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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND GEORGIA STATEHOOD

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1773 THE TEA ACT - GAVE BRITISH COMPANY A MONOPOLY ... CITY WHIGS. 4. THE DEATH OF ONE OF. GEORGIA'S SIGNERS OF. THE DECLARATION OF. INDEPENDENCE WHO DIED ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND GEORGIA STATEHOOD


1
VOCABULARY
TORY UNICAMERAL WHIG
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION LEGISLATIVE BICAMERAL
LEVY BILL OF RIGHTS MILITIA BOYCOTT MONO
POLY CHECKS AND BALANCES NATION CONFEDERATION
NATURAL LAW CONSTITUTION PETITION DECLARATION
OF INDEPENDENCE POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY DUTIES PRE
AMBLE EXECUTIVE RATIFICATION FEDERAL SEPER
ATION OF POWERS GENERAL ASSEMBLY SMUGGLING INFER
IOR COURT STATE JUDICIAL SUPERIOR COURT
2
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND GEORGIA STATEHOOD
3
REASONS
1. COLONIES DINT LIKE THE WAY THE MERCANTILE
SYSTEM FORCED THEM TO TRADE ONLY WITH GREAT
BRITAIN. 2. LACK OF FREEDOM 3. TAXES 4.
DIFFERENT VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT 5. DIFFERENT
VIEWS ON ECONOMICS 6. INTOLERABLE ACTS
4
THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM
1. AMERICA COULD ONLY TRADE WITH GREAT
BRITAIN 2. AMERICANS WANTED TO GROW AND PRODUCE
WHAT- EVER THEY WANTED AND SELL OR TRADE
THOSE THINGS WITH WHOMEVER THEY WANTED. 3.
SOME AMERICANS IGNORED BRITISH TRADE RULES,
AND THEY BEGAN TO SMUGGLE GOODS TO FRENCH,
SPANISH, AND DUTCH MERCHANTS.
5
TAXES
GREAT BRITAINS INVOLVEMENT IN THE FRENCH AND
INDIAN WAR HAD CAUSED THEM TO GO HEAVILY
INTO DEBT. THEY TRIED TO HELP PAY OFF THIS DEBT
BY CHARGING TAXES OR DUTIES ON IMPORTED GOODS
COMING INTO THE COLONIES. SUGAR ACT (1764) AND
TOWNSHEND ACTS (1767) WERE HEAVILY OPPOSED BY
THE COLONISTS.
TAXED GOODS
6
THE STAMP ACT(1765)
ALL PRINTED PAPER USED IN THE COLONIES HAD TO
HAVE A TAX STAMP PURCHASED FROM THE GOVERNMENT.
7
PROTESTS
THEY PROTESTED WITH WORDS TO THE BRITISH
GOVERNMENT, BUT STRONGER MEASURES WERE BEGINNING
TO BE TAKEN BY GROUPS LIKE THE SONS
OF LIBERTY. THE SONS OF LIBERTY LED
BOYCOTTS, THEY STIRRED UP PUBLIC DISCONTNENT, AND
THEY THREATENED AND SOMETIMES ATTACKED BRITSH
OFFICIALS TRYING TO COLLECT THE TAXES.
8
BRITISH REACTION
THE BRITISH REPEALED (OR DID AWAY WITH) MOST OF
THE ACTS AND TAXES, BUT IT WAS TO LATE. MANY
AMERICANS HAD ALREADY FORMED STRONG
ANTI-BRITISH ATTITUDES.
"GIVE ME LIBERTY, OR GIVE ME DEATH!"
9
THE CLASH OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN IDEAS
CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED - AMERICAN IDEA THAT
SAID GOVERNMENT SHOULD RULE ONLY AS LONG AS
ITS CITIZENS CONSENTED (AGREED) TO BE
GOVERNED. IF AND WHEN THE PEOPLE BECOME UNHAPPY
WITH THEIR GOVERNMENT, OR THAT GOVERNMENT CAN NO
LONGER PROTECT THEM, THAT GOVERNMENT LOSES ITS
RIGHT TO GOVERN. IF IT REFUSES TO STEP DOWN, THE
PEOPLE HAVE A RIGHT TO REBEL.
TRY TELLING THIS ONE TO A KING!!!!!!!!!!
10
REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT - THE PEOPLE HAVE
THE RIGHT TO ELECT PERSONS TO REPRESENT THEM AND
MAKE POLITICAL DECISIONS THAT AFFECT THEIR
LIVES. THEY MUST BE ABLE TO ASSEMBLE IN
LEGISLATIVE BODIES TO MAKE LAWS AND SET TAXES.
THIS ONE DIDNT GO OVER WELL WITH THE KING
EITHER!!!!
11
LIMITED GOVERNMENT - THE POWER OF THE
GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE LIMITED BY NATURAL
LAW. IN THEORY THIS MEANS THAT GOVERNMENTS CAN
NOT INFRINGE UPON RIGHTS THAT ALL MEN HAVE THAT
ARE GIVEN TO THEM BY GOD OR NATURE. I.E. - LIFE,
LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY.
KING GEORGE DIDNT GO FOR THIS ONE EITHER. YOU
SEE, KINGS RULE ABSOLUTELY. THAT MEANS THEY
FEEL THAT WHATEVER THEY SAY IS THE WAY ITS GOING
TO BE. SO, THE AMER- ICAN COLONIAL IDEAS ABOUT
GOVT. DIDNT MEAN SQUAT TO THE KING OF GREAT
BRITAIN.
12
GREAT BRITAINS MISTAKE!!!
GREAT BRITAIN MESSED UP WHEN THEY ALLOWED THE
COLONIES TO BASICALLY GOVERN THEMSELVES FOR
YEARS. WHEN THEY TRIED TO PUT THE HAMMER DOWN,
THE COLONISTS RESISTED. THE COLONISTS KNEW
HOW TO GOVERN THEMSELVES AND THEY LIKED IT THAT
WAY!!
THE COLONIES HAD THEIR OWN ELECTED OFFICIALS AND
MAINTAINED THEIR OWN MILITIA.
13
RESENTMENT AND CONFLICT
FORM OF RESENTMENT 1. TAXATION WITHOUT
REPRESENTATION 2. LEGAL RIGHTS IGNORED BY
BRITISH OFFICIALS LIKE ILLEGAL SEARCHES
WITHOUT A WARRANT 3. NO TRIAL BY JURY IN SOME
CASES THE MORE RESENTMENT BUILT AND LOOKED AS IF
IT WERE GOING TO LEAD TO VIOLENCE, THE MORE
TROOPS THE BRITISH SENT TO THE COLONIES.
14
TO MAKE MATTERS WORSE, AMERICAN COLONISTS
WERE REQUIRED TO HOUSE OR PAY FOR THE HOUSING OF
THE BRITISH SOLDIERS SENT TO THE COLONIES. THE
HATRED FOR THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WAS GREATEST
IN NEW ENGLAND. HERE, TROOPS WERE BOOED, EGGED,
OR HIT WITH SNOWBALLS IN THE STREETS.
15
THE BOSTON MASSACRE
WHEN 1770 WHERE BOSTON WHY MISTAKE RESULT
BLOWN OUT OF PROPOR- TION 5 DEAD 6 WOUNDED FIRST
TO DIE EX SLAVE CRISPUS ATTACKS WHY SO
NAMED PROPOGANDA WHOSE FAULT WAS IT BOSTON MOB
16
THE FINAL STRAW
1773 THE TEA ACT - GAVE BRITISH COMPANY A
MONOPOLY (EXCLUSIVE RIGHT) TO SELL TEA TO THE
AMERICAN COLONIES. MANY AMERICANS FELT THEY WERE
BEING FORCED TO BUY THIS TEA ONLY.
BOSTON TEA PARTY
WHEN DEC. 16, 1773 WHO SONS OF LIBERTY WHAT
DUMPED BRITISH TEA INTO BOSTON
HARBOR AT NIGHT DISGUISED
AS INDIANS. IT HAPPENED IN OTHER HARBORS IN
AMERICA AS WELL.
17
GREAT BRITAIN PUNISHES THE COLONIES
THE INTOLERABLE ACTS 1. CLOSED BOSTON HARBOR
UNTIL TEA WAS PAID FOR 2. NO MORE ELECTED
OFFICIALS IN MASSACHUSETTS OR TOWN
MEETINGS. 3. ALL COLONISTS HAD TO FEED AND HOUSE
SOLDIERS.
18
THE COLONIES RESPOND
THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
WHO ALL COLONIES REPRESENTED EXCEPT
GEORGIA. WHERE PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA ACTIONS
TAKEN BOYCOTT OF ALL BRITISH GOODS
BRITISH OFFICIALS ATTACKED
AND RUN OUT OF
TOWN BRITISH
GOODS BURNED
TAR AND FEATHERING GREAT BRITAIN SENDS STILL MORE
TROOPS!!!!
19
REVOLUTION!!!!!!
WHEN APRIL 19, 1775 WHERE LEXINGTON AND
CONCORD, MASSACHUSETTS THE SHOT HEARD ROUND THE
WORLD!
20
GEORGIA CHOOSES SIDES
WHY WAS GEORGIA SLOW TO JOIN IN? 1. GEORGIA WAS
THE YOUNGEST OF THE COLONIES 2. GEORGIA HAD A
SHORT HISTORY OF SELF GOVERNMENT 3. COASTAL
GEORGIANS HAD BECOME WEALTHY FROM BRITISH
TRADE 4. THE ROYAL BRITISH GOVERNOR SIR JAMES
WRIGHT WAS POPULAR IN GEORGIA. 5. LOYALTY
ALONG THE COAST WAS HIGH!
A DIVIDED GEORGIA
BACKCOUNTRY GEORGIANS WERE ALL FOR
INDEPENDENCE ANTI BRITISH AMERICANS WERE CALLED
WHIGS OR PATRIOTS PRO BRITISH AMERICANS WERE
CALLED TORIES OR LOYALISTS
21
THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT IN GEORGIA
THE BATTLES AT LEXINGTON AND CONCORD SIGNALED
THE BEGINNING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. IN
GEORGIA, THE NEWS WAS GREETED WITH
GREAT EXCITEMENT. SAVANNAH 1. OPEN DEFIANCE OF
THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT 2. RAIDED GUNPOWDER
STOREHOUSE 3. DISRUPTED GOVERNOR WRIGHTS
OBSERVANCE OF KINGS BIRTHDAY. 4. ROYAL
GOVERNMENT OF GEORGIA BEGAN TO FALL APART.
22
ROYAL GOVERNMENT COMES TO AN END
1775, PROVINCIAL CONGRESS MEETS IN SAVANNAH 1.
GEORGIANS AGREE TO JOIN OTHER COLONIES IN BOYCOTT
OF GREAT BRITAIN. 2. GEORGIA WHIGS SET UP
COUNCIL OF SAFETY TO ENFORCE THE BOYCOTT
AND WORK WITH OTHER COLONIES.
GEORGIA OPERATES FOR A WHILE WITH 2 GOVT.S 1.
THE ROYAL GOVT. HEADED BY SIR JAMES
WRIGHT 2. THE PROVINCIAL GOVT HEADED BY
GEORGIAS WHIGS.
23
WHIGS TAKE OVER IN GEORGIA 1. THEY TAKE OVER
THE MILITIA 2. THEY REMOVE TORY
OFFICERS 3. THEY APPROVE NEW TAXES TO
BUILD GA.S DEFENSES AGAINST THE
BRITISH. 4. THEY TAKE CONTROL OF THE COURTS.
24
THE WHIGS ARRESTED SIR JAMES WRIGHT. WRIGHT
ESCAPED HOWEVER, TO THE SAFETY OF A BRITISH
WARSHIP. ROYAL GOVERNMENT IN GEORGIA
WAS OVER. MANY GEORGIANS STILL REMAINED LOYAL
TO THE KING, BUT THE WHIGS WERE IN CONTROL.
25
1776, RULES AND REGULATIONS
GEORGIA WROTE ITS FIRST INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTION.
THE PREAMBLE ESTABLISHED POP- ULAR
SOVREIGNTY AS THE BASIS ON WHICH
GEORGIAS GOVERNMENT WOULD OPERATE.
26
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
GEORGIA DID NOT MISS OUT ON THE SECOND
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AS THEY HAD THE
FIRST. GEORGIA SENT 5 DELEGATES TO THIS ONE.
AT THIS MEETING THEY PREPARED FOR BOTH WAR AND
PEACE. THEY ORGANIZED AN ARMY TO DEFEND THE
COLONIES UNDER THE COMMAND OF GEORGE WASHINGTON,
AND THEY SENT THE KING A LAST DITCH EFFORT AT
PEACE IN THE FORM OF A PETITION TO ASK THE KING
TO HEAR THEIR GRIEVANCES.
27
KING GEORGE REFUSED TO HEAR THEIR
PETITION. INSTEAD, HE DECLARED THE COLONIES TO
BE IN A STATE OF REBELLION. THE BRITISH
PARLIAMENT BANNED ALL TRADE WITH THE COLONIES.
WASHINGTON
GEORGE III
28
SPRING, 1776
THE COLONIES WERE DIVIDED IN THEIR LOYALTY,
BUT THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT WENT ON. THE
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS VOTED TO FORMALLY
DECLARE THEIR INDEPENDENCE FROM
GREAT BRITAIN. THEY WROTE AND ADOPTED THE
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
29
THOMAS JEFFERSON WAS THE PRINCIPLE AUTHOR OF THE
DOCUMENT. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN WAS HIS
PROOF- READER AND ADVISOR
30
ALL THE DELEGATES SIGNED THE DOCUMENT, EVEN
THOUGH THEY KNEW THEY WERE COM- MITTING TREASON
BY DOING SO. IF YOU LOOK CLOSE AT THEIR
SIGNATURES, YOU CAN SEE THE FEAR IN THEM, WITH
THE EXCEPTION OF THE RICHEST OF THEM, JOHN
HANCOCK.
31
3 OF GEORGIAS DELEGATES SIGNED THE DOCUMENT
PICTURED HERE FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. BUTTON
GWINNETT (GWINNETT COUNTY) LYMAN HALL (HALL
COUNTY) GEORGE WALTON (HALL COUNTY)
32
REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE DECLARED NEW AND
UNPRECEDENTED GOVERNMENTAL IDEAS. 1. ALL MEN
ARE CREATED EQUAL ( DISCUSSION) 2. EVERYONE IS
BORN WITH CERTAIN RIGHTS THAT GOVT. CANT
TAKE AWAY. (LIFE, LIBERTY, AND THE PURSUIT
OF HAPPINESS) 3. GOVERNMENT GETS ITS POWER FROM
THE PEOPLE 4. THE PEOPLE CAN DO AWAY WITH A
GOVT. THEY NO LONGER APPROVE OF. THE
DECLARATION ALSO MADE A BOLD STATEMENT. THESE
UNITED COLONIES ARE .. FREE AND
INDEPENDENT STATES. ALL POLITICAL CONNECTIONS
BETWEEN THE NEW STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN WERE
DISSOLVED!
33
SOMETHING TO REMEMBER
THE COLONIES NOW CALLED THEMSELVES FREE AND
INDEPENDENT STATES. BACK THEN THE WORD STATE
MEANT THE SAME THING AS THE WORD
NATION. TECHNICALLY, EACH COLONY WAS DECLARING
ITSELF ITS OWN NATION. THAT WOULD BECOME A
PROBLEM LATER IN AMERICAN HISTORY. THE WORD
STATE WOULD HAVE TO BE CHANGED TO MEAN A
POLITICAL UNIT JUST BELOW THAT OF A NATION.
34
REACTION IN GEORGIA TO THE DECLARATION OF
INDEPENDENCE
IT TOOK THE NEWS OF THE DECLARATION A MONTH TO
REACH GEORGIA. IT WAS NOT READ OUT LOUD IN
SAVANNAH UNTIL AUGUST. GEORGIANS HAD MIXED
REACTIONS OVER ITS READING. PATRIOTS CELEBRATED
BY HOLDING A MOCK FUNERAL OF KING
GEORGE. OTHERS WERE NOT SO HAPPY.
35
SPLIT FAMILIES
NOBLE JONES AND JAMES HABERSHAM, BOTH
FIRST GENERATION GEORGIANS NEVER WAIVERED IN
THEIR LOYALTY TO THE KING. THEIR SONS, NOBLE
WIMBERLY JONES AND THE 3 SONS OF HABERSHAM WE
WILL CALL THE HABERSHAM BOYS JOINED THE PATRIOT
CAUSE.
36
1,500 TORIES LEFT GEORGIA, WHILE STILL OTHERS
STAYED BEHIND TO PROTECT THEIR PROPERTY AND KEEP
THEIR LOYALTIES TO THEMSELVES.
GEORGIA'S FIRST CONSTITUTION
GEORGIAS FIRST CONSTITUTION DIVIDED THE
COLONIES GOVERN- MENT INTO DIFFERENT BRANCHES IT
ALSO SPELLED OUT THE RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES GRANTED
TO THE PEOPLE OF THE COLONY. THIS NEW
CONSTITUTION INTRO- DUCED A NEW PRINCIPLE
CALLED SEPERATION OF POWERS. IT WAS DESIGNED TO
KEEP ONE BRANCH FROM BECOMING TO POWERFUL OVER
ANOTHER.
37
ALTHOUGH IT APPEARED TO ESTABLISH SEPARATE
BRANCHES, THE REAL POWER IN GEORGIAS NEW
GOVERN- MENT LAY WITH THE LEGISLATIVE
BRANCH. GEORGIAS NEW LEGISLATURE 1.
UNICAMERAL (ONE HOUSE) NO SECOND HOUSE TO
SAFE- GUARD AGAINST HASTY DECISIONS. 2. NAMED
THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY 3. HAD AUTHORITY TO ENACT
LAWS 4. AUTHORITY TO APPOINT OFFICIALS 5.
WEAKENED THE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR 6. GOVERNOR
ONLY SERVED A ONE YEAR TERM 7. GOVERNOR COULD
NOT VETO, ONLY 12 MEMBERS OF THE
LEGISLATURE CALLED THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
COULD VETO. 8. POWER TO GRANT PARDONS, GOVERNOR
WAS A CHIEF EXECUTIVE IN NAME ONLY.
38
THE PARISHES OF GEORGIA WERE REPLACED WITH 8
COUNTIES. EACH COUNTY HAD COURTHOUSE SCHOOLS OFF
ICIALS MILITIA SUPERIOR COURT
39
GEORGIA STILL HAD ALL KINDS OF PROBLEMS 1.
THOUSANDS OF LOYAL- ISTS. 2. POWER
STRUGGLES AMONG WHIG GROUPS 3. SPLIT AMONG
BACK- COUNTRY WHIGS AND CITY WHIGS 4.
THE DEATH OF ONE OF GEORGIAS SIGNERS OF THE
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE WHO DIED OF WOUNDS
SUFFERED IN A DUEL BETWEEN LACLAN MCINTOSH AND
BUTTON GWINNETT. 5. CERTAIN WAR WITH
GREAT BRITAIN.
40
WAR COMES TO GEORGIA
GEORGIA WAS SPARED THE TERRORS OF WAR IN THE
EARLY YEARS OF THE CONFLICT BE- CAUSE, THE
CONFLICT WAS BORN IN THE NORTHERN COLONIES.
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