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Soil Erosion

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Water erosion: Water erosion is caused by the energy of rain falling on the soil ... (how hard it falls), seasonality, the formation & course of water's runoff. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Soil Erosion


1
Soil Erosion
2
3 Types of Erosion
  • Wind erosion Wind erosion is the removal soil
    particles 9small pieces) by the force and energy
    of the wind. These soil particles are transported
    and deposited when the wind energy drops.

3
  • Water erosion Water erosion is caused by the
    energy of rain falling on the soil surface and by
    the force of runoff.
  • Gravity erosion Movement of soil occurs on steep
    slopes under the influence of gravity. The
    materials move from higher to lower grounds due
    to their weight.

4
Causes of Soil Erosion
  • Land use Humans play a major role in soil
    erosion through their use and abuse of natural
    resources,
  • Examples are deforestation, grazing, faulty
    farming systems, high crop intensity, housing
    construction, mining etc.

5
  • Climate The two most important climatic factors
    having a direct effect on erosion are
    precipitation and wind velocity.

6
  • Soil The susceptibility of a soil to erosion is
    influenced by its characteristics.
  • Think of the differences of sand and clay which
    would be most easily moved by water or wind? Why?

7
  • Hydrology Infiltration (water filtering into the
    ground), flow velocity (speed), and subsurface
    (below the surface) water flow are important
    parts of soil erosion.

8
  • Landforms Slope, slope length, and the shape of
    the slope are important parts that affect erosion
    processes for all types of soil erosion.

9
Erosion Control
  • You must find the reasons why look at
    the characteristics of rainfall.
  • including the amount of rain,
  • intensity,
  • energy load (how hard it falls),
  • seasonality,
  • the formation course of waters runoff.

10
Wind Erosion during the Dustbowl
11
Water Erosion
  • Heavy run-off created a large eroded canyon in
    this hillside.

12
Water Erosion in Ethiopia
  • Sediment-laden river running through a city
    (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) many miles downstream
    from the eroding soils.

13
Water Erosion in Maine
14
Maine Stream Run-off
15
Run off from the Mississippi River
Because the Mississippi River drains much
agricultural land, it has high sediment (soil)
content. The mud spilling from the river into the
Gulf of Mexico is clearly visible in this
picture. 
16
Terrace Farming
  • A way to stop erosion is with terrace farming.

17
87 of Erosion is caused by water and wind!
18
Not all erosion occurs on Earth
  • Water erosion on a crater on Mars!
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