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Marianne Smith. Helen McGuire. Margaret Bates. Salam Noo

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Title: Marianne Smith. Helen McGuire. Margaret Bates. Salam Noo


1
Oregon Reading First Progress Overall and
Progress with English Language Learners
  • Scott K. Baker, Ph.D.
  • Pacific Institutes for Research
  • University of Oregon
  • Institute on Beginning Reading
  • Day 2 Focus on English Language Learners
  • June 24, 2005

2
Reading First English Language
Learners Students Who Met the Spring SAT-10 Goal
3
NAEP Reading Performance at Grades 4, 8, and 12
Grade 4
Grade 8
Grade 12
4
NAEP No Decrease in the Reading Gap Over Time
5
Oregon Department of Education
  • Kayla Barsted
  • Joni Gilles
  • Russ Sweet
  • Marianne Smith
  • Helen McGuire
  • Margaret Bates
  • Salam Noor

6
Oregon Reading First Center
  • Carrie Thomas Beck
  • Edward J. Kameenui
  • Hank Fien
  • Trish Travers
  • Rachell Katz
  • Scott K. Baker
  • Barb Gunn
  • Josh Wallin
  • Janet Otterstedt
  • Anna Ingram
  • Deni Basaraba
  • Jon Hays
  • Jennifer Walt
  • Marianne Oakes
  • Nicole Sherman Brewer
  • Katie Tate
  • Patrick Kennedy Paine
  • Beth Harn

7
34 Oregon Reading Fist Schools
  • District administrators
  • Principals
  • Coaches
  • K-3 teachers
  • ESL teachers
  • Special education teachers
  • Instructional Assistants

8
Oregon Reading First Framework
  • What are our reading goals?
  • How are we doing?
  • How do we get there?

9
Oregon Reading First End-of-Year Reading Goals
(in English)
10
Reading First English Language
Learners Students Who Met the Spring SAT-10 Goal
11
Students At Risk in the Fall Who Got On Track by
the Spring
12
Students On Track in the Fall Who Stayed On Track
in the Spring
13
Students At Risk in the Fall Who Got On Track by
the Spring
14
Reading First ELL vs. Non-ELL Students Kindergart
en Spring PSF Benchmark Rates by Fall ISF Risk
Status Group
ns
ns
ns
15
Reading First ELL vs. Non-ELL Students 1st Grade
Spring ORF Benchmark Rates by Fall NWF Risk
Status Group
ns
ns

16
Reading First English Language Learners The
Relation Between DIBELS and the SAT-10
17
Who are English Language Learners?
  • Students from language backgrounds other than
    English and with proficiency in English not yet
    developed to the point where they can profit
    fully from English-only instruction (NRC Report,
    1997)

18
Academic Programs for ELLs
  • Transitional Bilingual Education Instruction in
    primary language during the first few years of
    school goal is transition to English as rapidly
    as possible
  • Approximately 50 of ELLs
  • English-only programs varying degrees of
    support to help students learn a new language and
    content simultaneously
  • Approximately 3040 of ELLs

19
Research Base on ELLs
  • Lack of useful research partially explains low
    achievement among many ELL groups
  • Federal policy with regard to ELLs has been
    based on relatively little research . . . and
    predominance of politics. (NRC Report, p. 23)
  • With regard to reading instruction in a second
    language, there is remarkably little direct
    relevant research. (NRP Report, 1997)

20
Three Lines of U.S. Research with ELLs
  • Basic research bilingualism
  • Program evaluations
  • School and classroom effectiveness

21
Basic research on second-language acquisition and
bilingualism
  • Basic research on second-language acquisition and
    bilingualism
  • Essentially descriptive in nature
  • Not concerned with academic outcomes per se

22
Program Evaluation Research
  • TBE vs. English-only to address major policy
    question
  • Language of instruction
  • Focus on academic content and language acquisition

23
Program Evaluation Research
  • There is little value in conducting evaluations
    to determine which type of program is best. The
    key issue is not finding a program that works for
    all children and all localities but rather
    finding a set of program components that works
    for the children in the community of interest,
    given that communitys goals, demographics, and
    resources (NRC, p. 138)

24
Program Evaluation Research
  • Significant design limitations of large and small
    scale studies
  • Evidence for beneficial effects of
    native-language and structured immersion programs

25
School and Classroom Effectiveness
  • Descriptions of school and program environments
  • Schools and classrooms thought to be effective
  • Theoretically driven instruction
  • Minimal link to specific instructional practices

26
Observation Study on Reading Instruction with
ELLs in Grade 1
  • Examples from a 2-year study with English
    Language Learners
  • Three objectives
  • Collect promising student reading measures with
    ELLs in Grade 1
  • Systematically observe beginning reading
    instruction in Grade 1 classrooms
  • Investigate the relationship between
    instructional practices in reading and student
    performance on reading measures

27
Primary Languages of Participating Students
  • Spanish 266 (60)
  • English 85 (19)
  • Somali 23 (5)
  • Vietnamese 19 (4)
  • Hmong 16 (4)
  • Cambodian 14 (3)
  • Cantonese 12 (3)
  • Tagolog 5 (.1)
  • Chinese 3 (.1)
  • Laotian 2 (.1)

28
Student Performance Measures
  • DIBELS measures at the beginning and end of the
    year
  • Phonemic Segmentation Fluency
  • Nonsense Word Fluency
  • Oral Reading Fluency
  • A measure of Reading Comprehension at the end of
    the year

29
Systematic Classroom Observations
  • Moderate inference instrument
  • 30 items rated on a 1-7 scale
  • General effectiveness items
  • Items specifically targeting effective
    instruction for ELLs
  • Items targeting instruction in Reading / Language
    Arts Framework
  • Observers w/ expertise in ELLs and beginning
    reading
  • All observations for the duration of the 2.5 hour
    reading period

30
General Conclusions of Observation Study
  • Evidence the primary measures had established
    reliability and predicted outcomes for English
    Language Learners
  • Meaningful variability in performance
  • Fluency as an index of comprehension
  • Ability to predict meaningful outcomes
  • Performance patterns that make sense in the
    context of other students
  • Providing pictures of growth over time

31
General Conclusions of Observation Study
  • Evidence that DIBELS measures important reading
    outcomes with English Language Learners
  • Initial evidence that outcomes at the end of
    Grade 1 are an important predictor of future
    reading performance for ELLs
  • A key issue becomes determining what factors
    lead to successful reading performance at the end
    of Grade 1

32
General Conclusions of Observation Study
  • Factors that May Predict Reading Outcomes
  • Reading performance at beginning of the year
  • ELL Status i.e., ELL or native English speaker
  • Among ELLs -- level of English language
    proficiency
  • Reading Instruction throughout the year
  • Also possible that some combination of variables
    may interact to achieve best prediction

33
General Conclusions of Observation Study
  • Explicit Teaching Improves the Odds of Strong
    Reading Outcomes
  • Items from the Observation Instrument
  • Models skills and strategies during the lesson
  • Makes relationships among concepts overt
  • Emphasizes distinctive features of new concepts
  • Provides scaffolds in how to use strategies,
    skills, and concepts
  • Focus of literacy activities changes regularly
  • Adjusts use of English to make concepts
    comprehensible

34
General Conclusions of Observation Study
  • Sheltered Teaching Techniques Improve the Odds of
    Strong Reading Outcomes
  • Items from the Observation Instrument
  • Uses visuals and manipulatives to teach content
  • Provides explicit instruction in English language
    use
  • Encourages students to give elaborate responses
  • Uses gestures and facial expressions in teaching
    vocabulary and clarifying meaning of content
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