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Intro to Information Technology

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... Apple II, the first computer to have color graphics. The Apple II ... Xerox Alto the first graphical user interface, went on to influence Apple and Microsoft ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intro to Information Technology


1
Intro to Information Technology
  • Wednesday, September 18th
  • Chapter 11 Computer Hardware
  • Sites of Interest
  • www.ebay.com
  • www.microsoft.com
  • www.pcwebopaedia.com

2
Objectives
  • Identify the major types, trends, and uses of
    microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe computer
    systems.
  • Outline the major technologies and uses of
    computer peripherals for input, output, and
    storage.
  • Identify and give examples of the components and
    functions of a computer system.
  • Identify the computer systems and peripherals you
    would acquire or recommend for a business of your
    choice, and explain the reasons for your
    selections

3
History of Computers
4
The 1970s
  • 1971 Intel makes the first microprocessor at a
    speed of 108 kHz
  • The UNIX operating system was written in the new
    language, C
  • One of the first personal computers, the Altair,
    came in a kit and you had to build it yourself
  • 1976 The Cray-1, the worlds fastest
    supercomputer
  • 1977 The debut of the Apple II, the first
    computer to have color graphics

5
The 1970s continued…
  • 1977 The debut of the Apple II, the first
    computer to have color graphics
  • The Apple II had 4 KB of RAM and cost 1298
  • The Commodore PET began the line of lost cost
    Commodore PCs
  • The VAX architecture was introduced in 1977 and
    cost 200000
  • VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program was
    created for the Apple II and it was the father of
    all productivity software

6
The 1980s
  • 1982 IBM launched its first PC, powered by DOS,
    written by a tiny company named Microsoft
  • Xerox Alto the first graphical user interface,
    went on to influence Apple and Microsoft
  • 1982 Commodore 64 brought affordable personal
    computing to the masses
  • 1984 The Apple McIntosh
  • 1984 WordPerfect the first word processor

7
The 1980s continued
  • 1985 The first multimedia computer, the
    Commodore Amiga
  • 1986 - The Intel 80386 Processor, the first 32
    bit processor
  • The C programming language
  • The Apple McIntosh II the first color graphics
    McIntosh computer
  • The birth of 3D graphics

8
The 1990s
  • Microsoft Windows 3 made PCs as easy to use as
    Apple McIntosh
  • Apple sues Microsoft over the similarity of the
    graphical user interface
  • AMD 386 first processor not built by Intel
  • Virtual Reality

9
The 1990s continued
  • 1992 Linux is created
  • 1993 The Intel Pentium processor
  • The World Wide Web
  • Windows 95 was introduced after 18 months of
    marketing
  • E- Business and E-Commerce

10
Computer System Categories
  • Microcomputers
  • Midrange Computers
  • Mainframe Computers

11
Microcomputers
  • The most important category for business people
    and consumers
  • Usually referred to as a personal computer (PC)
  • Types are handheld, notebook, laptop, desktop,
    etc
  • Microcomputers can perform tasks such as complex
    mathematical calculations, graphical applications
    such as computer-aided design, etc

12
Microcomputers
  • Network computers
  • Thin client means a minimum of programs and
    processing occur on the machine itself
  • Software, data storage, and operating system are
    provided by the Internet and accessed through a
    browser
  • Usually does not have a local hard drive

13
Microcomputers
  • Information Appliances
  • PDAs Personal Digital Assistant
  • These have touch screens, use a stylus for
    handwriting recognition, and are usually very
    small (hand-held)
  • Other appliances exist such as WebTV which allows
    you to surf the net from your TV

14
Microcomputers
  • Computer Terminals
  • Can be dumb (limited processing) or intelligent
    (more processing)
  • Intelligent terminals are found in areas such as
    transaction terminals, found in banks, stores,
    factories, etc
  • Capture data on terminal, and data is managed and
    processed by servers or other computers on the
    network

15
Midrange Computers
  • Multi-user systems that can manage networks of
    PCs and terminals
  • They are less powerful than mainframes, but more
    affordable
  • Used for such tasks as network management, data
    warehouse management, and assisting mainframes
    with telecommunications, etc

16
Mainframe Computers
  • Large, fast, powerful
  • Large storage capacities
  • Used to handle processing needs for major
    corporations and government agencies
  • Used for scientific calculations
  • Supercomputers can have more than one processor

17
Parts of a Computer
  • Processing
  • Input
  • Output
  • Memory
  • Data Storage

18
A Computer System
19
Processing
  • The heart of the computer is the Central
    Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Two main divisions
  • Control Unit Interprets instructions and
    directs processing
  • Arithmetic-Logic Unit Performs arithmetic
    operations and performs comparisons
  • Also includes circuitry for registers and cache
    memory for high speed, temporary storage

20
Processing
  • The clock
  • This is what controls the processing in the CPU
    and at what speed it runs
  • With every clock tick, the CPU executes an action
  • Speed
  • Usually expressed in cycles per second, or hertz.
  • Todays computers have speeds expressed in
    megahertz (MHz), a million cycles per second, or
    gigahertz (GHz), a billion cycles per second

21
Processing
  • Buses
  • Circuitry paths that interconnect microprocessor
    components for movement of data and instructions
  • ISA Bus
  • Industry Standard Architecture
  • PCI Bus
  • Peripheral Component Interconnect
  • Used to connect peripheral devices

22
Processing
  • USB
  • for Universal Serial Bus, an external bus
    standard that supports data transfer rates of 480
    Mbps (480 million bits per second). A single USB
    port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral
    devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards
  • AGP
  • for Accelerated Graphics Port, a new interface is
    based on PCI, but is designed especially for the
    throughput demands of 3-D graphics
  • Definitions from www.pcwebopaedia.com

23
Processing
  • Since CPUs generate a lot of heat, a cooling
    mechanism is needed
  • A metal heat sink is placed over the processor.
    It draws the heat out into its spikes
  • A fan on the heat sink blows the hot air away
    from the processor

24
Input
  • Keyboards
  • Can easily type in instructions
  • Mouse
  • Enables the user to point and click
  • Works with a graphical user interface for easy
    navigation
  • Trackball
  • Similar to a mouse, but you move the ball
  • Touchpad
  • Move your finger on the pad to move the cursor

25
Processing
  • Popular types of processors
  • Intel
  • Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV
  • Celeron
  • AMD
  • Athalon
  • Duron

26
Input
  • Touch screen
  • Users touch the screen to move the cursor or to
    make selections
  • Pen-based computing
  • Many hand-held devices use small pens to draw on
    the screen, or a designated area.
  • Speech Recognition
  • Users speak to a computer and it interprets their
    commands

27
Input
  • Optical Scanning
  • Read text or graphics and convert them into
    digital input for the computer
  • Reflected light patterns of the data are
    converted into electronic impulses that are
    accepted as input
  • OCR or optical character recognition can be used
    to read codes or characters such as UPC codes

28
Input
  • Magnetic Stripe
  • Iron oxide coating holds up to 200 bytes of
    information
  • Digital Cameras
  • Can take pictures and load them on to your
    computer
  • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
  • Used on cheques for banks to sort and process
    cheques

29
Input
  • Serial Ports
  • This is how keyboards and some older mice connect
    with the computer
  • Only 1 bit of information is transmitted at a
    time
  • PS/2 Ports
  • Mice or keyboards connect to computers with this
    type of port
  • Developed to free up a computers serial port
  • Most new devices use USB ports because of their
    high speeds of data transfer and one port can
    connect up to 127 devices

30
Output
  • Video
  • Video monitors use CRT (Cathode Ray Technology)
    similar to TVs
  • Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are usually used
    for portable computers
  • LCD gives a flat screen with bright colours and
    clarity
  • LCD displays need less electric current and have
    a thin, flat display

31
Output
  • Video continued…
  • The quality of the video display can depend on
    the type of video card that is used
  • Video cards can be plugged into either a PCI or
    AGP bus
  • They have their own storage, now usually between
    16 and 32 MB
  • Resolution settings also depend on the video card
  • Most common resolution on a 15 monitor is
    800X600, which is the screen size measured in
    pixels

32
Output
  • Printers
  • Dot Matrix
  • Old style of printers than printed across the
    page one line at a time
  • Very slow printing
  • Inkjet
  • Spray ink on to a page one line at a time
  • Popular, low cost personal printers
  • Good quality and fairly quick printing

33
Output
  • Printers continued…
  • Laser
  • Use an electrostatic process similar to a
    photocopier
  • Fast, high quality output in black and white
  • Colour is very expensive
  • Popular for businesses
  • Popular printer brands include HP, Canon,
    Lexmark, and Epson

34
Output
  • Printers were traditionally connected to the
    computer by a parallel port
  • Parallel ports have 25 pins and transmit more
    than one bit per second (unlike serial ports)
  • Now many printers connect through the USB bus

35
Memory
  • Sizes of memory
  • One Bit one character, either a one or a zero.
  • This is the simplest information that a computer
    can process
  • Binary expresses data in terms of a sequence of
    1s and 0s
  • 1s and 0s correspond to On/Off, True/False, 5
    volts/0 volts

36
Memory
  • Sizes of memory continued…
  • A byte is 8 bits
  • A nibble is 4 bits
  • A KB, or kilobyte, is 1024 bytes
  • A MB, or megabyte, is 1024 kilobytes
  • A GB, or gigabyte, is 1024 megabytes

37
Memory
  • RAM Read Only Memory
  • This can also be referred to as direct memory
  • Each storage position
  • Has an unique address
  • Can be individually accessed in the same amount
    of time without having to search through other
    storage positions
  • Is used for data that needs to be retrieved
    quickly
  • Is used during the running of applications
  • Storage capacity is expressed in MB (megabytes)

38
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39
Memory
  • Primary storage (main memory) of a computer
    consists of semiconductor memory chips
  • Semiconductor memory has a small size, great
    speed, and shock and temperature resistance
  • Provides working storage for your applications
  • One disadvantage is that is requires a constant
    supply of uninterrupted electrical power

40
Memory
  • RAM continued…
  • Usually machines today come with between 128 and
    256 MB of RAM
  • RAM is an important factor in how fast your
    computer runs applications
  • More RAM is needed for applications that need a
    lot of temporary storage, such a photo-processing
    applications, and 3D games
  • RAM is volatile i.e. the contents are lost as
    soon as power to the memory is interrupted

41
Memory
  • ROM Read Only Memory
  • This memory can only be read, not erased or
    overwritten
  • Control instructions and low level programs can
    be burned into this memory during manufacture
  • This is also known as firmware
  • This memory is non-volatile i.e. it doesnt
    require power to keep the contents in memory

42
Memory
  • L2 Cache
  • As discussed earlier, the processor has a small
    amount of storage right on the chip
  • A Level 2 Cache is memory external to the
    processor, it is stored on a chip outside the
    processor
  • Now manufacturers are starting to build L2 caches
    right on the chip

43
Data Storage
  • Need to backup contents of main memory so
    information is not lost when the power is shut
    off
  • These devices and technologies are known as
    secondary storage
  • Three common types are
  • Magnetic disks
  • Magnetic tape
  • Optical disks

44
Data Storage
  • Magnetic disks
  • Fast access and high storage capacity for a
    reasonable cost
  • Magnetic disk drives contain metal disks that are
    coated on both sides with a iron oxide recording
    material
  • These disks are mounted on a vertical shaft that
    rotates them at speeds of between 3600 7600 rpm

45
Data Storage
  • Magnetic disks continued
  • Electromagnetic read/write heads are positioned
    on arms between the disks to read and write data
    in concentric circles
  • Data is recorded as tiny magnetized spots to form
    binary digits that the computer can read
  • Disks have billions of storage positions

46
Data Storage
  • Magnetic Disks continued…
  • Floppy disks
  • Polyester film disks coated with iron oxide
  • Rotates inside a plastic jacket
  • Most common floppy disk is the 3 ½ inch disk than
    can hold 1.44 MB of data

47
Data Storage
  • Magnetic Disks continued…
  • Hard Disk
  • Combine magnetic disks, access arms, and
    read/write heads in a sealed module
  • This allows higher speeds, greater data recording
    densities, and closer tolerances
  • Hard drives can usually store up to many
    gigabytes of data
  • Hard drives are where the operating system and
    applications are permanently stored

48
Data Storage
  • Magnetic Disks continued…
  • RAID Redundant arrays of independent disks
  • Replace large capacity mainframe disk drives
  • Many interconnected microcomputer hard disk
    drives provide large capacities with high access
    speeds since data is accessed in parallel
  • If one disk fails, data can be recovered from one
    of the others

49
Data Storage
  • Magnetic Tape
  • Data is recorded on the iron oxide coating of the
    magnetic tape
  • Can hold over 200 MB of data
  • Most commonly used for backup storage and
    archival of data
  • This is a low-cost technology that supplements
    magnetic disk storage

50
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51
Data Storage
  • Optical Disks
  • A laser records data by burning permanent
    microscopic pits in a spiral track
  • Drives use a laser device to read the binary
    codes formed by the pits
  • CD-ROM disks can hold up to 600 MB of data, which
    is equivalent to 400 1.44 MB floppies, or 300000
    double spaced pages of text

52
Data Storage
  • Optical Disks continued
  • CD Burners can be used to record data on CD-R
    disks (can only record on once) and CD-RW disks
    (can be recorded on over and over)
  • DVD Digital Video Disk
  • DVDs can hold between 3 and 8.5 gigabytes of data
  • DVDs are expected to eventually replace CDs and
    CD-ROMs because of their large storage capacity
    and excellent quality
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