploration
5
Office of the Administrator Administrator Deputy
Administrator Associate Administrator
Office of the Chief of SMA
Office of the Chief Engineer
Chief of Staff
Inspector General
White House Liaison
Prog Analysis Evaluation
Aerospace Safety Advisory Council
NASA Advisory Council
Mission Directorates
Mission Support Offices
Centers
Ames Research Center Dryden Flight Research
Center Glenn Research Center Goddard Space Flight
Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Johnson Space
Flight Center Kennedy Space Center Langley
Research Center Marshall Space Flight Center
Exploration Systems Space Operations Science Aeron
autics Research
General Counsel
Chief Financial Officer
Chief Information Officer
Innovative Partnership Program
Chief Medical Officer
Strategic Communications
Education Public Affairs Legislative
Affairs External Affairs
Ofc of Institutions Management
NASA Shared Services Institutional Planning and
Investments Office of infrastructure
Administration Office of Human Capital Management
Office of Diversity Equal Opportunity Office
of Security and Program Protection Office of
Procurement Office of Small Disadvantaged
Business Utilization
V3
6
NASA Earth Science Research is Part of an
End-to-End Program of Science for Society
7
With the Launch of Aura, the 1st Series of EOS is
Now Complete
8
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

9
NSTC Structure
National Science and Technology Council
ScienceCommittee
Environment NaturalResources Committee
Homeland NationalSecurity Committee
TechnologyCommittee
Air Quality ResearchSubcommittee
Subcommittee on Global Change Research
Interagency Working Group onEndocrine Disruptors
Ecological SystemsSubcommittee
Toxics Risk AssessmentSubcommittee
Biodiversity and EcosystemInformatics Working
Group
Interagency Working Group onMercury
Subcommittee onDisasterReduction
Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and
Technology (also reports to Committee on Science)
Subcommittee onWater Availability Quality
Interagency Working Group onEarth Observations
(IWGEO)
Subcommittee on Healthand the Environment(also
reports to Committee on Science and Commission
onHomeland and National Security
10
(No Transcript)
11
OAP Ocean Governance Structure.

12
U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS)
Near Term Opportunities
  • Data Management System for Earth Observations
  • Improved Observations for Disaster Warnings
  • Global Land Observation System
  • Sea Level Observation System
  • National Integrated Drought Information System
  • Air Quality Assessment and Forecast System

13
Research - Operations Transition
  • Have significant interest (sponsor/stakeholder)
    in Research to Operations Transition
  • NRC referred to the Valley of Death
  • Identified by agencies as a challenge
  • High profile issues attract attention (e.g.,
    TRMM)
  • Structures in place helping on some aspects
    (e.g., Joint Center for Satellite Data
    Assimilation, SPoRT)
  • Need to be able to deal with both weather and
    climate issues
  • Note this is tied in with NPOESS for many
    observations
  • NASA-NOAA working group spun up to work this
  • Congressional language (NASA 2006 Authorization
    Bill) has requirements in this area

14
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

15
Science Program Summary Proposed FY06 Budget
Budget Authority in Millions
16
Future Budget Outlook
  • Statement in Letter from NASA Administrator to
    OMB Director
  • Having weighed various options, NASAs preferred
    approach to the FY 207 budget, within current
    top-line constraints, is to hold NASAs Science
    budget fixed at FY 2006 levels for the next five
    years in order to allow for continued assembly of
    the International Space Station with the Space
    Shuttle until its retirement in 2010, and to
    provide the funds needed to develop the Crew
    Exploration Vehicle and launch systems by 2012.

17
FY06 Budget Bill
  • Conference Report made some revisions to
    Administrations request for NASA Earth Science
    FY06 Funding
  • Add 30M for Glory mission (was instrument
    build only)
  • Add 15M for Earth Science applications program
    for competitively selected projects
  • Earth Science will be impacted by a number of
    changes to Science, Aeronautics, and Technology
    account, including
  • 90M general reduction
  • 26M reduction in corporate GA
  • Large number of items of Congressional direction

18
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

19
Strategy Development
  • NASA Strategic Roadmaps (Winter-Spring, 2005)
  • Completion Accelerated Use Different from
    originally anticipated
  • NRC Decadal Survey
  • Interim Report
  • Forthcoming Final Report (late fall, 2006)
  • Reconstitution of Advisory Committee Structure
  • Creation of Working Groups
  • Foundation Roadmapping

20
NRC Decadal Survey
  • At request of NASA and NOAA, NRC is carrying out
    decadal survey under title Earth Science and
    Applications from Space A Community Assessment
    and Strategy for the Future
  • The Space Studies Board, in consultation with
    other units of the NRC, will lead a study to
    generate consensus recommendations from the Earth
    and environmental science and applications
    community regarding a systems approach to
    space-based and ancillary observations that
    encompasses the research programs of NASA and the
    related operational programs of NOAA. Note
    USGS added
  • Key goals of study
  • Articulate priorities for Earth system science
    and the space-based observational approaches to
    address those priorities.
  • Establish individual plans and priorities within
    the sub-disciplines of the Earth sciences as well
    as an integrated vision and plan for the Earth
    sciences as a whole.
  • Schedule
  • Phase 1 short report -- released Spring 2005
  • Phase 2 complete report -- Late 2006

21
NRC Decadal Survey, cont.
  • Report made strong case for importance of NASA
    Earth science to nation and quality of program
  • Report called attention to cancellation, delays,
    and uncertainty in program, especially in
    relation to major missions (e.g., GIFTS, Glory,
    NPP, OSTM, LDCM, OVWM), and need for opportunity
    for future missions
  • Report noted importance of technology investments
    in key areas (Wind Lidar, Wide Swath Altimetry,
    InSAR)
  • Report emphasized importance of vigorous research
    and analysis program
  • Subsequent Discussions emphasize need for
    articulating societal drivers for scientific
    research
  • Structure of report reflects this emphasis

22
NRC Decadal Survey, cont
  • Table 3.1 Canceled, Descoped, or Delayed Earth
    Observation Missions
  • Mission Measurement Societal Benefit Status
  • Global Precipitation Precipitation Reduced
    vulnerability to floods and Delayed
  • Measurement (GPM) droughts improved capability
    to
  • manage water resources in arid
  • regions improved forecasts of
  • hurricanes
  • Atmospheric Soundings Temperature and Protection
    of life and property Canceled
  • From Geostationary Orbit water vapor through
    improved weather forecasts
  • (GIFTS - Geostationary and severe storm
    warning
  • Imaging Fourier
  • Transform Spectrometer) Wind speed and Improved
    severe weather warnings Canceled
  • Ocean Vector Winds direction near the to ships at
    sea improved crop
  • (active scatterometer ocean surface planning and
    yields through better
  • Follow-on to QuikSCAT) predictions of El Niño
  • Landsat Data Continuity- Land cover Monitoring
    of deforestation Canceled
  • Bridge mission (to fill gap identification of
    mineral resources
  • Between Landsat-7 and tracking of the
    conversion of
  • NPOESS) agricultural land to other uses

23
Reconstituting Advisory Committee Structure
  • Historical Earth Science and Applications
    Advisory Committee (ESSAAC) was to be merged with
    Sun-Earth Connection Advisory Subcommittee
    (SECAS) into a single Earth-Sun System
    Subcommittee (ES3) joint meetings held
  • NASA Advisory Council (NAC) expired and
    subcommittees expired with them
  • Agency is in process of reconstituting NAC and
    likely having five subcommittees (4 divisions
    assuming Earth and Sun split, plus 1 for
    planetary protection)
  • Process is underway to identify candidates for an
    Earth Science Subcommittee (ESS)
  • Most likely establish working groups under ESS
    led by members - like space science MOWGs,
    organized around focus areas

24
Foundation Roadmapping
  • Earth Science looking to follow lead from Space
    Science and develop foundation roadmaps
  • These are far-looking plans, with special focus
    on identifying candidate space missions, with
    some engineering analysis done to help scope out
  • For earth science, a particular challenge is to
    understand how to balance scope of missions -
  • Large, multi-goal missions/instruments (e.g.,
    Terra, Aqua)
  • Small, focused missions (e.g., ESSPs)
  • Community involvement is needed typically would
    report through advisory subcommittee
  • Scope would go beyond NRC Decadal Survey and be
    specific to NASA

25
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

26
Program Content and Related Issues
  • Evolution and Associated Issues in Flight Program
  • Suborbital Science
  • EOSDIS Evolution
  • Computing, Modeling, and Data Assimilation
  • Implementation Activities

27
Program Content and Related Issues
  • Evolution and Associated Issues in Flight Program
  • First Series EOS spacecraft complete with launch
    of Aura (7/04)
  • Senior Review held to deal with extended
    operations for missions beyond primary lifetime
    and subsequent terminations
  • Cloudsat/CALIPSO launch delayed - NET 2/06
  • 2 more ESSP missions successfully completed
    mission confirmation review
  • OCO - carbon dioxide column
  • Aquarius - Sea Surface Salinity (with Argentina)
  • Hydros backup mission possibility ended
  • Glory mission passed confirmation review
  • NPOESS - NPP delays (min., 18 months, poss. 30)
    risk discontinuity with Aqua (note move to PM),
    further delays to C1, with major programmatic
    uncertainty (e.g., Nunn-McCurdy threshold being
    met)
  • Landsat - EOP reversed decision (12/23/05) to fly
    on NPOESS and directed free flyer, but note risk
    to continuity

28
Earth Science Senior Review
  • Earth Science followed Space Science process of
    having senior review for looking at mission
    extension for operating missions
  • First one considered 12 missions that would be
    beyond prime phase in FY06-07
  • Results rank-ordered largely in 3 groups
  • Highest - Terra, GRACE, Jason
  • Middle - QuikScat, ACRIM, TRMM, GPS
    Constellation, TOMS, GRACE
  • Lowest - ERBS, SAGE III, UARS
  • Try to accommodate requested funding profiles for
    all but lowest category
  • UARS and ERBS terminated
  • Reduce scope of SAGE III science effort
  • Repeat process every 2 years
  • Alternate with review process for data products

29
Transition from Research to Operations
Imaging and Sounding
SeaWiFS
NPOESS
Terra
Aqua
NPP
Solar Irradiance, Ozone, and Aerosols
In operation
ACRIMsat
SORCE
Glory
NPOESS
Under Development
TOMS
AURA
NPOESS
Observation
In Formulation
Tech Development
Atmospheric Constituent Profiles
UARS
AURA
TBD
Completing instrument - flight opportunity, if
any, TBD
Ocean Surface Topography
Jason
OSTM
NOAA/EUMETSAT
Land Cover/Land Use Change
In work
Landsat 7
LDCM
GIFTS
GOES-R
Tech
Tropo Winds
TBD
Data Assim
Short-term Prediction Research and Transition
Center
NWS
NASA NOAA jointly funding NRC studies on
improving transition
30
Sub-Orbital Science
  • In past, budget process led to reduction of
    funds for sub-orbital science, with emphasis on
    accelerating incorporation of UAVs into earth
    science program
  • UAV science campaigns had limited impact
  • Partnership with Aeronautics Mission Directorate
    on UAVs is being reviewed in context of their
    changes
  • DC-8 has been transferred to U. North Dakota for
    operation
  • Planned grounding of ER-2s deferred, but
    resource base limited
  • Note use of ER-2 in TCSP (summer, 2005) and
    plans for 2007
  • Recent investment in WB-57 upgrades
  • Gets significant use, esp. for Aura/planned
    A-train studies
  • Instruments and Platforms used in Katrina
    response

31
Evolution of EOSDIS Elements - Vision for 2015
  • NASAs research communities have access to all
    EOS data through services at least as rich as any
    contemporary science information system, for
    example
  • Data access latency is no longer an impediment
  • The physical location of data storage is
    irrelevant
  • Finding data is based on common search engines
    (e.g., Google2015)
  • Services are primarily invoked by
    machine-to-machine interfaces
  • Multiple data and metadata streams can be
    seamlessly combined
  • Custom processing (e.g., subsetting, averaging,
    reprojection) provides only the data needed, the
    way they are needed
  • Best practice standard interfaces and protocols
    are universally employed
  • The research and value-added provider
    communities use EOS data interoperably with any
    other relevant data sources (e.g., NPOESS, METOP,
    GPM, numerical models, in situ systems) and
    systems (e.g., Global Earth Observation System of
    Systems).
  • The EOS archive holdings are regularly peer
    reviewed for scientific merit
  • Procedures for such reviews have been developed
    and tested over a decade
  • Derived products that are not deemed
    scientifically useful are phased out.

32
Computing
  • NASA is capitalizing on its recent investment in
    Project Columbia at Ames Research Center
  • NASA did solicitation of computing opportunities
    and allocated time on that basis
  • NASA now looking to better integrate
    availability of computing resources into proposal
    evaluation process
  • NASA considering longer-term approach to
    computing - both for high end research (ARC) and
    production (GSFC)
  • Resource requirements to keep NASA at frontier
    of computing capability are significant - and
    continuing

33
Integrating Earth Science in Directorate NRA
  • ROSES has numerous elements, with opening dates
    throughout the year, organized by division
    (Earth-Sun integrated)
  • Appendix  Science Program Element   NOI/Step-1
    Due  Proposal Due
  • A.2 Land Cover/Land Use Change 4/28/2005 
    8/1/2005 
  • A.3 Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment
    in Amazônia 3/10/2005 4/26/2005
  • A.4Terrestrial Ecology and Biodiversity
    7/19/2005 9/12/2005
  • A.5 Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry
    5/2/2005 7/1/2005
  • A.6 North American Carbon Program 10/14/2005 12
    /15/2005
  • A.7 Remote Sensing Science for Carbon and Climate
    6/3/2005 8/3/2005
  • A.8 Ocean Vector Winds Science Team 4/1/2005 6/
    1/2005
  • A.9 Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite
    (ICESat) and Cryosat 3/25/2005 5/25/2005
  • A.10CloudSat and CALIPSO Science Team 5/2/2005
    7/1/2005
  • A.11 NASA Energy and Water Cycle
    Study 10/5/2005 11/16/2005
  • A.12 Terrestrial Hydrology 11/9/2005 1/18/2006
  • A.14 Atmospheric Composition 4/29/2005 6/15/200
    5
  • A.15 Earth Surface and Interior 5/27/2005 7/27/
    2005
  • A.16 Solar and Heliospheric Physics 12/9/2005 2
    /10/2006
  • A.17 Geospace Science 5/20/2005 7/22/2005
  • A.21Living with a Star Targeted Research and
    Technology 7/8/2005 9/9/2005
  • A.24 Decision Support through Earth-Sun Science
    Res. Results 7/20/2005 11/22/2005

34
Selection Statistics for From FY04 NRAs
  • Participation in Research Program Involves
    Significant Institutional Mix
  • Distribution of PIs from 2004 Earth Science
    Research Opportunities
  • Rec Sel. NASA Univ. OG P/NP
  • Carbon Cycle Science  301 59 8 37 5
    2
  • Earth System Sci. Fellowships 209 57 0 55 0
    2
  • Oceans and Ice  293 53 23 18 3
    8
  • Tropical Cloud Systems and
  • Processes  105 25 9 11 5
    0
  • NASA Energy and Water Cycle 101
    33 9 19 1 4
  • Integrated Solutions for K-16
  • and Informal Educ. 147
    31 4 26 0
    3
  • Earth Science Outreach
  • Investigator Awards   24 2 0 0 0
    2
  • Modeling, Analysis and Prediction -
  • Climate Variability and Change  225 65 27
    31 5 2
  • Instrument Incubator Program  82 23 15 6 0
    3
  • Decision Support CAN -
  • Applied Sciences 172 34 6 13 8 7

35
Overview of Talk
  • NASA Strategy and Organization and Earth Science
    Program Content
  • NASA Earth Science Connections
  • Budget Update
  • Strategy Development
  • Program Evolution and Issues
  • Summary

36
Summary
  • NASAs Earth Science program has a critical role
    in implementing three major Presidential
    directives in addition to the VSE
  • Climate Change Research via CCSP
  • Global Earth Observation via IEOS GEOSS
  • Ocean Action Plan
  • NASAs commitment to climate research and CCSP
    remains strong in the midst of its other
    priorities in this challenging budget environment
  • Implementation of program is being carried out in
    evolutionary way, including adopting best
    practices from former Space Science
  • While Agency and Inter-agency planning efforts
    continue (as they must), we eagerly await the
    final report of the NRC Decadal Survey for
    community guidance on scientific and observing
    priorities
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