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Ovarian Cancer: What All Women Need to Know

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Reprinted with permission from the American Cancer Society ... Sources: American Cancer Society. ( 2007). Cancer Facts and Figures 2007. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ovarian Cancer: What All Women Need to Know


1
Ovarian Cancer What All Women Need to Know
2
Presentation Objectives
  • Realize the impact of ovarian cancer
  • Recognize the early symptoms
  • Understand the risk factors
  • Know the proper steps to take if you or someone
    you know has persistent symptoms and where to go
    for more information

3
What is Ovarian Cancer?
  • A growth of abnormal malignant cells that begins
    in a womans ovaries
  • These ovarian cancer cells can metastasize or
    spread to other organs in the pelvis or abdomen

4
The Female Reproductive System
Reprinted with permission from the American
Cancer Society
5
What Causes Ovarian Cancer?
  • The causes of ovarian cancer remain unknown
  • Current theories
  • Repeated wear and tear which occurs during
    monthly release of an egg may create a situation
    in which genetic errors can occur
  • Increased hormone levels before and during
    ovulation may stimulate the growth of abnormal
    cells

6
Impact of Ovarian Cancer
  • Strikes 1 in 69 women
  • Is the 2nd most common gynecologic cancer
  • Each year, approximately 20,000 women are
    diagnosed with the cancer
  • In 2007, it is estimated that 22,430 women will
    be diagnosed
  • Majority of women diagnosed have no family
    history of disease
  • Affects all women, regardless of race or ethnicity

Sources American Cancer Society. (2007). Cancer
Facts and Figures 2007. Available at
www.cancer.org. National Cancer
Institute. (2006). SEER Cancer Statistics Review,
1975-2003. Available at http//seer.cancer.gov.
7
Impact of Ovarian Cancer
  • Is the deadliest gynecologic cancer
  • Ranks as the 5th leading cause of cancer death
    among American women
  • Kills about 15,000 women each year
  • In 2007, it is estimated that 15,280 women will
    die

Sources American Cancer Society. (2007). Cancer
Facts and Figures 2007. Available at
www.cancer.org. National Cancer
Institute. (2006). SEER Cancer Statistics Review,
1975-2003. Available at http//seer.cancer.gov.
8
Impact of Ovarian Cancer
  • Overall 5-year survival rate is 45
  • This rate is even lower for black women at 40
  • Close to 75 of women are diagnosed at an
    advanced stage after the cancer has spread beyond
    the ovary
  • When detected early, survival rates greatly
    improve
  • 5-year survival rate is 93 for early-stage
    disease

Source National Cancer Institute. (2006). SEER
Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2003. Available at
http//seer.cancer.gov.
9
Compared to Breast Cancer
Source National Cancer Institute. (2006). SEER
Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2003. Available at
http//seer.cancer.gov.
10
What Do the Numbers Tell Us?
EARLY DETECTION CAN SAVE LIVES
11
The Challenge
  • Currently, there is no screening test for the
    early detection of ovarian cancer
  • The Pap test or smear does NOT screen for ovarian
    cancer
  • Most women are not aware of the symptoms or risk
    factors

12
What All Women Need to Know
  • Even in its early stages
  • Research indicates that 95 of women with ovarian
    cancer had symptoms and even 90 of women with
    early-stage disease experience symptoms

OVARIAN CANCER CAUSES SYMPTOMS
Sources Goff BA, et al. (2000). Ovarian
carcinoma diagnosis. Cancer, 89 2068-2075.
Olson SH, et al. (2001). Symptoms of
ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol, 98 212-217.
13
Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer
  • Bloating
  • Pelvic and abdominal pain
  • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
  • Urinary symptoms (urgency or frequency).

If a woman has a combination or many of these
symptoms for more than a few weeks and they are
persistent and unusual for her, she should see a
health care professional, preferably a
gynecologist.
14
Other Symptoms Commonly Reported
  • Fatigue
  • Indigestion
  • Back pain
  • Pain with intercourse
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • NOTE These symptoms are not as useful in
    identifying ovarian cancer because they are found
    in equal frequency in women who do not have the
    disease.

15
Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer
  • Symptoms will vary from woman to woman
  • Associated with the location of the tumor and its
    impact on the surrounding organs
  • Mimic other conditions such as irritable bowel
    syndrome
  • Many of us experience these symptoms from time to
    time do not be alarmed!
  • If they persist or worsen, see a medical
    professional

16
How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?
  • Pelvic examination, including a complete
    rectovaginal examination
  • Transvaginal or pelvic ultrasound
  • CA-125 blood test

17
How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?
  • If tests suggest the presence of ovarian cancer,
    insist on a referral to a gynecologic oncologist
  • Gynecologic oncologists are specialists in
    treating ovarian cancer
  • To find one in your area, use the Find a Doctor
    resource of the Womens Cancer Network at
    www.wcn.org

18
Risk Factors
  • Most women with ovarian cancer do not have any
    known risk factors
  • However, there are several factors that may
    increase risk of ovarian cancer
  • Having one or more of these risk factors doesnt
    mean that ovarian cancer will develop, but the
    risk may be higher compared to the average woman

19
Risk Factors
  • Inherited genetic mutations
  • Often exhibited by a family or personal history
    of breast, colorectal or ovarian cancer
  • Family history of ovarian cancer
  • Age
  • Reproductive history and infertility
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Obesity

20
Inherited Genetic Mutations
  • Most significant risk factor is an inherited
    mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes
  • Women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent are at high
    risk of carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations
    however risk for the mutations is not exclusive
    to this group of women
  • Lower risk with inherited disease called
    hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)

21
Family History of Ovarian Cancer
  • Ovarian cancer can occur in more than one family
    member but NOT as a the result of a known
    inherited gene mutation
  • Women who have one first-degree relative (mother,
    daughter or sister) with ovarian cancer, but no
    known genetic mutation, are still at increased
    risk of developing the disease

22
Increasing Age
  • Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause
  • About 69 of women diagnosed are age 55 or over
  • A womans risk of ovarian cancer increases with
    age through her late 70s
  • Although most cases of ovarian cancer are
    diagnosed in women over age 55, the disease can
    occur in younger women

Source National Cancer Institute. (2006). SEER
Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2003. Available at
http//seer.cancer.gov.
23
Reproductive History and Infertility
  • Women at increased risk if
  • Started menstruating at an early age (before age
    12)
  • Had no children
  • Had first child after age 30
  • Experienced menopause after age 50
  • In addition, research indicates that infertility
    increases the risk of ovarian cancer, even
    without use of fertility drugs

24
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
  • Women who use menopausal hormone therapy are at
    an increased risk for ovarian cancer
  • Risks differ according to HRT taken and
    hysterectomy status
  • Women who have not had a hysterectomy and use
    estrogen plus progestin for five or more years
    are at an increased risk
  • Women who had a hysterectomy and use estrogen
    alone for 10 or more years are at an increased
    risk
  • HRT has other health risks so consult a doctor to
    evaluate the risks and decide whats best

Source Lacey JV, et al. (2006). Menopausal
hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk in the
NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, (98)19
1397-1405.
25
Obesity
  • The research in this area has not been totally
    conclusive
  • Recent studies suggest
  • Overweight/obesity in early adulthood is
    associated with an increased risk of ovarian
    cancer
  • A higher rate of death from ovarian cancer in
    obese women
  • Maintain a healthy weight and active lifestyle to
    ensure overall health

Sources Olsen, CM, et al. (2007). Obesity and
the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer A
systematic review and meta-
analysis. Eur J Cancer, 43(4)690-709.
Pavelka, JC, et al. (2006). Effect of
obesity on survival in epithelial ovarian
cancer. Cancer, 107(7)1520-4.
26
Risk Reduction
  • Oral contraceptives or birth control pills
  • Tubal ligation or hysterectomy
  • Pregnancy and breast feeding
  • Removal of the ovaries or prophylactic
    oophrectomy

27
Risk Reduction
  • If you or someone you know is concerned about
    risk of ovarian cancer, talk with a health care
    professional
  • A health care professional can help identify ways
    to reduce risk as well as decide if consultation
    with a genetic counselor would be appropriate
  • Women who are at high risk should develop a plan
    for regular monitoring with their provider

28
Remember
  • There are early symptoms of ovarian cancer
  • The main symptoms are
  • Bloating
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
  • Urinary symptoms (urgency or frequency)
  • If a woman has a combination or many of these
    symptoms for more than a few weeks and they are
    persistent and unusual for her, she should see a
    health care professional, preferably a
    gynecologist.

29
Take Action
  • Know if you are at high risk
  • Share this information with others and women in
    your community
  • All women from every walk of life should know
    about this
  • Encourage anyone for whom ovarian cancer is
    suspected or diagnosed to see a gynecologic
    oncologist

30
www.ovariancancer.org
  • Fact Sheets and educational materials
  • Online Store
  • Ovarian Cancer Action Network and advocacy tools
  • Clinical Trials Matching Service
  • Print and E-Newsletters
  • Turn UP the Volume!
  • campaign
  • Support the mission
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