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Improving Safety Performance Through Measurement

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Questions are a blue print for the managers. Questions can be used to measure success ' ... HASTAM's CHASE system. Questions developed by planning process ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Improving Safety Performance Through Measurement


1
Improving Safety Performance Through Measurement
  • Mike Thomas Managing Director Prof. Andrew
    Hale Director
  • IOSH London Health Safety Group
  • 17 March 2008

2
Overview
  • Key questions
  • What is the role of performance measurement in a
    Safety Management System (SMS)? (What gets
    measured gets done, Drucker and HSE in HSG65)
  • How can measurement be used to improve
    performance and drive continual improvement?
  • How can we select appropriate key performance
    indicators (KPIs)?
  • How can we develop meaningful targets?
  • How can we promote performance measurement by
    line managers and link this to audits?

3
A Success Story Corus NL
Maintenance department of an integrated steel
works, employing about 1100 used an intervention
driven by KPIs to improve performance.
  • Improvement driven by KPIs for managers
  • Compulsory free choice, proactive
    reactive.
  • Targets/KPI score (1-10 with 6 for hitting
    target)
  • KPIs given different weights totalled for
    overall score/period
  • Reported on a dashboard every 6 weeks

STOP-GO cards for workforce dynamic task risk
assessment
4
Key Performance Indicators
  • Output LTI frequency Recordable frequency
  • Compulsory
  • Reporting of dangerous situations (0.5pppy)
  • Dealing with dangerous situation reports (80)
  • Toolbox meetings (including safety) (80)
  • Choice (at least 1 of 4)
  • Behaviour observation rounds (80)
  • Safety communication rounds (80)
  • 5 S housekeeping inspections (80)
  • Risk assessment plan of action (80)

5
OHSAS 18001
6
Measurement
  • Within 18001
  • Checking and corrective action
  • Includes
  • Measurement of proactive data
  • Measurement of reactive data
  • Internal audit (independent)
  • Reactive and proactive are key issues

7
Risk assessment control
Review improvement
Risk management system
Audit
Evaluation
Direct risk controls Hard-, soft- liveware
Inspection
Known risk
Incident analysis
Comparison
Risk assessment
Primary processes
Unknown risk
Review RIE system
8
Types of indicator
  • Damage, injury, loss
  • Precursors for each scenario, different
    precursors (incidents, leaks, breakdowns)

9
Choice and design of
(sub)system
Choice design of prevention control measures
For each hazard, different deviation scenarios,
with different control measures, failing in
different ways
Elimination of hazard
Re-design
Normal situation
with in-built hazards
Learning
Hazard control measures
Recovery
Deviations from normal situation
Detection recovery
Reporting
Loss of control (release of energy exposure
Escape
Transmission
Accident Deviation Model
Secondary safety
Damage process
Rescue, damage limitation, treatment
Stabilisation
10
LTIs dont predict disasters
  • The lesson of Texas City
  • BP became distracted from efforts to control
    process safety because they were lulled into a
    false sense of security by their very excellent
    control of lost time injuries.
  • The fallacy of Birds interpretation of
    Heinrichs triangle

11
Heinrichs thesis
  • Reasoning from top down
  • Each scenario or accident type apart
  • Average ratio over scenarios

12
From Bird onwards
  • Overall statistics of a department, factory, or
    country
  • Different categories of severity

13
Types of indicator
  • Damage, injury, loss
  • Precursors for each scenario, different
    precursors (incidents, leaks, breakdowns)
  • Presence readiness of risk control measures
    (hardware, software, peoples behaviour)
  • Management system processes to deliver the
    preventive measures

14
Resources and controls in the SMS
  • - Competence of staff - Availability of
    manpower - Commitment to safe operations
    conflict resolution - Communication within and
    between teams - Procedures, goals rules -
    Hardware software
  • - Selection training - Manpower planning -
    Incentives, supervision, appraisal, culture,
    management priority - Handover, briefing,
    communication channels - Task/policy analysis
    design - Design, layout, maintenance

These processes are the ones to be audited
15
Problems with Auditing
  • Seen as a panacea
  • Bolted on imposed from outside
  • May not match policy own management system
    independent of management
  • Passive process for manager
  • Economical with the truth
  • Wait for next audit
  • No ownership

16
Types of indicator
  • Damage, injury, loss
  • Precursors for each scenario, different
    precursors (incidents, leaks, breakdowns)
  • Presence condition of risk control measures
    (hardware, software, peoples behaviour)
  • Management system processes to deliver the
    preventive measures
  • Attitudes and values (culture) to use the SMS
    processes and the risk control measures

17
Safety climate/culture measurement
  • Existing climate questionnaires
  • limited validation (TRIPOD is one exception)
  • Interpretation is still more an art than a
    science lack of clarity over underlying models
    of culture
  • Gap between measuring (profile) and improving
  • Safety culture maturity scales (Hearts Minds)
  • Similar criticisms
  • Individual completion followed by group
    discussion generates much useful debate

18
Improving Performance
  • Once you are clear on meaning objectives
  • Look at measurement and improvement
  • Three key issues
  • How to define performance in measurable terms?
  • How can performance be measured?
  • How to extend to target setting and to drive
    improved performance?

19
How is Improvement Achieved?
  • What gets measured gets done
  • Apply sound management techniques to safety
  • Performance standards - what people must do
  • Who is responsible? whose KPI?
  • What are they responsible for? tasks, processes
  • When should the work be done? - plans
  • What is the expected result? (intermediate)
    outputs
  • Set targets and measure performance in terms
    meaningful to each individual

20
Criteria for performance measures
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Representativeness
  • Sensitivity
  • Openness to bias
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • NB. Exposure measures

21
Typical targets in the past
  • eliminate lost time (or all) accidents
  • reduce all accidents to n or by x per annum
  • reduce number of days lost to n or by x
  • reduce cost of claims or other losses by y
  • eliminate notices as a result of enforcement
    action
  • Obvious approach what we want! Commendable, but
    typically, reactive

22
Accidents as performance measure
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Representativeness
  • Sensitivity
  • Reporting bias
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • PM Exposure measure
  • Very high
  • High, but absence ? serious
  • Good if enough
  • Low for good organisation
  • Strong for minor
  • High cost of analysis
  • /man or /manhour

23
Problems with Reactive Targets
  • Problems - well recognised?
  • Not helpful to managers!
  • They accept the value and sense but …
  • What must they do?
  • Promotes under-reporting and manipulation of
    outcome
  • What if zero accidents already?
  • Past performance may be a poor predictor of the
    future

24
Accident Rates
  • "A low accident or incident rate over a period of
    years is no guarantee that risks are being
    effectively controlled. This is particularly so
    in organisations involved in major hazard
    activities, where the probability of an accident
    may be low but where the consequences could be
    extremely serious. In this type of organisation,
    the historical incidence of reported accidents
    alone can be an unreliable indicator of safety or
    environmental performance and can lead to
    complacency."
  • Guidance on COMAH Regulations, UK

25
Reactive Targets
  • Why still set?
  • Easy option that sounds good!
  • Mirrors UK Governments targets
  • Accident reduction IS the desired output of the
    SMS
  • Are Reactive Targets Still Valid?
  • At a high level within the organisation as aim
    or vision
  • But NOT as targets for managers
  • Need to move to better data step 1
  • Minor injuries and health effects
  • Near misses (surprises) or dangerous situations

26
Way Forward?
  • Aim
  • Reduce accidents but numbers of accidents are NOT
    used as exclusive targets for managers
  • Move to proactive measures
  • Set targets on proactive measures of performance
  • Compare with quality management

27
Contrast Safety and Quality
  • ISO approach to quality as
  • An essential feature
  • Not an optional extra
  • Emphasise
  • managing quality in, not inspecting defects out
  • get the management processes right,
  • but still measure defects
  • Apply this philosophy to safety

28
What is Proactive Measurement?
  • Traditional measures (input measures) e.g.
  • PPE being used
  • Guards in place
  • Documents reviewed and updated
  • All employees trained
  • Toolbox meetings held
  • Maintenance conducted to plan
  • More dynamic measures (input intermediate)
  • Hazards identified and put right
  • Competence tested used
  • Behaviour observed, discussed improved

29
Planning and Target Setting
  • If you accept the philosophy, how can measures be
    translated into targets?
  • BS8800 approach
  • Annex C (BS 88001996)
  • Simplified version (BS 88002004, Annex D)
  • Planning and Implementing

30
Planning for Safety
31
Measuring Success
IMPLEMENT PLAN
Measure Outcome Data
Measure Compliance with Programme (Targets)
Achieving Objective ?
No
Meeting Targets ?
Yes
Yes
Take Corrective Action as Necessary
Continue Process
32
Combining Data
33
Why questions posed in plan?
  • Forces clear logical thought
  • Define the programme
  • Define the targets
  • Questions are a blue print for the managers
  • Questions can be used to measure success
  • Correct answer is yes
  • Link to audit (e.g. CHASE)

34
Proactive Monitoring and Audit
  • HASTAMs CHASE system
  • Questions developed by planning process
  • Used by managers to measure performance
  • Used by specialists for audit
  • Audit by verification of
  • Managers answers
  • Recommended remedial action
  • Reinforces ownership by managers

35
Conclusion
  • Explained
  • Need for and effective means of setting realistic
    targets
  • Targets NOT based on reactive measures
  • Based on proactive measures of system
  • However, no conflict with reactive aims
  • Targets provide
  • Clear implementation mechanism for managers
  • Effective measurement of improved performance

36
Contact
  • Andrew Hale Hastam Ltd The Old Bakehouse Maldon Es
    sex CM9 4LE
  • 01621-851756 andrew.hale_at_hastam.co.uk
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