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Rise of Chemistry and Biology

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Early chemical attacks employed pressurized cylinders and gases were released in ... America's secret chemical weapon the pesticide DDT. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rise of Chemistry and Biology


1
Rise of Chemistry and Biology
  • YSU Weapons of Mass Destruction

2
On-Line Sessions
Who absolutely needs the sessions on disk?
3
What Could be Used as a Weapon?
4
What are some toxic metals?
5
Organic Chemistry
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
6
Organic Chemistry
H
H
C
C
H
H
7
Germany Led the Race
  • Petroleum
  • Coal Tar
  • We smell it near coke ovens
  • We smell it in seal-coat for the driveway

8
Chemicals From Base Substances
  • Benzene
  • Toluene
  • Xylenes
  • Ethylbenzene
  • Phenol

9
Benzene
10
Organic Structures
Toluene
Ethyl Benzene
11
Xylenes
12
Aniline
Adolf von Baeyer Craked the chemical code for
aniline.
13
Naphthalene
14
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Chlordane
This is very similar to ethyl chlorohydrin, a
precursor to chemical mustard.
15
Thiodiglycol
HO-CH2-CH2-S-CH2-CH2-OH
Ethyl chlorohydrin, reacted with sulfur creates
this molecule.
In 1886 Victor Meyer, unaware, created mustard
thiodiglycol by adding 2 simple Cl atoms
16
Mustard Thiodiglycol
CH2CH2Cl
S
CH2CH2Cl
17
Properties
3.3.1 Colour Colourless or yellow liquid (1 atm.
and 15C). 3.3.2 State/form Oily liquid at 1
atm. and 15C. 3.3.3 Description Melting point
13 to 14C Boiling point 215 to 217C Vapour
pressure at 0C 0.025 mm 30C 0.090 mm
Solubility very sparingly in water soluble in
fats and organic solvents. Heavier than water.
Weak mustard or garlic like odour.
IPS INCHEM
18
Ypres, April 22, 1915
  • Cl2
  • Organized by Fritz Haber
  • Employed 5730 cylinders
  • Release zone 6 km long
  • 800/2000 casualties

19
PPE
At first, rags, soaked in urine or bicarbonate
were used to neutralize chlorine. By the end of
1915 more efficient masks and supplemental oxygen
began to become available.
20
Delivery
Early chemical attacks employed pressurized
cylinders and gases were released in tandem.
This caused logistic problems and
backlash. Later mortars were filled with gas.
The wepon could then be launched with a mortar
cannon such as a Stokes Mortar Gun.
21
Other Respiratory Irritants
  • Phosgene
  • Chloropicrin
  • Sn Tetrachloride
  • Chloracetone
  • Arsine
  • HCN

Pulmonary Edema Profuse Secretions O2 Inhibition
22
U.S. Finds Success
Americas secret chemical weapon the pesticide
DDT. DDT is largely credited with helping Allied
forces with World War II. What other project
failed numerous times but was finally successful
on account of DDT?
23
Nerve Agents
  • 1934 Gerhard Schrader
  • German G-Series
  • Tabun
  • Sarin
  • Soman
  • V-series
  • 1950s Sweden (lower VP)

24
Later Chem Events
  • Korea
  • Vietnam
  • Iran-Iraq 1981
  • Khamisiya, Iraq 1991
  • Tokyo - 1995

25
Bio Review
  • Koch Postulates 1986
  • Disease not in healthy animal
  • Isolate grow in culture
  • Must produce disease in animal
  • Should be able to be reisolated

26
First Program
  • lt1930 Most Nations Feared Boomerang
  • Japanese 32-45
  • Unit 731
  • In Occupied China
  • Plague, cholera, hemorrhagic fevers
  • 10,000 Chinese perished
  • Civilian-based attacks

27
Bioweapons in the 1900s
  • 40 Japan dropped ceramic bomblets
  • 39-50 U.S. begins development
  • Anthrax, plague, cholera, typhus, yellow fever,
    typhoid, tuleremia, brucellosis, glanders
  • Plant animal pests

28
Bioweapons in the 1900s
  • Soviet Union
  • First stifled due to Tofim Lysenko
  • Stalins Death
  • BTWC signed in 1972
  • 1979 Svedlovsk release
  • Defectors Vlad Pasechnik, Ken Alibek
  • Biopreparat cover for BW program

29
Illicit Use
  • Rajneeshees
  • Salmonella
  • Aum Shinrikyo
  • Anthrax
  • Plague
  • U.S.
  • 2001

30
Housekeeping
  • No SLP for Module 1
  • I will post SLP assignment for mod 2
  • Wednesday guest
  • Herb Layman President, U.S. Micro
  • gt35 years in microbiology
  • Microbiology Refresher
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