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Major Ecosystems of the World

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Prairies - Bison, wolves, deer, elk, antelopes, shorebirds, migratory birds. ... Thorn shrub snakes, lizards, rodents, antelopes, gazelle, rhinos, giraffes. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Ecosystems of the World


1
Chapter 7
  • Major Ecosystems of the World

2
Lecture Outline
  • Terrestrial Biomes
  • Define Biome
  • Representative terrestrial biomes
    (characteristics physical biological)
  • Human impacts on biomes
  • Impact of altitude latitude
  • Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Environmental factors that affect ecosystems
  • Representative aquatic ecosystems
  • Human impacts on aquatic ecosystems

3
What is a biome?
  • A broad, regional type of ecosystem that has
    distinct climate and soil conditions and a
    distinctive kind of biological community adapted
    to those conditions.

4
Biomes
  • Include
  • Many interacting ecosystems
  • Terrestrial ecology
  • Community -gt ecosystems -gt landscape -gtbiome
  • Temperature precipitation are very important in
    determining a biome
  • Also influenced by landforms (especially
    mountains).

5
Major Biomes of World
6
Vertical Zonation
  • Going up a mountain is like traveling to the
    poles
  • As you go up a mountain the biomes change
  • Important differences between latitude and
    elevation biomes

7
Tundra (Arctic or Alpine Tundra)
  • High mountains or northern/southern latitudes
  • Treeless
  • Short growing season
  • Cold, harsh winters
  • Frost in any month
  • Water locked up in snow/ice (not available for
    plants)

8
Arctic Tundra
  • Low productivity, low diversity, low resilience
  • Soil is frozen (permafrost) and only upper few
    centimeters thaws in summer.
  • No deep root growth
  • Heave/settlement due to freeze thaw
  • Very little precipitation
  • No drainage

9
Alpine Tundra
  • Due to altitude
  • Different from Artic
  • More solar radiation
  • Very hot temperatures during day possible
  • Lots of wind, gravelly or rocky
  • Well draining

10
Tundra Fauna
  • Year round lemmings, voles, weasels, artic
    foxes
  • Migratory musk ox caribou, alpine mountain
    goats, mountain sheep

11
Tundra Flora
  • Dwarf willows, dwarf birches, sedges, grasses,
    mosses, lichens
  • Grow smaller

12
Human effects on Tundra
  • Oil and natural gas wells
  • Mineral excavation

13
Taiga (Boreal forests, Conifer forests)
  • Taiga
  • Found in northern hemisphere only
  • On edge of artic tundra
  • Low productivity low resilience
  • Peat formed by cold temperatures, very wet soil
    in summer, acids from fallen needles
  • Boreal Forests
  • Found between 45 60 degrees north latitude
  • Moist cool
  • Many streams wetlands

14
Taiga Flora Fauna
  • Taiga Flora
  • Black white spruce, balsam fir, eastern larch,
    aspen, birch
  • Taiga Fauna
  • Caribou, wolves, bears, moose, rodents, rabbits,
    lynx, sable, mink, migratory birds, insects

15
Temperate Rain Forests (Conifer Forests)
  • Northwest America, Southeastern Australia,
    Southern South America
  • High precipitation
  • Condensation from dense canopy is a major source
    of precipitation
  • Mosses, lichens and ferns cover tree branches
  • Olympic National Park

16
Temperate Rain Forest Flora Fauna
  • Flora
  • Large evergreen trees including western hemlock,
    Douglas fir, western red cedar
  • Epiphytes including mosses, lichens, ferns
  • Fauna
  • Squirrels, wood rats, mule deer, elk, birds,
    amphibians, reptiles

17
Human Impact Taiga, Boreal Forests Temperate
Rainforest
  • Logging
  • Peat Mining

18
Temperate Deciduous Forest (Broad-Leaved)
  • Rainfall plentiful
  • Key adaptation is ability to produce summer
    leaves, than shed for winter
  • Rich topsoil with underlying clay

19
Temperate Deciduous Forest Flora Fauna
  • Flora Oak, maple, birch, beech, elm, ash,
    smaller shrubs, flowers, and herbaceous plants
  • Fauna puma, wolves, bison, deer, bears and many
    small animals and birds

20
Grasslands (Prairies Savannas)
  • Dry continental climates of Great Plains, Russian
    Steppes, African veldt, South American pampas
  • Richest soil in world
  • Few trees
  • Wildfires help maintain grasslands

21
Grassland Flora Fauna
  • Flora
  • Grasses both short and tall grass
  • Herbaceous flowering plants
  • Savannas - acacia
  • Fauna
  • Prairies - Bison, wolves, deer, elk, antelopes,
    shorebirds, migratory birds.
  • Savannas wildebeest, antelope, giraffe, zebra,
    elephants, lions and hyenas.

22
Human Impact on Grasslands Savannas
  • Agriculture
  • 90 of North American grassland has vanished.
  • Rarest biome in North America
  • Rangeland
  • Savannas being converted for cattle

23
Chaparral (Mediterranean, Thorn Shrub)
  • Warm, dry summers cool, moist winters
  • California, Mediterranean Coast, Southwestern
    Australia, central Chile, South Africa
  • Covers small area
  • Highly desired for human population
  • Drier areas African Sahel, northern Mexico,
    Great Basin

24
Chaparral Flora Fauna
  • Flora
  • very different around world.
  • Evergreen shrubs with small, leathery leaves
  • Scrub oak, small trees,
  • Fire resistant
  • Fauna
  • Mule deer, wood rates, chipmunks, lizards, many
    species of birds,
  • Thorn shrub snakes, lizards, rodents,
    antelopes, gazelle, rhinos, giraffes.

25
Human affects on Chaparral
  • Preferred location of humans to live
  • Crowding out the indigenous flora fauna

26
Deserts
  • Low moisture levels
  • Precipitation infrequent and unpredictable
  • Occur at 30 degrees north and south latitudes
  • High in mineral content

27
Desert Flora Fauna
  • Flora Perennials annuals, cacti, yuccas,
    Joshua trees, sagebrushes
  • Fauna amphibians, reptiles, rodents, mule deer,
    jack rabbits, kangaroos.

28
Human impacts on Deserts
  • War
  • Development into agricultural areas
  • Habitation

29
Tropical Rainforests
  • Temperatures warm all year and precipitation
    daily
  • South Central America, Africa, Southeast Asia,
    Pacific Islands
  • Soil is old, thin, acidic and nutrient poor
  • 90 of all nutrients are contained in living
    organisms.
  • Rapid decomposition and recycling of dead organic
    matter

30
Rainforests Flora Fauna
  • Flora
  • Evergreen flowering plants
  • Three distinct stories of plants
  • Tall trees
  • Middle story forms continuous canopy
  • Lower story small plants, less dense
  • Epiphytes, lianas
  • One-half to one-third of all species of plants
    and insects
  • Fauna
  • Reptiles, amphibians, birds, sloth's, monkeys,
    elephants.

31
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Freshwater
  • Rivers, Streams, Lakes, Ponds, Marshes, Swamps
  • Estuaries
  • Marine
  • Intertidal
  • Benthic
  • Neritic
  • Oceanic

32
Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Vary significantly
  • Influenced by
  • Local climate
  • Soil
  • Surrounding ecosystems
  • Affects from upstream or uphill

33
Rivers and Streams
  • Flowing ecosystem
  • Changes greatly from source to mouth
  • Groundwater can intersect
  • Depend on land for energy - detritus

34
Rivers and streams
  • Features of a river

35
Flora Fauna of Rivers Streams
  • Greatly influenced by surrounding terrestrial
    ecosystem
  • Varies widely depending on velocity of water,
    temperature, water quality

36
Impact of Humans on Streams and Rivers
  • Pollution
  • Dams
  • Development

37
Lakes and Ponds
  • Littoral zone most productive zone, where
    photosynthesis is greatest.
  • Limnetic Zone open water beyond littoral zone.
    Extends down as far a sunlight penetrates. Main
    organisms are microscopic
  • Profundal Zone Beneath limnetic zone, shallow
    lakes do not have. Food drifts from above.

38
Lake Zones
39
Thermal Stratification in Lakes
  • Layering in lakes determined by how much light
    penetrates
  • Thermal stratification
  • Summer sunlight penetrates water -gt warms
    surface, less dense
  • Cool water stays on bottom, more dense
  • Line that marks change in density is called a
    thermocline
  • In fall, surface water becomes colder than lower
    water and the warmer water below rises (fall
    turnover)
  • In spring, reverse happens after ice melts
    (spring turnover)

40
Marshes Swamps Wetlands
  • Areas covered by shallow water for part of year
    (plants can grow in water)
  • Soil rich in nutrients
  • Grasslike plants dominate
  • Swamps wetlands with trees
  • Marshes wetlands without trees
  • Bogs Fens areas without trees that accumulate
    peat, low productivity

41
Estuaries
  • Bays or semi-enclosed bodies of brackish (salty
    but less than seawater)
  • Contain rich sediment carried from upstream.

42
Marine Ecosytems
  • Divided into several zones
  • Intertidal
  • Benthic
  • Pelagic
  • Neritic
  • oceanic

43
Pelagic Environment
  • Determined by depth of water
  • Neritic province area from shoreline to depth
    of 200 meters
  • Oceanic province area in open ocean with water
    depths greater than 200 meters.

44
Intertidal Zone
  • Shoreline area that is between low and high tides
  • High levels of light and nutrients
  • Abundant oxygen
  • Highly productive but stressful environment

45
Benthic Environment
  • Ocean floor
  • Mostly sand and mud
  • Zones
  • Abyssal benthic zone extends from 4000 to 6000
    m
  • Hadal zone extends deeper than 6000 m.

46
Flora of Marine Ecosystem
  • Kelp
  • Coral Reefs
  • Sea Grasses

47
Neritic Province
  • Shallow water close to shore
  • Upper reaches comprise the euphotic zone
  • Extends to depth of 150 meters
  • Enough light penetrates to support photosynthesis
  • Phytoplankton are producers, zooplankton are
    primary consumers, nekton are secondary
    consumers, carnivorous nekton are tertiary
    consumers

48
Oceanic Provinces
  • Largest marine environment
  • Deep water organisms feed on marine snow (organic
    debris that floats down from upper reaches)
  • Organisms adapt to dark environment (called
    aphiotic)
  • Many organisms can produces own light

49
Human Impact on Marine Environments
  • Damage to coral reefs
  • High salinity
  • Pollution
  • Overfishing
  • Tourism
  • Global warming
  • Oceans
  • Pollution
  • Development
  • Mining
  • Oil Drilling
  • Overfishing
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